Spinal muscular atrophy with progressive myoclonic epilepsy
|Spinal muscular atrophy with progressive myoclonic epilepsy|
|Other names||Hereditary myoclonus-progressive distal muscular atrophy syndrome|
|This condition is inherited in an autosomal recessive manner|
Spinal muscular atrophy with progressive myoclonic epilepsy (SMA-PME), sometimes called Jankovic–Rivera syndrome, is a very rare neurodegenerative disease whose symptoms include slowly progressive muscle wasting (atrophy), predominantly affecting distal muscles, combined with denervation and myoclonic seizures. Only 12 known families are described in scientific literature to have SMA-PME.
SMA-PME is associated with a missense mutation (c.125C→T) or deletion in exon 2 of the ASAH1 gene and is inherited in an autosomal recessive manner. SMA-PME is closely related to a lysosomal disorder disease called Farber lipogranulomatosis. As with many genetic disorders, there is no known cure to SMA-PME.
The ASAH1 Gene codes for acid ceramidase which is an enzyme found in lysosomes. The lysosome breaks down acid ceramidase and the fatty acid component  is then used to produce myelin. Myelin is a coating around the nerves in the body which help transfer signals from nerve cell to nerve cell and increase transmission rate. In patients with SMA-PME, the cermidase function is reduced to only be 33.33% effective. The lack of myelin resulting from the lack of acid ceramidase break down leads to nerve cell damage.
- Haliloglu, G.; Chattopadhyay, A.; Skorodis, L.; Manzur, A.; Mercuri, E.; Talim, B.; Akçören, Z.; Renda, Y.; Muntoni, F.; Topaloğlu, H. (2002). "Spinal Muscular Atrophy with Progressive Myoclonic Epilepsy: Report of New Cases and Review of the Literature". Neuropediatrics. 33 (6): 314–319. doi:10.1055/s-2002-37087. PMID 12571787.
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- Zhou, J.; Tawk, M.; Tiziano, F. D.; Veillet, J.; Bayes, M.; Nolent, F.; Garcia, V.; Servidei, S.; Bertini, E.; Castro-Giner, F.; Renda, Y.; Carpentier, S. P.; Andrieu-Abadie, N.; Gut, I.; Levade, T.; Topaloglu, H.; Melki, J. (2012). "Spinal Muscular Atrophy Associated with Progressive Myoclonic Epilepsy is Caused by Mutations in ASAH1". The American Journal of Human Genetics. 91 (1): 5–14. doi:10.1016/j.ajhg.2012.05.001. PMC 3397266. PMID 22703880.
- Gan, Joanna J.; Garcia, Virginie; Tian, Jane; Tagliati, Michele; Parisi, Joseph E.; Chung, Jeffrey M.; Lewis, Richard; Baloh, Robert; Levade, Thierry; Pierson, Tyler Mark (2015-12-01). "Acid ceramidase deficiency associated with spinal muscular atrophy with progressive myoclonic epilepsy". Neuromuscular Disorders. 25 (12): 959–963. doi:10.1016/j.nmd.2015.09.007. ISSN 0960-8966. PMID 26526000.
- Jankovic, J.; Rivera, V. M. (1979). "Hereditary myoclonus and progressive distal muscular atrophy". Annals of Neurology. 6 (3): 227–231. doi:10.1002/ana.410060309. PMID 534421.
- Park, Jae-Ho; Schuchman, Edward H. (December 2006). "Acid ceramidase and human disease". Biochimica et Biophysica Acta. 1758 (12): 2133–2138. doi:10.1016/j.bbamem.2006.08.019. ISSN 0006-3002. PMID 17064658.
- Morell, Pierre; Quarles, Richard H. (1999). "The Myelin Sheath". Basic Neurochemistry: Molecular, Cellular and Medical Aspects. 6th Edition.
- National Institutes of Health (December 2013). "Genetics Home Reference: Spinal muscular atrophy with progressive myoclonic epilepsy".
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