Dark and lighter green: Definition of "sub-Saharan Africa" as used in the statistics of the United Nations institutions.
Lighter green: However, Sudan is classified as Northern Africa by the United Nations Statistics Division, though the organisation states "the assignment of countries or areas to specific groupings is for statistical convenience and does not imply any assumption regarding political or other affiliation of countries or territories".
|Population||[ The population in Sub-Saharan Africa is growing but according to Global Trends in 2019 the population was 1.1 billion. 1,038,627,178 (2018)|
|Languages||Over 1,000 languages|
Sub-Saharan Africa is, geographically and ethnoculturally, the area of the continent of Africa that lies south of the Sahara. According to the United Nations, it consists of all African countries and territories that are fully or partially south of the Sahara. While the United Nations geoscheme for Africa excludes Sudan from its definition of sub-Saharan Africa, the African Union's definition includes Sudan but instead excludes Mauritania.
It contrasts with North Africa, whose countries are part of the League of Arab states within the Arab world. The states of Somalia, Djibouti, Comoros, and the Arabic-speaking Mauritania and Sudan are, however, geographically in sub-Saharan Africa, although they are members of the Arab League as well. The UN Development Program lists 46 of Africa's 54 countries as "sub-Saharan", excluding Algeria, Djibouti, Egypt, Libya, Morocco, Somalia, Sudan and Tunisia.
The term has been criticized by late Professor Herbert Ekwe-Ekwe, on Pambazuka as being a racist word because it refers to the area south of the Sahara by geographical conventions (as opposed to North Africa, which refers to a cardinal direction). Critics such as Professor Ekwe-Ekwe consider the term to imply a linguistic connotation of inferiority through its use of the prefix sub- (Latin for "under" or "below"; cf. sub-arctic), which they see as a linguistic vestige of European colonialism.
Since probably 3500 BCE, the Saharan and sub-Saharan regions of Africa have been separated by the extremely harsh climate of the sparsely populated Sahara, forming an effective barrier interrupted by only the Nile in Sudan, though the Nile was blocked by the river's cataracts. The Sahara pump theory explains how flora and fauna (including Homo sapiens) left Africa to penetrate the Middle East and beyond. African pluvial periods are associated with a Wet Sahara phase, during which larger lakes and more rivers existed.
The ancient Greeks sometimes referred to sub-Saharan Africa as Aethiopia, but sometimes also applied this name more specifically to a state, which led to the name being designated to the nation of Ethiopia.
Geographers historically divided the region into several distinct ethnographic sections based on each area's respective inhabitants.
Commentators in Arabic in the medieval period used the general term bilâd as-sûdân ("Land of the Blacks") for the vast Sudan region (an expression denoting West and Central Africa), or sometimes extending from the coast of West Africa to Western Sudan. Its equivalent in Southeast Africa was Zanj ("Country of the Blacks"), which was situated in the vicinity of the Great Lakes region.
The geographers drew an explicit ethnographic distinction between the Sudan region and its analogue Zanj, from the area to their extreme east on the Red Sea coast in the Horn of Africa. In modern-day Ethiopia and Eritrea was Al-Habash or Abyssinia, which was inhabited by the Habash or Abyssinians, who were the forebears of the Habesha. In northern Somalia was Barbara or the Bilad al-Barbar ("Land of the Berbers"), which was inhabited by the Eastern Baribah or Barbaroi, as the ancestors of the Somalis were referred to by medieval Arab and ancient Greek geographers, respectively.
In the 19th and 20th centuries, the populations south of the Sahara were divided into three broad ancestral groups: Hamites and Semites in the Horn of Africa and Sahel related to those in North Africa, who spoke languages belonging to the Afroasiatic family; Negroes in most of the rest of the subcontinent (hence, the former toponym Black Africa for Tropical Africa), who spoke languages belonging to the Niger-Congo and Nilo-Saharan families; and Khoisan in Southern Africa, who spoke languages belonging to the Khoisan family.
Climate zones and ecoregions
Sub-Saharan Africa has a wide variety of climate zones or biomes. South Africa and the Democratic Republic of the Congo in particular are considered Megadiverse countries. It has a dry winter season and a wet summer season.
- The Sahel extends across all of Africa at a latitude of about 10° to 15° N. Countries that include parts of the Sahara Desert proper in their northern territories and parts of the Sahel in their southern region include Mauritania, Mali, Niger, Chad and Sudan. The Sahel has a hot semi-arid climate.
- South of the Sahel, a belt of savanna (the West and East Sudanian savannas) stretch from the Atlantic Ocean to the Ethiopian Highlands. The more humid Guinean and Northern Congolian forest-savanna mosaic lie between the savannas and the equatorial forests.
- The Horn of Africa includes hot desert climate along the coast but a hot semi-arid climate can be found much more in the interior, contrasting with savanna and moist broadleaf forests in the Ethiopian Highlands.
- Tropical Africa encompasses tropical rainforest stretching along the southern coast of West Africa and across most of Central Africa (the Congo) west of the African Great Lakes .
- In eastern Africa, woodlands, savannas, and grasslands are found in the equatorial zone, including the Serengeti ecosystem in Tanzania and Kenya.
- Distinctive Afromontane forests, grasslands, and shrublands are found in the high mountains and mountain ranges of eastern Africa, from the Ethiopian Highlands to South Africa.
- South of the equatorial forests, the Western and Southern Congolian forest-savanna mosaic are transition zones between the tropical forests and the miombo woodland belt that spans the continent from Angola to Mozambique and Tanzania.
- The Namib and Kalahari Deserts lie in south-western Africa, and are surrounded by semi-deserts including the Karoo western South Africa. The Bushveld grasslands lie to the east of the deserts.
- The Cape Floristic Region is at Africa's southern tip, and is home to diverse subtropical and temperate forests, woodlands, grasslands, and shrublands.
According to paleontology, early hominid skull anatomy was similar to that of their close cousins, the great African forest apes, gorilla and chimpanzee. However, they had adopted a bipedal locomotion and freed hands, giving them a crucial advantage enabling them to live in both forested areas and on the open savanna at a time when Africa was drying up, with savanna encroaching on forested areas. This occurred 10 million to 5 million years ago.
By 3 million years ago several australopithecine hominid species had developed throughout southern, eastern and central Africa. They were tool users rather than tool manufacturers. The next major evolutionary step occurred around 2.3 million BCE, when primitive stone tools were used to scavenge the carcasses of animals killed by other predators, both for their meat and their marrow. In hunting, H. habilis was most likely not capable of competing with large predators and was more prey than hunter, although H. habilis probably did steal eggs from nests and may have been able to catch small game and weakened larger prey such as cubs and older animals. The tools were classed as Oldowan.
Roughly 1.8 million years ago, Homo ergaster first appeared in the fossil record in Africa. From Homo ergaster, Homo erectus (upright man) evolved 1.5 million years ago. Some of the earlier representatives of this species were small-brained and used primitive stone tools, much like H. habilis. The brain later grew in size, and H. erectus eventually developed a more complex stone tool technology called the Acheulean. Potentially the first hominid to engage in hunting, H. erectus mastered the art of making fire. They were the first hominids to leave Africa, going on to colonize the entire Old World, and perhaps later on giving rise to Homo floresiensis. Although some recent writers suggest that H. georgicus, a H. habilis descendant, was the first and most primitive hominid to ever live outside Africa, many scientists consider H. georgicus to be an early and primitive member of the H. erectus species.
The fossil and genetic evidence shows Homo sapiens developed in southern and eastern Africa by around 350,000 to 260,000 years ago. and gradually migrated across the continent in waves. Between 50,000 and 60,000 years ago, their expansion out of Africa launched the colonization of the planet by modern humans. By 10,000 BCE, Homo sapiens had spread to all corners of the world. This dispersal of the human species is suggested by linguistic, cultural and genetic evidence.
After the Sahara became a desert, it did not present a totally impenetrable barrier for travelers between north and south because of the application of animal husbandry towards carrying water, food, and supplies across the desert. Prior to the introduction of the camel, the use of oxen, mule, and horses for desert crossing was common, and trade routes followed chains of oases that were strung across the desert. The trans-saharan trade was in full motion by 500 BCE with Carthage being a major economic force for its establishment. It is thought that the camel was first brought to Egypt after the Persian Empire conquered Egypt in 525 BCE, although large herds did not become common enough in North Africa for camels to be the pack animal of choice for the trans-saharan trade.
The Bantu expansion is a major migration movement that originated in West Central Africa (possibly around Cameroon) around 2500 BCE, reaching East and Central Africa by 1000 BCE and Southern Africa by the early centuries CE.
There were a number of medieval empires of the southern Sahara and the Sahel, based on trans-Saharan trade, including the Ghana Empire and the Mali Empire, Songhai Empire, the Kanem Empire and the subsequent Bornu Empire. They built stone structures like in Tichit, but mainly constructed in adobe. The Great Mosque of Djenne is most reflective of Sahelian architecture and is the largest adobe building in the world.
In the forest zone, several states and empires such as Bono State, Akwamu and others emerged. The Ashanti Empire arose in the 18th century in modern-day Ghana. The Kingdom of Nri, was established by the Igbo in the 11th century. Nri was famous for having a priest-king who wielded no military power. Nri was a rare African state which was a haven for freed slaves and outcasts who sought refuge in their territory. Other major states included the kingdoms of Ifẹ and Oyo in the western block of Nigeria which became prominent about 700–900 and 1400 respectively, and center of Yoruba culture. The Yoruba's built massive mud walls around their cities, the most famous being Sungbo's Eredo. Another prominent kingdom in southwestern Nigeria was the Kingdom of Benin 9th–11th century whose power lasted between the 15th and 19th century and was one of the greatest Empires of African history documented all over the world. Their dominance reached as far as the well-known city of Eko which was named Lagos by the Portuguese traders and other early European settlers. The Edo-speaking people of Benin are known for their famous bronze casting and rich coral, wealth, ancient science and technology and the Walls of Benin, which is the largest man-made structure in the world.
In the 18th century, the Oyo and the Aro confederacy were responsible for most of the slaves exported from modern-day Nigeria, selling them to European slave traders. Following the Napoleonic Wars, the British expanded their influence into the Nigerian interior. In 1885, British claims to a West African sphere of influence received international recognition, and in the following year the Royal Niger Company was chartered under the leadership of Sir George Goldie. In 1900, the company's territory came under the control of the British government, which moved to consolidate its hold over the area of modern Nigeria. On 1 January 1901, Nigeria became a British protectorate as part of the British Empire, the foremost world power at the time. Nigeria was granted its independence in 1960 during the period of decolonization.
Archaeological finds in Central Africa provide evidence of human settlement that may date back over 10,000 years. According to Zangato and Holl, there is evidence of iron-smelting in the Central African Republic and Cameroon that may date back to 3,000 to 2,500 BCE. Extensive walled sites and settlements have recently been found in Zilum, Chad. The area is located approximately 60 km (37 mi) southwest of Lake Chad, and has been radiocarbon dated to the first millennium BCE.
Following the Bantu Migration into Central Africa, during the 14th century, the Luba Kingdom in southeast Congo came about under a king whose political authority derived from religious, spiritual legitimacy. The kingdom controlled agriculture and regional trade of salt and iron from the north and copper from the Zambian/Congo copper belt.
Rival kingship factions which split from the Luba Kingdom later moved among the Lunda people, marrying into its elite and laying the foundation of the Lunda Empire in the 16th century. The ruling dynasty centralised authority among the Lunda under the Mwata Yamyo or Mwaant Yaav. The Mwata Yamyo's legitimacy, like that of the Luba king, came from being viewed as a spiritual religious guardian. This imperial cult or system of divine kings was spread to most of central Africa by rivals in kingship migrating and forming new states. Many new states received legitimacy by claiming descent from the Lunda dynasties.
The Kingdom of Kongo existed from the Atlantic west to the Kwango river to the east. During the 15th century, the Bakongo farming community was united with its capital at M'banza-Kongo, under the king title, Manikongo. Other significant states and peoples included the Kuba Kingdom, producers of the famous raffia cloth, the Eastern Lunda, Bemba, Burundi, Rwanda, and the Kingdom of Ndongo.
Nubia in her greatest phase is considered sub-Saharan Africa's oldest urban civilisation. Nubia was a major source of gold for the ancient world. Nubians built famous structures and numerous pyramids. Sudan, the site of ancient Nubia, has more pyramids than anywhere else in the world.[better source needed]
Horn of Africa
The Axumite Empire spanned the southern Sahara, south Arabia and the Sahel along the western shore of the Red Sea. Located in northern Ethiopia and Eritrea, Aksum was deeply involved in the trade network between India and the Mediterranean. Growing from the proto-Aksumite Iron Age period (c. 4th century BCE), it rose to prominence by the 1st century CE. The Aksumites constructed monolithic stelae to cover the graves of their kings, such as King Ezana's Stele. The later Zagwe dynasty, established in the 12th century, built churches out of solid rock. These rock-hewn structures include the Church of St. George at Lalibela.
In the Middle Ages several powerful Somali empires dominated the region's trade, including the Ajuran Sultanate, which excelled in hydraulic engineering and fortress building, the Sultanate of Adal, whose General Ahmed Gurey was the first African commander in history to use cannon warfare on the continent during Adal's conquest of the Ethiopian Empire, and the Geledi Sultanate, whose military dominance forced governors of the Omani empire north of the city of Lamu to pay tribute to the Somali Sultan Ahmed Yusuf.
According to the theory of recent African origin of modern humans, the mainstream position held within the scientific community, all humans originate from either Southeast Africa or the Horn of Africa. During the first millennium CE, Nilotic and Bantu-speaking peoples moved into the region, and the latter now account for three-quarters of Kenya's population.
On the coastal section of Southeast Africa, a mixed Bantu community developed through contact with Muslim Arab and Persian traders, leading to the development of the mixed Arab, Persian and African Swahili City States. The Swahili culture that emerged from these exchanges evinces many Arab and Islamic influences not seen in traditional Bantu culture, as do the many Afro-Arab members of the Bantu Swahili people. With its original speech community centered on the coastal parts of Tanzania (particularly Zanzibar) and Kenya – a seaboard referred to as the Swahili Coast – the Bantu Swahili language contains many Arabic loan-words as a consequence of these interactions.
The earliest Bantu inhabitants of the Southeast coast of Kenya and Tanzania encountered by these later Arab and Persian settlers have been variously identified with the trading settlements of Rhapta, Azania and Menouthias referenced in early Greek and Chinese writings from 50 CE to 500 CE, ultimately giving rise to the name for Tanzania. These early writings perhaps document the first wave of Bantu settlers to reach Southeast Africa during their migration.
During the early 1960s, the Southeast African nations achieved independence from colonial rule.
Settlements of Bantu-speaking peoples, who were iron-using agriculturists and herdsmen, were already present south of the Limpopo River by the 4th or 5th century displacing and absorbing the original Khoisan speakers. They slowly moved south, and the earliest ironworks in modern-day KwaZulu-Natal Province are believed to date from around 1050. The southernmost group was the Xhosa people, whose language incorporates certain linguistic traits from the earlier Khoisan inhabitants. They reached the Fish River in today's Eastern Cape Province.
Monomotapa was a medieval kingdom (c. 1250–1629), which existed between the Zambezi and Limpopo rivers of Southern Africa in the territory of modern-day Zimbabwe and Mozambique. Its old capital was located at Great Zimbabwe.
In 1487, Bartolomeu Dias became the first European to reach the southernmost tip of Africa. In 1652, a victualling station was established at the Cape of Good Hope by Jan van Riebeeck on behalf of the Dutch East India Company. For most of the 17th and 18th centuries, the slowly expanding settlement was a Dutch possession.
In 1795, the Dutch colony was captured by the British during the French Revolutionary Wars. The British intended to use Cape Town as a major port on the route to Australia and India. It was later returned to the Dutch in 1803, but soon afterward the Dutch East India Company declared bankruptcy, and the Dutch (now under French control) and the British found themselves at war again. The British captured the Dutch possession yet again at the Battle of Blaauwberg, commanded by Sir David Blair. The Zulu Kingdom was a Southern African tribal state in what is now KwaZulu-Natal in southeastern South Africa. The small kingdom gained world fame during and after their defeat in the Anglo-Zulu War. During the 1950s and early 1960s, most sub-Saharan African nations achieved independence from colonial rule.
According to the 2019 revision of the World Population Prospects, the population of sub-Saharan Africa was 1.1 billion in 2019. The current growth rate is 2.3%. The UN predicts for the region a population between 2 and 2.5 billion by 2050 with a population density of 80 per km2 compared to 170 for Western Europe, 140 for Asia and 30 for the Americas.
Sub-Saharan African countries top the list of countries and territories by fertility rate with 40 of the highest 50, all with TFR greater than 4 in 2008. All are above the world average except South Africa and Seychelles. More than 40% of the population in sub-Saharan countries is younger than 15 years old, as well as in Sudan, with the exception of South Africa.
|Country||Population||Area (km2)||Literacy (M/F)||GDP per Capita (PPP)||Trans (Rank/Score)||Life (Exp.)||HDI||EODBR/SAB||PFI (RANK/MARK)|
|Democratic Republic of the Congo||68,692,542||2,345,410||80.9%/54.1%||800||162/11.9||46.1||0.286||182/152||146/53,50|
|Central African Republic||4,511,488||622,984||64.8%/33.5%||700||158/2.8||44.4||0.343||183/159||80/17,75|
|Republic of the Congo||3,700,000||342,000||90.5%/ 79.0%||800||162/1.9||54.8||0.533||N/A||116/34,25|
|São Tomé and Príncipe||212,679||1,001||92.2%/77.9%||3,200||111/2.8||65.2||0.509||180/140||NA|
GDP per Capita (PPP) (2016, 2017 (PPP, US$)), Life (Exp.) (Life Expectancy 2006), Literacy (Male/Female 2006), Trans (Transparency 2009), HDI (Human Development Index), EODBR (Ease of Doing Business Rank June 2008 through May 2009), SAB (Starting a Business June 2008 through May 2009), PFI (Press Freedom Index 2009)
Languages and ethnic groups
Sub-Saharan Africa contains over 1,000 languages, which is around one-sixth of the world's total.
With the exception of the extinct Sumerian (a language isolate) of Mesopotamia, Afroasiatic has the oldest documented history of any language family in the world. Egyptian was recorded as early as 3200 BCE. The Semitic branch was recorded as early as 2900 BCE in the form of the Akkadian language of Mesopotamia (Assyria and Babylonia) and circa 2500 BCE in the form of the Eblaite language of north eastern Syria.
The distribution of the Afroasiatic languages within Africa is principally concentrated in North Africa and the Horn of Africa. Languages belonging to the family's Berber branch are mainly spoken in the north, with its speech area extending into the Sahel (northern Mauritania, northern Mali, northern Niger). The Cushitic branch of Afroasiatic is centered in the Horn, and is also spoken in the Nile Valley and parts of the African Great Lakes region. Additionally, the Semitic branch of the family, in the form of Arabic, is widely spoken in the parts of Africa that are within the Arab world. South Semitic languages are also spoken in parts of the Horn of Africa (Ethiopia, Eritrea). The Chadic branch is distributed in Central and West Africa. Hausa, its most widely spoken language, serves as a lingua franca in West Africa (Niger, Ghana, Togo, Benin, Cameroon, and Chad).
The several families lumped under the term Khoi-San include languages indigenous to Southern Africa and Tanzania, though some, such as the Khoi languages, appear to have moved to their current locations not long before the Bantu expansion. In Southern Africa, their speakers are the Khoikhoi and San (Bushmen), in Southeast Africa, the Sandawe and Hadza.
The Niger–Congo family is the largest in the world in terms of the number of languages (1,436) it contains. The vast majority of languages of this family are tonal such as Yoruba, and Igbo, However, others such as Fulani, Wolof and Kiswahili are not. A major branch of the Niger–Congo languages is Bantu, which covers a greater geographic area than the rest of the family. Bantu speakers represent the majority of inhabitants in southern, central and southeastern Africa, though San, Pygmy, and Nilotic groups, respectively, can also be found in those regions. Bantu-speakers can also be found in parts of Central Africa such as the Gabon, Equatorial Guinea and southern Cameroon. Swahili, a Bantu language with many Arabic, Persian and other Middle Eastern and South Asian loan words, developed as a lingua franca for trade between the different peoples in southeastern Africa. In the Kalahari Desert of Southern Africa, the distinct people known as Bushmen (also "San", closely related to, but distinct from "Hottentots") have long been present. The San evince unique physical traits, and are the indigenous people of southern Africa. Pygmies are the pre-Bantu indigenous peoples of Central Africa.
The Nilo-Saharan languages are concentrated in the upper parts of the Chari and Nile rivers of Central Africa and Southeast Africa. They are principally spoken by Nilotic peoples and are also spoken in Sudan among the Fur, Masalit, Nubian and Zaghawa peoples and in West and Central Africa among the Songhai, Zarma and Kanuri. The Old Nubian language is also a member of this family.
Major languages of Africa by region, family and number of primary language speakers in millions:
A 2017 archaeogenetic study of prehistoric fossils in sub-Saharan Africa observed a wide-ranging early presence of Khoisan populations in the region. Khoisan-related ancestry was inferred to have contributed to two thirds of the ancestry of hunter-gatherer populations inhabiting Malawi between 8,100 and 2,500 years ago and to one third of the ancestry of hunter gatherers inhabiting Tanzania as late as 1,400 years ago. Also in Tanzania, a pastoralist individual was found to carry ancestry related to the Western-Eurasian-related pre-pottery Levant farmers. These diverse early ancestries are believed to have been largely replaced after the Bantu expansion into central, eastern and southern Africa.
A 2009 genetic clustering study, which genotyped 1327 polymorphic markers in various African populations, identified six ancestral clusters through Bayesian analysis and fourteen ancestral clusters through STRUCTURE analysis within the continent. The clustering corresponded closely with ethnicity, culture and language.
In addition, whole genome sequencing analysis of modern populations inhabiting sub-Saharan Africa has observed several primary inferred ancestry components: a Pygmy-related component carried by the Mbuti and Biaka Pygmies in Central Africa, a Khoisan-related component carried by Khoisan-speaking populations in Southern Africa, a Niger-Congo-related component carried by Niger-Congo-speaking populations throughout sub-Saharan Africa, a Nilo-Saharan-related component carried by Nilo-Saharan-speaking populations in the Nile Valley and African Great Lakes, and a West Eurasian-related component carried by Afroasiatic-speaking populations in the Horn of Africa and Nile Valley.
According to a 2020 study by Durvasula et al., there are indications that 2% to 19% (or about ≃6.6 and ≃7.0%) of the DNA of four West African populations may have come from an unknown archaic hominin which split from the ancestor of humans and Neanderthals between 360 kya to 1.02 mya. However, the study also suggests that at least part of this archaic admixture is also present in Eurasians/non-Africans, and that the admixture event or events range from 0 to 124 ka B.P, which includes the period before the Out-of-Africa migration and prior to the African/Eurasian split (thus affecting in part the common ancestors of both Africans and Eurasians/non-Africans).
A genome study (Busby et al. 2016) shows evidence for ancient migration from Eurasian populations and following admixture with native groups in several parts of sub-Saharan Africa. Another study (Ramsay et al. 2018) also shows evidence of Eurasians in parts of sub-Saharan Africa, from both ancient and more recent migrations, ranging from 0% to 50%, varying by region, and generally highest in the Horn of Africa and parts of the Sahel zone. "In addition to the intrinsic diversity within the continent due to population structure and isolation, migration of Eurasian populations into Africa has emerged as a critical contributor to the genetic diversity. These migrations involved the influx of different Eurasian populations at different times and to different parts of Africa. Comprehensive characterization of the details of these migrations through genetic studies on existing populations could help to explain the strong genetic differences between some geographically neighbouring populations.
This distinctive Eurasian admixture appears to have occurred over at least three time periods with ancient admixture in central west Africa (e.g. Yoruba from Nigeria) occurring between ∼7.5 and 10.5 kya, older admixture in east Africa (e.g. Ethiopia) occurring between ∼2.4 and 3.2 kya and more recent admixture between ∼0.15 and 1.5 kya in some east African (e.g. Kenyan) populations.
Subsequent studies based on LD decay and haplotype sharing in an extensive set of African and Eurasian populations confirmed the presence of Eurasian signatures in west, east and southern Africans. In the west, in addition to Niger-Congo speakers from The Gambia and Mali, the Mossi from Burkina Faso showed the oldest Eurasian admixture event ∼7 kya. In the east, these analyses inferred Eurasian admixture within the last 4000 years in Kenya.|author=Ramsay et al. 2018|title=African genetic diversity provides novel insights into evolutionary history and local adaptations."
East Asian-related ancestry is commonly found in Madagascar and less in certain other regions of Africa, especially coastal regions of Eastern and Southern Africa. The presence of this East Asian-related ancestry is mostly linked to the Austronesian peoples expansion from Southeast Asia. The Dayak people of Borneo were identified to resemble the East Asian voyagers, who arrived on Madagascar and eastern coastal Africa and possibly also other parts of coastal Africa, the most.
It was also found that the Chinese mariner, explorer, diplomat, fleet admiral, and court eunuch during China's early Ming dynasty, Zheng He, and his many Chinese crew members, as well as some other stranded ships, contributed to the genetics of local eastern African people as well as their culture.
A genetic study published in 2020 in the Journal ScienceDirect by Rowold et al., found that "Sub-Saharan Africans" (samplified by samples from Cameroon, Gabon, Mozambique, Rwanda and Uganda) are genetically homogeneous and form one coherent cluster, while modern Northern Africans (samplified by Egyptians) are shifted towards West Asian/European groups. Interesingly, the non-caste tribal populations of India (samplified by the Soliga people as well as Kurumba, and Irula, one of the Adivasi), which make up about 8,6% of Indians population, were found to be noteworthy shifted towards Sub-Saharan Africans and share specific alleles. A link to certain Oceanians was also detected.
Moreover, the presence of these Y-STR profiles in several sub-Saharan populations and conspicuous absence from the other Eurasian collections suggest a unique genetic connection between Indian tribal groups and sub-Saharan Africans.— Rowold et al. 2020
Sub-Saharan Africa has several large cities. Lagos is a city in the Nigerian state of Lagos. The city, with its adjoining conurbation, is the most populous in Nigeria, and the second-most populous in Africa after Cairo, Egypt. It is one of the fastest-growing cities in the world, and also one of the most populous urban agglomerations. Lagos is a major financial centre in Africa; this megacity has the highest GDP, and also houses Apapa, one of the largest and busiest ports on the continent.
Johannesburg is the largest city in South Africa. It is the provincial capital and largest city in Gauteng, which is the wealthiest province in South Africa. While Johannesburg is not one of South Africa's three capital cities, it is the seat of the Constitutional Court. The city is located in the mineral-rich Witwatersrand range of hills, and is the centre of a large-scale gold and diamond trade.
Nairobi is the capital and the largest city of Kenya. The name comes from the Maasai phrase Enkare Nyrobi, which translates to "cool water", a reference to the Nairobi River which flows through the city. The city is popularly referred to as the Green City in the Sun.
As of 2011, Africa is one of the fastest developing regions in the world. Six of the world's ten fastest-growing economies over the previous decade were situated below the Sahara, with the remaining four in East and Central Asia. Between 2011 and 2015, the economic growth rate of the average nation in Africa is expected to surpass that of the average nation in Asia. Sub-Saharan Africa is by then projected to contribute seven out of the ten fastest growing economies in the world. According to the World Bank, the economic growth rate in the region had risen to 4.7% in 2013, with a rate of 5.2% forecasted for 2014. This continued rise was attributed to increasing investment in infrastructure and resources as well as steady expenditure per household.
Energy and power
|_||W: World||85540000||2007 est.|
|01||E: Russia||9980000||2007 est.|
|02||Ar: Saudi Arb||9200000||2008 est.|
|04||As: Libya||4725000||2008 est.||Iran|
|10||Af: Nigeria/Africa||2352000||2011 est.||Norway|
|15||Af: Algeria||2173000||2007 est.|
|16||Af: Angola||1910000||2008 est.|
|17||Af: Egypt||1845000||2007 est.|
|27||Af: Tunisia||664000||2007 est.||Australia|
|31||Af: Sudan||466100||2007 est.||Ecuador|
|33||Af: Eq.Guinea||368500||2007 est.||Vietnam|
|38||Af: DR Congo||261000||2008 est.|
|39||Af: Gabon||243900||2007 est.|
|40||Af: Sth Africa||199100||2007 est.|
|45||Af: Chad||156000||2008 est.||Germany|
|53||Af: Cameroon||87400||2008 est.||France|
|60||Af: Ivory Coast||54400||2008 est.|
|Source: CIA.gov, World Facts Book > Oil exporters.|
As of 2009[update], 50% of Africa was rural with no access to electricity. Africa generates 47 GW of electricity, less than 0.6% of the global market share. Many countries are affected by power shortages.
Because of rising prices in commodities such as coal and oil, thermal sources of energy are proving to be too expensive for power generation. Sub-Saharan Africa is expected to build additional hydropower generation capacity of at least 20,165 MW by 2014. The region has the potential to generate 1,750 TWh of energy, of which only 7% has been explored. The failure to exploit its full energy potential is largely due to significant underinvestment, as at least four times as much (approximately $23 billion a year) and what is currently spent is invested in operating high cost power systems and not on expanding the infrastructure.
African governments are taking advantage of the readily available water resources to broaden their energy mix. Hydro Turbine Markets in sub-Saharan Africa generated revenues of $120.0 million in 2007 and is estimated to reach $425.0 million.[when?] Asian countries, notably China, India, and Japan, are playing an active role in power projects across the African continent. The majority of these power projects are hydro-based because of China's vast experience in the construction of hydro-power projects and part of the Energy & Power Growth Partnership Services programme.
With electrification numbers, Sub-Saharan Africa with access to the Sahara and being in the tropical zones has massive potential for solar photovoltaic electrical potential. Six hundred million people could be served with electricity based on its photovoltaic potential. China is promising to train 10,000 technicians from Africa and other developing countries in the use of solar energy technologies over the next five years. Training African technicians to use solar power is part of the China-Africa science and technology cooperation agreement signed by Chinese science minister Xu Guanhua and African counterparts during premier Wen Jiabao's visit to Ethiopia in December 2003.
The New Partnership for Africa's Development (NEPAD) is developing an integrated, continent-wide energy strategy. This has been funded by, amongst others, the African Development Bank (AfDB) and the EU-Africa Infrastructure Trust Fund. These projects must be sustainable, involve a cross-border dimension and/or have a regional impact, involve public and private capital, contribute to poverty alleviation and economic development, and involve at least one country in sub-Saharan Africa.
Radio is the major source of information in sub-Saharan Africa. Average coverage stands at more than a third of the population. Countries such as Gabon, Seychelles, and South Africa boast almost 100% penetration. Only five countries – Burundi, Djibouti, Eritrea, Ethiopia, and Somalia – still have a penetration of less than 10%. Broadband penetration outside of South Africa has been limited where it is exorbitantly expensive. Access to the internet via cell phones is on the rise.
Television is the second major source of information. Because of power shortages, the spread of television viewing has been limited. Eight percent have television, a total of 62 million. But those in the television industry view the region as an untapped green market. Digital television and pay for service are on the rise.
According to researchers at the Overseas Development Institute, the lack of infrastructure in many developing countries represents one of the most significant limitations to economic growth and achievement of the Millennium Development Goals (MDGs). Less than 40% of rural Africans live within two kilometers of an all-season road, the lowest level of rural accessibility in the developing world. Spending on roads averages just below 2% of GDP with varying degree among countries. This compares with 1% of GDP that is typical in industrialised countries, and 2–3% of GDP found in fast-growing emerging economies. Although the level of expenditure is high relative to the size of Africa's economies, it remains small in absolute terms, with low-income countries spending an average of about US$7 per capita per year. Infrastructure investments and maintenance can be very expensive, especially in such as areas as landlocked, rural and sparsely populated countries in Africa.
Infrastructure investments contributed to Africa's growth, and increased investment is necessary to maintain growth and tackle poverty. The returns to investment in infrastructure are very significant, with on average 30–40% returns for telecommunications (ICT) investments, over 40% for electricity generation and 80% for roads.
In Africa, it is argued that in order to meet the MDGs by 2015 infrastructure investments would need to reach about 15% of GDP (around $93 billion a year). Currently, the source of financing varies significantly across sectors. Some sectors are dominated by state spending, others by overseas development aid (ODA) and yet others by private investors. In sub-Saharan Africa, the state spends around $9.4 billion out of a total of $24.9 billion. In irrigation, SSA states represent almost all spending; in transport and energy a majority of investment is state spending; in ICT and water supply and sanitation, the private sector represents the majority of capital expenditure. Overall, aid, the private sector and non-OECD financiers between them exceed state spending. The private sector spending alone equals state capital expenditure, though the majority is focused on ICT infrastructure investments. External financing increased from $7 billion (2002) to $27 billion (2009). China, in particular, has emerged as an important investor.
Oil and minerals
The region is a major exporter to the world of gold, uranium, chromium, vanadium, antimony, coltan, bauxite, iron ore, copper and manganese. South Africa is a major exporter of manganese as well as chromium. A 2001 estimate is that 42% of the world's reserves of chromium may be found in South Africa. South Africa is the largest producer of platinum, with 80% of the total world's annual mine production and 88% of the world's platinum reserve. Sub-Saharan Africa produces 33% of the world's bauxite, with Guinea as the major supplier. Zambia is a major producer of copper. The Democratic Republic of Congo is a major source of coltan. Production from DR Congo is very small, but the country has 80% of the proven reserves in Africa, which are 80% of those worldwide. Sub-saharan Africa is a major producer of gold, producing up to 30% of global production. Major suppliers are South Africa, Ghana, Zimbabwe, Tanzania, Guinea, and Mali. South Africa had been first in the world in terms of gold production since 1905, but in 2007 it moved to second place, according to GFMS, the precious metals consultancy. Uranium is major commodity from the region. Significant suppliers are Niger, Namibia, and South Africa. Namibia was the number one supplier from sub-Saharan Africa in 2008. The region produces 49% of the world's diamonds.
By 2015, it is estimated that 25% of North American oil will be from sub-Saharan Africa, ahead of the Middle East. Sub-Saharan Africa has been the focus of an intense race for oil by the West, China, India, and other emerging economies, even though it holds only 10% of proven oil reserves, less than the Middle East. This race has been referred to as the second Scramble for Africa. All reasons for this global scramble come from the reserves' economic benefits. Transportation cost is low and no pipelines have to be laid as in Central Asia. Almost all reserves are offshore, so political turmoil within the host country will not directly interfere with operations. Sub-Saharan oil is viscous, with a very low sulfur content. This quickens the refining process and effectively reduces costs. New sources of oil are being located in sub-Saharan Africa more frequently than anywhere else. Of all new sources of oil, ⅓ are in sub-Saharan Africa.
Sub-Saharan Africa has more variety of grains than anywhere in the world. Between 13,000 and 11,000 BCE wild grains began to be collected as a source of food in the cataract region of the Nile, south of Egypt. The collecting of wild grains as source of food spread to Syria, parts of Turkey, and Iran by the eleventh millennium BCE. By the tenth and ninth millennia southwest Asians domesticated their wild grains, wheat, and barley after the notion of collecting wild grains spread from the Nile.
Numerous crops have been domesticated in the region and spread to other parts of the world. These crops included sorghum, castor beans, coffee, cotton okra, black-eyed peas, watermelon, gourd, and pearl millet. Other domesticated crops included teff, enset, African rice, yams, kola nuts, oil palm, and raffia palm.
Agriculture represents 20% to 30% of GDP and 50% of exports. In some cases, 60% to 90% of the labor force are employed in agriculture. Most agricultural activity is subsistence farming. This has made agricultural activity vulnerable to climate change and global warming. Biotechnology has been advocated to create high yield, pest and environmentally resistant crops in the hands of small farmers. The Bill and Melinda Gates foundation is a strong advocate and donor to this cause. Biotechnology and GM crops have met resistance both by natives and environmental groups.
Cash crops include cotton, coffee, tea, cocoa, sugar, and tobacco.
The OECD says Africa has the potential to become an agricultural superbloc if it can unlock the wealth of the savannahs by allowing farmers to use their land as collateral for credit. There is such international interest in sub-Saharan agriculture, that the World Bank increased its financing of African agricultural programs to $1.3 billion in the 2011 fiscal year. Recently, there has been a trend to purchase large tracts of land in sub-Sahara for agricultural use by developing countries. Early in 2009, George Soros highlighted a new farmland buying frenzy caused by growing population, scarce water supplies and climate change. Chinese interests bought up large swathes of Senegal to supply it with sesame. Aggressive moves by China, South Korea and Gulf states to buy vast tracts of agricultural land in sub-Saharan Africa could soon be limited by a new global international protocol.
Forty percent of African scientists live in OECD countries, predominantly in Europe, the United States and Canada. This has been described as an African brain drain. According to Naledi Pandor, the South African Minister of Science and Technology, even with the drain enrollments in sub-Saharan African universities tripled between 1991 and 2005, expanding at an annual rate of 8.7%, which is one of the highest regional growth rates in the world. In the last 10 to 15 years interest in pursuing university-level degrees abroad has increased.
According to the CIA, low global literacy rates are concentrated in sub-Saharan Africa, West Asia and South Asia. However, literacy rates in sub-Saharan Africa vary significantly between countries. The highest registered literacy rate in the region is in Zimbabwe (90.7%; 2003 est.), while the lowest literacy rate is in South Sudan (27%).
Research on human capital formation was able to determine, that the numeracy levels of Sub-Saharan Africa and Africa, in general, were higher than numeracy levels in South Asia. In the 1940s more than 75% of the population of Sub-Saharan Africa was numerate. The numeracy of the West African countries, Benin and Ghana, was even higher with more than 80% of the population being numerate. In contrast, numeracy in South Asia was only around 50%.
Sub-Saharan African countries spent an average of 0.3% of their GDP on science and technology on in 2007. This represents an increase from US$1.8 billion in 2002 to US$2.8 billion in 2007, a 50% increase in spending.
Major progress in access to education
At the World Conference held in Jomtien, Thailand in 1990, delegates from 155 countries and representatives of some 150 organizations gathered with the goal to promote universal primary education and the radical reduction of illiteracy before the end of the decade. The World Education Forum, held ten years later in Dakar, Senegal, provided the opportunity to reiterate and reinforce these goals. This initiative contributed to having education made a priority of the Millennium Development Goals in 2000, with the aim of achieving universal schooling (MDG2) and eliminating gender disparities, especially in primary and secondary education (MDG3). Since the World Education Forum in Dakar, considerable efforts have been made to respond to these demographic challenges in terms of education. The amount of funds raised has been decisive. Between 1999 and 2010, public spending on education as a percentage of gross national product (GNP) increased by 5% per year in sub-Saharan Africa, with major variations between countries, with percentages varying from 1.8% in Cameroon to over 6% in Burundi. As of 2015, governments in sub-Saharan Africa spend on average 18% of their total budget on education, against 15% in the rest of the world.
In the years immediately after the Dakar Forum, the efforts made by the African States towards achieving EFA produced multiple results in sub-Saharan Africa. The greatest advance was in access to primary education, which governments had made their absolute priority. The number of children in a primary school in sub-Saharan Africa thus rose from 82 million in 1999 to 136.4 million in 2011. In Niger, for example, the number of children entering school increased by more than three-and-a-half times between 1999 and 2011. In Ethiopia, over the same period, over 8.5 million more children were admitted to primary school. The net rate of first-year access in sub-Saharan Africa has thus risen by 19 points in 12 years, from 58% in 1999 to 77% in 2011. Despite the considerable efforts, the latest available data from the UNESCO Institute for Statistics estimates that, for 2012, there were still 57.8 million children who were not in school. Of these, 29.6 million were in sub-Saharan Africa alone, a figure which has not changed for several years. Many sub-Saharan countries have notably included the first year of secondary school in basic education. In Rwanda, the first year of secondary school was attached to primary education in 2009, which significantly increased the number of pupils enrolled at this level of education. In 2012, the primary completion rate (PCR) – which measures the proportion of children reaching the final year of primary school – was 70%, meaning that more than three out of ten children entering primary school do not reach the final primary year. Literacy rates have gone up in sub-Saharan Africa, and internet access has improved considerably. Nonetheless, a lot must yet happen for this world to catch up. The statistics show that the literacy rate for sub-Saharan Africa was 65% in 2017. In other words, one-third of the people aged 15 and above were unable to read and write. The comparative figure for 1984 was an illiteracy rate of 49%. In 2017, only about 22% of Africans were internet users at all, according to the International Telecommunication Union (ITU).
Science and technology
In 1987, the Bamako Initiative conference organized by the World Health Organization was held in Bamako, the capital of Mali, and helped reshape the health policy of sub-Saharan Africa. The new strategy dramatically increased accessibility through community-based healthcare reform, resulting in more efficient and equitable provision of services.[self-published source?] A comprehensive approach strategy was extended to all areas of health care, with subsequent improvement in the health care indicators and improvement in health care efficiency and cost.
In 2011, sub-Saharan Africa was home to 69% of all people living with HIV/AIDS worldwide. In response, a number of initiatives have been launched to educate the public on HIV/AIDS. Among these are combination prevention programmes, considered to be the most effective initiative, the abstinence, be faithful, use a condom campaign, and the Desmond Tutu HIV Foundation's outreach programs. According to a 2013 special report issued by the Joint United Nations Programme on HIV/AIDS (UNAIDS), the number of HIV positive people in Africa receiving anti-retroviral treatment in 2012 was over seven times the number receiving treatment in 2005, with an almost 1 million added in the last year alone.:15 The number of AIDS-related deaths in sub-Saharan Africa in 2011 was 33 percent less than the number in 2005. The number of new HIV infections in sub-Saharan Africa in 2011 was 25 percent less than the number in 2001.
Malaria is an endemic illness in sub-Saharan Africa, where the majority of malaria cases and deaths worldwide occur. Routine immunization has been introduced in order to prevent measles. Onchocerciasis ("river blindness"), a common cause of blindness, is also endemic to parts of the region. More than 99% of people affected by the illness worldwide live in 31 countries therein. In response, the African Programme for Onchocerciasis Control (APOC) was launched in 1995 with the aim of controlling the disease. Maternal mortality is another challenge, with more than half of maternal deaths in the world occurring in sub-Saharan Africa. However, there has generally been progress here as well, as a number of countries in the region have halved their levels of maternal mortality since 1990. Additionally, the African Union in July 2003 ratified the Maputo Protocol, which pledges to prohibit female genital mutilation (FGM).
National health systems vary between countries. In Ghana, most health care is provided by the government and largely administered by the Ministry of Health and Ghana Health Services. The healthcare system has five levels of providers: health posts which are first-level primary care for rural areas, health centers and clinics, district hospitals, regional hospitals, and tertiary hospitals. These programs are funded by the government of Ghana, financial credits, Internally Generated Fund (IGF), and Donors-pooled Health Fund.
African countries below the Sahara are largely Christian, while those above the Sahara, in North Africa, are predominantly Islamic. There are also Muslim majorities in parts of the Horn of Africa (Djibouti and Somalia) and in the Sahel and Sudan regions (the Gambia, Sierra Leone, Guinea, Mali, Niger and Senegal), as well as significant Muslim communities in Ethiopia and Eritrea, and on the Swahili Coast (Tanzania and Kenya). Mauritius is the only country in Africa to have a Hindu majority. In 2012, Sub-Saharan Africa constituted in absolute terms the third world's largest Christian population, after Europe and Latin America respectively. In 2012, Sub-Saharan Africa also constitute in absolute terms the third world's largest Muslim population, after Asia and the Middle East and North Africa respectively.
Traditional African religions can be broken down into linguistic cultural groups, with common themes. Among Niger–Congo-speakers is a belief in a creator god or higher deity, along with ancestor spirits, territorial spirits, evil caused by human ill will and neglecting ancestor spirits, and priests of territorial spirits. New world religions such as Santería, Vodun, and Candomblé, would be derived from this world. Among Nilo-Saharan speakers is the belief in Divinity; evil is caused by divine judgement and retribution; prophets as middlemen between Divinity and man. Among Afro-Asiatic-speakers is henotheism, the belief in one's own gods but accepting the existence of other gods; evil here is caused by malevolent spirits. The Semitic Abrahamic religion of Judaism is comparable to the latter world view. San religion is non-theistic but a belief in a Spirit or Power of existence which can be tapped in a trance-dance; trance-healers.
Traditional religions in sub-Saharan Africa often display complex ontology, cosmology and metaphysics. Mythologies, for example, demonstrated the difficulty fathers of creation had in bringing about order from chaos. Order is what is right and natural and any deviation is chaos. Cosmology and ontology is also neither simple or linear. It defines duality, the material and immaterial, male and female, heaven and earth. Common principles of being and becoming are widespread: Among the Dogon, the principle of Amma (being) and Nummo (becoming), and among the Bambara, Pemba (being) and Faro (becoming).
- West Africa
- Akan mythology
- Ashanti mythology (Ghana)
- Dahomey (Fon) mythology
- Efik mythology (Nigeria, Cameroon)
- Igbo mythology (Nigeria)
- Serer religion and Serer creation myth (Senegal, Gambia and Mauritania)
- Yoruba mythology (Nigeria, Benin)
- Central Africa
- Dinka mythology (South Sudan)
- Lotuko mythology (South Sudan)
- Bushongo mythology (Congo)
- Bambuti (Pygmy) mythology (Congo)
- Lugbara mythology (Congo)
- Southeast Africa
- Southern Africa
Sub-Saharan traditional divination systems display great sophistication. For example, the bamana sand divination uses well established symbolic codes that can be reproduced using four bits or marks. A binary system of one or two marks are combined. Random outcomes are generated using a fractal recursive process. It is analogous to a digital circuit but can be reproduced on any surface with one or two marks. This system is widespread in sub-Saharan Africa.[page needed]
Sub-Saharan Africa is diverse, with many communities, villages, and cities, each with their own beliefs and traditions. Traditional African Societies are communal, they believe that the needs of the many far outweigh an individual needs and achievements. Basically, an individual's keep must be shared with other extended family members. Extended families are made up of various individuals and families who have shared responsibilities within the community. This extended family is one of the core aspects of every African community. "An African will refer to an older person as auntie or uncle. Siblings of parents will be called father or mother rather than uncle and aunt. Cousins will be called brother or sister". This system can be very difficult for outsiders to understand; however, it is no less important. "Also reflecting their communal ethic, Africans are reluctant to stand out in a crowd or to appear different from their neighbors or colleagues, a result of social pressure to avoid offense to group standards and traditions." Women also have a very important role in African culture because they take care of the house and children. Traditionally "men do the heavy work of clearing and plowing the land, women sow the seeds, tend the fields, harvest the crops, haul the water, and bear the major burden for growing the family’s food". Despite their work in the fields, women are expected to be subservient to men in some African cultures. "When young women migrate to cities, this imbalance between the sexes, as well as financial need, often causes young women of lower economic status, who lack education and job training, to have sexual relationships with older men who are established in their work or profession and can afford to support a girlfriend or two".
The oldest abstract art in the world is a shell necklace, dated to 82,000 years, in the Cave of Pigeons in Taforalt, eastern Morocco. The second-oldest abstract form of art, and the oldest rock art, is found in the Blombos Cave at the Cape in South Africa, dated 77,000 years. Sub-Saharan Africa has some of the oldest and most varied style of rock art in the world.
Although sub-Saharan African art is very diverse, there are some common themes. One is the use of the human figure. Second, there is a preference for sculpture. Sub-Saharan African art is meant to be experienced in three dimensions, not two. A house is meant to be experienced from all angles. Third, art is meant to be performed. Sub-Saharan Africans have a specific name for masks. The name incorporates the sculpture, the dance, and the spirit that incorporates the mask. The name denotes all three elements. Fourth, art that serves a practical function. The artist and craftsman are not separate. A sculpture shaped like a hand can be used as a stool. Fifth, the use of fractals or non-linear scaling. The shape of the whole is the shape of the parts at different scales. Before the discovery of fractal geometry], Leopold Sedar Senghor, Senegal's first president, referred to this as "dynamic symmetry." William Fagg, a British art historian, has compared it to the logarithmic mapping of natural growth by biologist D'Arcy Thompson. Lastly, sub-Saharan African art is visually abstract, instead of naturalistic. Sub-Saharan African art represents spiritual notions, social norms, ideas, values, etc. An artist might exaggerate the head of a sculpture in relation to the body not because he does not know anatomy but because he wants to illustrate that the head is the seat of knowledge and wisdom. The visual abstraction of African art was very influential in the works of modernist artist like Pablo Picasso, Henri Matisse, and Jacques Lipchitz.
Traditional sub-Saharan African music is as diverse as the region's various populations. The common perception of sub-Saharan African music is that it is rhythmic music centered around the drums. This is partially true. A large part of sub-Saharan music, mainly among speakers of Niger–Congo and Nilo-Saharan languages, is rhythmic and centered around the drum. Sub-Saharan music is polyrhythmic, usually consisting of multiple rhythms in one composition. Dance involves moving multiple body parts. These aspects of sub-Saharan music has been transferred to the new world by enslaved sub-Saharan Africans and can be seen in its influence on music forms as samba, jazz, rhythm and blues, rock and roll, salsa, reggae and rap music.
But sub-Saharan music involves a lot of music with strings, horns, and very little poly-rhythms. Music from the eastern sahel and along the nile, among the Nilo-Saharan, made extensive use of strings and horns in ancient times. Among the Afro-Asiatics of Northeast Africa, we see extensive use of string instruments and the pentatonic scale. Dancing involve swaying body movements and footwork. Among the San is extensive use of string instruments with emphasis on footwork.
Modern sub-Saharan African music has been influence by music from the New World (Jazz, Salsa, Rhythm and Blues etc.) vice versa being influenced by enslaved sub-Saharan Africans. Popular styles are Mbalax in Senegal and Gambia, Highlife in Ghana, Zoblazo in Ivory Coast, Makossa in Cameroon, Soukous in the Democratic Republic of Congo, Kizomba in Angola, and Mbaqanga in South Africa. New World styles like Salsa, R&B/Rap, Reggae, and Zouk also have widespread popularity.
West African cuisine can be described as starchy, flavorfully spicey. Dishes include fufu, kenkey, couscous, garri, foutou, and banku. Ingredients are of native starchy tubers, yams, cocoyams, and cassava. Grains include millet, sorghum, and rice, usually in the Sahel, are incorporated. Oils include palm oil and shea butter (Sahel). One finds recipes that mix fish and meat. Beverages are palm wine(sweet or sour) and millet beer. Roasting, baking, boiling, frying, mashing, and spicing are all cooking techniques.
Southeast African cuisine especially those of the Swahilis reflects its Islamic, geographical Indian Ocean cultural links. Dishes include ugali, sukuma wiki, and halva. Spices such as curry, saffron, cloves, cinnamon, pomegranate juice, cardamon, ghee, and sage are used, especially among Muslims. Meat includes cattle, sheep, and goats, but is rarely eaten since its viewed as currency and wealth.
In the Horn of Africa, pork and non-fish seafood are avoided by Christians and Muslims. Dairy products and all meats are avoided during lent by Ethiopians. Maize (corn) is a major staple. Cornmeal is used to make ugali, a popular dish with different names. Teff is used to make injera or canjeero (Somali) bread. Other important foods include enset, noog, lentils, rice, banana, leafy greens, chiles, peppers, coconut milk, and tomatoes. Beverages are coffee (domesticated in Ethiopia), chai tea, fermented beer from banana or millet. Cooking techniques include roasting and marinating.
Central African cuisine connects with all major regions of sub-Saharan Africa: Its cuisine reflects that. Ugali and fufu are eaten in the region. Central African cuisine is very starchy and spicy hot. Dominant crops include plantains, cassava, peanuts, chillis, and okra. Meats include beef, chicken, and sometimes exotic meats called bush meat (antelope, warthog, crocodile). Widespread spicy hot fish cuisine is one of the differentiating aspects. Mushroom is sometimes used as a meat substitute.
Traditional Southern African cuisine surrounds meat. Traditional society typically focused on raising, sheep, goats, and especially cattle. Dishes include braai (barbecue meat), sadza, bogobe, pap (fermented cornmeal), milk products (buttermilk, yoghurt). Crops utilised are sorghum, maize (corn), pumpkin beans, leafy greens, and cabbage. Beverages include ting (fermented sorghum or maize), milk, chibuku (milky beer). Influences from the Indian and Malay communities can be seen in its use of curries, sambals, pickled fish, fish stews, chutney, and samosa. European influences can be seen in cuisines like biltong (dried beef strips), potjies (stews of maize, onions, tomatoes), French wines, and crueler or koeksister (sugar syrup cookie).
Like most of the world, Sub-Saharan Africans have adopted Western-style clothing. In some country like Zambia, used Western clothing has flooded markets, causing great angst in the retail community. Sub-Saharan Africa boasts its own traditional clothing style. Cotton seems to be the dominant material.
In East Africa, one finds extensive use of cotton clothing. Shemma, shama, and kuta are types of Ethiopian clothing. Kanga are Swahili cloth that comes in rectangular shapes, made of pure cotton, and put together to make clothing. Kitenges are similar to kangas and kikoy, but are of a thicker cloth, and have an edging only on a long side. Kenya, Uganda, Tanzania, and South Sudan are some of the African countries where kitenge is worn. In Malawi, Namibia and Zambia, kitenge is known as Chitenge. One of the unique materials, which is not a fiber and is used to make clothing is barkcloth, an innovation of the Baganda people of Uganda. It came from the Mutuba tree (Ficus natalensis). On Madagascar a type of draped cloth called lamba is worn.
In West Africa, again cotton is the material of choice. In the Sahel and other parts of West Africa the boubou and kaftan style of clothing are featured. Kente cloth is created by the Akan people of Ghana and Ivory Coast, from silk of the various moth species in West Africa. Kente comes from the Akan twi word kenten which means basket. It is sometimes used to make dashiki and kufi. Adire is a type of Yoruba cloth that is starch resistant. Raffia cloth and barkcloth are also utilised in the region.
In Central Africa, the Kuba people developed raffia cloth from the raffia plant fibers. It was widely used in the region. Barkcloth was also extensively used.
In Southern Africa one finds numerous uses of animal hide and skins for clothing. The Ndau in central Mozambique and the Shona mix hide with barkcloth and cotton cloth. Cotton cloth is referred to as machira. Xhosa, Tswana, Sotho, and Swazi also made extensive use of hides. Hides come from cattle, sheep, goat, and elephant. Leopard skins were coveted and were a symbol of kingship in Zulu society. Skins were tanned to form leather, dyed, and embedded with beads.
Football (soccer) is the most popular sport in sub-Saharan Africa. Sub-Saharan men are its main patrons. Major competitions include the African Champions League, a competition for the best clubs on the continent and the Confederation Cup, a competition primarily for the national cup winner of each African country. The Africa Cup of Nations is a competition of 16 national teams from various African countries held every two years. South Africa hosted the 2010 FIFA World Cup, a first for a sub-Saharan country. In 2010, Cameroon played in the World Cup for the sixth time, which is the current record for a sub-Saharan team. In 1996 Nigeria won the Olympic gold for football. In 2000 Cameroon maintained the continent's supremacy by winning the title too. Momentous achievements for sub-Saharan African football. Famous sub-Saharan football stars include Abedi Pele, Emmanuel Adebayor, George Weah, Michael Essien, Didier Drogba, Roger Milla, Nwankwo Kanu, Jay-Jay Okocha, Bruce Grobbelaar, Samuel Eto'o, Kolo Touré, Yaya Touré, Sadio Mané and Pierre-Emerick Aubameyang. The most talented sub-Saharan African football players find themselves courted and sought after by European leagues. There are currently more than 1000 Africans playing for European clubs. Sub-Saharan Africans have found themselves the target of racism by European fans. FIFA has been trying hard to crack down on racist outburst during games.
Rugby is also popular in sub-Saharan Africa. The Confederation of African Rugby governs rugby games in the region. South Africa is a major force in the game and won the Rugby World Cup in 1995, 2007 and 2019. Africa is also allotted one guaranteed qualifying place in the Rugby World Cup.
Boxing is also a popular sport. Battling Siki the first world champion to come out of sub-Saharan Africa. Countries such as Nigeria, Ghana and South Africa have produced numerous professional world champions such as Dick Tiger, Hogan Bassey, Gerrie Coetzee, Samuel Peter, Azumah Nelson and Jake Matlala.
Cricket has a following. The African Cricket Association is an international body which oversees cricket in African countries. South Africa and Zimbabwe have their own governing bodies. In 2003 the Cricket World Cup was held in South Africa, first time it was held in sub-Saharan Africa.
Over the years, Ethiopia and Kenya have produced many notable long-distance athletes. Each country has federations that identify and cultivate top talent. Athletes from Ethiopia and Kenya hold, save for two exceptions, all the men's outdoor records for Olympic distance events from 800m to the marathon. Famous runners include Haile Gebrselassie, Kenenisa Bekele, Paul Tergat, and John Cheruiyot Korir.
The development of tourism in this region has been identified as having the ability to create jobs and improve the economy. South Africa, Namibia, Mauritius, Botswana, Ghana, Cape Verde, Tanzania, and Kenya have been identified as having well developed tourism industries. Cape Town and the surrounding area is very popular with tourists.
List of countries and regional organisation
Only seven African countries are not geopolitically a part of sub-Saharan Africa: Algeria, Egypt, Libya, Morocco, Tunisia, Western Sahara (claimed by Morocco) and Sudan; they form the UN subregion of Northern Africa, which also makes up the largest bloc of the Arab World. Nevertheless, some international organisations include Sudan as part of sub-Saharan Africa. Although a long-standing member of the Arab League, Sudan has around 30% non-Arab populations in the west (Darfur, Masalit, Zaghawa), far north (Nubian) and south (Kordofan, Nuba). Mauritania and Niger only include a band of the Sahel along their southern borders. All other African countries have at least significant portions of their territory within sub-Saharan Africa.
- Angola (also in SADC) cap. Luanda cur. Angolan kwanza (Kz) lang. Portuguese
- Burundi (also in EAC) cap. Gitega (former Bujumbura) cur. Burundian franc (FBu) lang. French
- Democratic Republic of the Congo (also in SADC) cap. Kinshasa cur. Congolese franc (FC) lang. French
- Rwanda (also in EAC) cap. Kigali cur. Rwandan franc (RF) lang. Kinyarwanda, French, English
- São Tomé and Príncipe cap. São Tomé cur. São Tomé and Príncipe dobra (Db) lang. Portuguese
- Cameroon cap. Yaoundé cur. Central African CFA franc (FCFA) lang. English, French
- Central African Republic cap. Bangui cur. Central African CFA franc (FCFA) lang. Sango, French
- Chad cap. N'Djamena cur. Central African CFA franc (FCFA) lang. French, Arabic
- Republic of the Congo cap. Brazzaville cur. Central African CFA franc (FCFA) lang. French
- Equatorial Guinea cap. Malabo cur. Central African CFA franc (FCFA) lang. Spanish, French
- Gabon cap. Libreville cur. Central African CFA franc (FCFA) lang. French
- Sudan cap. Khartoum cur. Sudanese pound (SDG) lang. Arabic (Sudanese Arabic) and English
- South Sudan cap. Juba cur. South Sudanese pound (SPP) lang. English and Arabic (Juba Arabic)
- Somalia cap. Mogadishu cur. Somali shilling (So.Sh) lang. Somali, Arabic (official)
- Kenya cap. Nairobi cur. Kenyan shilling (KSh) lang. Swahili, English
- Rwanda (also in ECCAS) cap. Kigali cur. Rwandan franc (RF) lang. Kinyarwanda, French, English
- Tanzania (also in SADC) cap. Dodoma cur. Tanzanian shilling (TSh) lang. Swahili, English
- Eritrea cap. Asmara cur. Eritrean nakfa (Nfk) 'lang.' Tigrinya, Arabic, Italian, English (unofficial, lingua franca)
- Djibouti cap. Djibouti cur. Djiboutian franc (Fdj) lang. Arabic, French (official)
- Horn of Africa
- Djibouti cap. Djibouti cur. Djiboutian franc (Fdj) lang. Arabic, French (official)
- Eritrea cap. Asmara cur. Eritrean nakfa (Nfk) 'lang.' Tigrinya, Arabic, Italian, English (unofficial, lingua franca)
- Sudan & South Sudan
- Burundi (also in ECCAS) cap. Gitega (former Bujumbura) cur. Burundian franc (FBu) lang. Kirundi, French
- Kenya cap. Nairobi cur. Kenyan shilling (KSh) lang. Swahili, English
- Rwanda (also in ECCAS) cap. Kigali cur. Rwandan franc (RF) lang. Kinyarwanda, French, English
- Tanzania (also in SADC) cap. Dodoma cur. Tanzanian shilling (TSh) lang. Swahili, English
- Uganda cap. Kampala cur. Ugandan shilling (USh) lang. Swahili, English
- SADC (Southern African Development Community)
- Angola (also in ECCAS) cap. Luanda cur. Angolan kwanza (Kz) lang. Portuguese
- Botswana cap. Gaborone cur. Botswana pula (P) lang. Tswana, English
- Comoros cap. Moroni cur. Comorian franc (CF) lang. Comorian, Arabic, French
- Eswatini cap. Mbabane cur. Swazi lilangeni (L)(E) lang. SiSwati, English
- Lesotho cap. Maseru cur. Lesotho loti (L)(M) lang. Sesotho, English
- Madagascar cap. Antananarivo cur. Malagasy ariary (MGA) lang. Malagasy, French
- Malawi cap. Lilongwe cur. Malawian kwacha (MK) lang. English
- Mauritius cap. Port Louis cur. Mauritian rupee (R) lang. English
- Mozambique cap. Maputo cur. Mozambican metical (MTn) lang. Portuguese
- Namibia cap. Windhoek cur. Namibian dollar (N$) lang. English
- Seychelles cap. Victoria cur. Seychellois rupee (SR)(SRe) lang. Seychellois Creole, English, French
- South Africa cap. Bloemfontein, Cape Town, Pretoria cur. South African rand (R) lang. 11 official languages
- Zambia cap. Lusaka cur. Zambian kwacha (ZK) lang. English
- Zimbabwe cap. Harare cur. Zimbabwean dollar ($) lang. English
Depending on classification Sudan is often not considered part of sub-Saharan Africa, as it is considered part of North Africa.
- Mauritania cap. Nouakchott cur. Mauritanian ouguiya (UM)(sometimes, like Sudan, considered part of North Africa)
- Ivory Coast cap. Yamoussoukro, Abidjan cur. West African CFA franc (CFA)
- The Gambia cap. Banjul cur. Gambian dalasi (D)
- Ghana cap. Accra cur. Ghanaian cedi (GH₵)
- Guinea cap. Conakry cur. Guinean franc (FG)
- Liberia cap. Monrovia cur. Liberian dollar (L$)
- Nigeria cap. Abuja cur. Nigerian naira (₦)
- Sierra Leone cap. Freetown cur. Sierra Leonean leone (Le)
- Benin cap. Porto-Novo cur. West African CFA franc (CFA)
- Burkina Faso cap. Ouagadougou cur. West African CFA franc (CFA)
- Ivory Coast cap. Yamoussoukro, Abidjan cur. West African CFA franc (CFA)
- Guinea-Bissau cap. Bissau cur. West African CFA franc (CFA)
- Mali cap. Bamako cur. West African CFA franc (CFA)
- Niger cap. Niamey cur. West African CFA franc (CFA)
- Senegal cap. Dakar cur. West African CFA franc (CFA)
- Togo cap. Lomé cur. West African CFA franc (CFA)
This article incorporates text from a free content work. Licensed under CC-BY-SA License statement/permission on Wikimedia Commons. Text taken from Digital Services for Education in Africa, Agence Française de Développement, Agence universitaire de la Francophonie, Orange & UNESCO, Agence Française de Développement & UNESCO.
- "Composition of macro geographical (continental) regions, geographical sub-regions, and selected economic other groupings". United Nations Statistics Division. 11 February 2013. Retrieved 20 July 2013. "The designation sub-Saharan Africa is commonly used to indicate all of Africa except northern Africa, with the Sudan included in sub-Saharan Africa."
- "Political definition of "Major regions", according to the UN". Archived from the original on 20 April 2010. Retrieved 15 December 2010.
- League of Arab States; "Arab States". UNESCO.; Infosamak. "Centre for Marketing, Information and Advisory Services for Fishery Products in the Arab Region". Infosamak.; Halim Barakat, The Arab World: Society, Culture, and State, (University of California Press: 1993), p. 80; Khair El-Din Haseeb et al., The Future of the Arab Nation: Challenges and Options, 1 edition (Routledge: 1991), p. 54; John Markakis, Resource conflict in the Horn of Africa, (Sage: 1998), p. 39; Ḥagai Erlikh, The struggle over Eritrea, 1962–1978: war and revolution in the Horn of Africa, (Hoover Institution Press: 1983), p. 59; Randall Fegley, Eritrea, (Clio Press: 1995), p. mxxxviii; Michael Frishkopf, Music and Media in the Arab World, (American University in Cairo Press: 2010), p. 61
- "About Africa". UNDP in Africa.
- "Herbert Ekwe-Ekwe - Academia.edu". independent.academia.edu.
- "What exactly does 'sub-Sahara Africa' mean? | Pambazuka News". www.pambazuka.org.
- Herbert Ekwe-Ekwe (2 May 2014). "What exactly does 'sub-Sahara Africa' mean?". Pambazuka News.
- "Contemptuousness Of A "Sub-Saharan Africa" By Chika Onyeani". Africannewsworld. Archived from the original on 27 September 2015. Retrieved 29 September 2015.
- "Sahara's Abrupt Desertification Started by Changes in Earth's Orbit, Accelerated by Atmospheric and Vegetation Feedbacks", Science Daily.
- Claussen, Mark; Kubatzki, Claudia; Brovkin, Victor; Ganopolski, Andrey; Hoelzmann, Philipp; Pachur, Hans-Joachim (1999). "Simulation of an Abrupt Change in Saharan Vegetation in the Mid-Holocene" (PDF). Geophysical Research Letters. 26 (14): 2037–40. Bibcode:1999GeoRL..26.2037C. doi:10.1029/1999GL900494.
- van Zinderen-Bakker E.M. (14 April 1962). "A Late-Glacial and Post-Glacial Climatic Correlation between East Africa and Europe". Nature. 194 (4824): 201–03. Bibcode:1962Natur.194..201V. doi:10.1038/194201a0. S2CID 186244151.
- Raunig, Walter (2005). Afrikas Horn: Akten der Ersten Internationalen Littmann-Konferenz 2. bis 5. Mai 2002 in München. Otto Harrassowitz Verlag. p. 130. ISBN 3-447-05175-2.
ancient Arabic geography had quite a fixed pattern in listing the countries from the Red Sea to the Indian Ocean: These are al-Misr (Egypt) – al-Muqurra (or other designations for Nubian kingdoms) – al-Habasha (Abyssinia) – Barbara (Berber, i.e. the Somali coast) – Zanj (Azania, i.e. the country of the "blacks"). Correspondingly almost all these terms (or as I believe: all of them!) also appear in ancient and medieval Chinese geography
- International Association for the History of Religions (1959), Numen, Leiden: EJ Brill, p. 131,
West Africa may be taken as the country stretching from Senegal in the west, to the Cameroons in the east; sometimes it has been called the central and western Sudan, the Bilad as-Sūdan, 'Land of the Blacks', of the Arabs
- Nehemia Levtzion, Randall Lee Pouwels, The History of Islam in Africa, (Ohio University Press, 2000), p. 255.
- Sven Rubenson, The survival of Ethiopian independence, (Tsehai, 2003), p. 30.
- Jonah Blank, Mullahs on the mainframe: Islam and modernity among the Daudi Bohras, (University of Chicago Press, 2001), p. 163.
- F.R.C. Bagley et al., The Last Great Muslim Empires, (Brill: 1997), p. 174
- Bethwell A. Ogot, Zamani: A Survey of East African History, (East African Publishing House: 1974), p. 104
- James Hastings, Encyclopedia of Religion and Ethics Part 12: V. 12, (Kessinger Publishing, LLC: 2003), p. 490
- Edgar Harry Brookes, Amry Vandenbosch (1964). The city of God and the city of man in Africa. University of Kentucky Press. pp. Chapter 3. Retrieved 8 January 2018.
About two-thirds of the population speaks Negritic and one-third Hamitic and Semitic languages. The former are found in central, or tropical, and southern Africa; the latter in Ethiopia, the Sahara region, and the northern part of the continent. Tropical Africa is often spoken of as "Black Africa."
- Shillington, Kevin(2005). History of Africa, Rev. 2nd Ed. New York: Palgrave Macmillan, p. 2, ISBN 0-333-59957-8.
- Shillington, Kevin(2005). History of Africa, Rev. 2nd Ed. New York: Palgrave Macmillan, pp. 2–3, ISBN 0-333-59957-8.
- Shillington, Kevin(2005). History of Africa, Rev. 2nd Ed. New York: Palgrave Macmillan, p. 3, ISBN 0-333-59957-8.
- Schlebusch; et al. (3 November 2017). "Southern African ancient genomes estimate modern human divergence to 350,000 to 260,000 years ago". Science. 358 (6363): 652–655. Bibcode:2017Sci...358..652S. doi:10.1126/science.aao6266. PMID 28971970.
- Mounier, Aurélien; Lahr, Marta (2019). "Deciphering African late middle Pleistocene hominin diversity and the origin of our species". Nature Communications. 10 (1): 3406. Bibcode:2019NatCo..10.3406M. doi:10.1038/s41467-019-11213-w. PMC 6736881. PMID 31506422.
- Scerri, Eleanor M. L.; Thomas, Mark G.; Manica, Andrea; Gunz, Philipp; Stock, Jay T.; Stringer, Chris; Grove, Matt; Groucutt, Huw S.; Timmermann, Axel; Rightmire, G. Philip; d’Errico, Francesco (1 August 2018). "Did Our Species Evolve in Subdivided Populations across Africa, and Why Does It Matter?". Trends in Ecology & Evolution. 33 (8): 582–594. doi:10.1016/j.tree.2018.05.005. ISSN 0169-5347. PMC 6092560. PMID 30007846.
- The genetic studies by Luca Cavalli-Sforza are considered pioneering[by whom?] in tracing the spread of modern humans from Africa.
- Tishkoff SA, Reed FA, Friedlaender FR, et al. (May 2009). "The genetic structure and history of Africans and African Americans". Science. 324 (5930): 1035–44. Bibcode:2009Sci...324.1035T. doi:10.1126/science.1172257. PMC 2947357. PMID 19407144.
- Jesse, Friederike (2010). "Early Pottery in Northern Africa - An Overview". Journal of African Archaeology. 8 (2): 219–238. doi:10.3213/1612-1651-10171. JSTOR 43135518.
- Stearns, Peter N. (2001) The Encyclopedia of World History, Houghton Mifflin Books. p. 16. ISBN 0-395-65237-5.
- Collins, Robert O. and Burns, James. M(2007). A History of Sub-saharan Africa. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, p. 62, ISBN 978-0-521-86746-7
- Davidson, Basil. Africa History, Themes and Outlines, revised and expanded edition. New York: Simon & Schuster, p. 54, ISBN 0-684-82667-4.
- Shillington, Kevin(2005). History of Africa, Rev. 2nd Ed. New York: Palgrave Macmillan, p. 47, ISBN 0-333-59957-8.
- McEvedy, Colin (1980) Atlas of African History, p. 44. ISBN 0-87196-480-5.
- Breunig, Peter. 2014. Nok: African Sculpture in Archaeological Context: p. 21.
- Davidson, Basil. Africa History, Themes and Outlines, revised and expanded edition. New York: Simon & Schuster, pp. 87–107, ISBN 0-684-82667-4.
- Meyerowitz, Eva L. R. (1975). The Early History of the Akan States of Ghana. Red Candle Press.
- "The Slave Trade". Countrystudies.us.
- Philippe Lavachery; et al. (2012). Komé-Kribi: Rescue Archaeology Along the Chad-Cameroon Oil Pipeline.
- É. Zangato; A.F.C. Holl (2010). "On the Iron Front: New Evidence from North-Central". Africa Journal of African Archaeology. 8 (1): 7–23. doi:10.3213/1612-1651-10153. Archived from the original on 26 December 2013.
- J. Cameron Monroe. Akinwumi Ogundiran, Power and Landscape in Atlantic West Africa: Archaeological Perspectives. p. 316., citing Magnavita 2004; Magnavita et al. 2004, 2006; Magnavita and Schleifer 2004.
- Peter Mitchell et al., The Oxford Handbook of African Archeology (2013), p. 855: "The relatively recent discovery of extensive walled settlements at the transition from the Neolithic to the Early Iron Age in the Chad Basin (Magnavita et al., 2006) indicates what enormous sites and processes may still await recognition."
- Appiah & Gates 2010, p. 254. sfn error: no target: CITEREFAppiahGates2010 (help)
- Shillington, Kevin(2005). History of Africa, Rev. 2nd Ed. New York: Palgrave Macmillan, pp. 138–39, 142, ISBN 0-333-59957-8.
- Thompson, Lloyd A. (1989). Romans and blacks. Taylor & Francis. p. 57. ISBN 0-415-03185-0.
- Mokhtar (editor), AnciGent Civilizations of Africa Vo. II, General History of Africa, UNESCO, 1990
- Oman in history By Peter Vine Page 324
- Shaping of Somali society Lee Cassanelli pg.92
- Futuh Al Habash Shibab ad Din
- Sudan Notes and Records – 147
- Somali Sultanate: The Geledi City-state Over 150 Years - Virginia Luling (2002) Page 229
- Mukhtar, Mohamed Haji (25 February 2003). Historical Dictionary of Somalia. p. xxix. ISBN 9780810866041. Retrieved 15 February 2014.
- Liu, Hua; Prugnolle, Franck; Manica, Andrea; Balloux, François (2006). "A Geographically Explicit Genetic Model of Worldwide Human-Settlement History". The American Journal of Human Genetics. 79 (2): 230–237. doi:10.1086/505436. PMC 1559480. PMID 16826514.
- James De Vere Allen (1993). Swahili Origins: Swahili Culture & the Shungwaya Phenomenon.
- Daniel Don Nanjira, African Foreign Policy and Diplomacy: From Antiquity to the 21st Century, ABC-CLIO, 2010, p. 114
- Jens Finke (2010). The Rough Guide to Tanzania.
- Casson, Lionel (1989). The Periplus Maris Erythraei. Lionel Casson. (Translation by H. Frisk, 1927, with updates and improvements and detailed notes). Princeton, Princeton University Press.
- Chami, F. A. (1999). "The Early Iron Age on Mafia island and its relationship with the mainland." Azania Vol. XXXIV 1999, pp. 1–10.
- Chami, Felix A. 2002. "The Egypto-Graeco-Romans and Paanchea/Azania: sailing in the Erythraean Sea." From: Red Sea Trade and Travel. The British Museum. Sunday 6 October 2002. Organised by The Society for Arabian Studies
- "Weilue: The Peoples of the West". Depts.washington.edu. 23 May 2004. Retrieved 29 September 2015.
- Miller, J. Innes. 1969. Chapter 8: "The Cinnamon Route". In: The Spice Trade of the Roman Empire. Oxford: University Press. ISBN 0-19-814264-1
- Klein, Martin A.; Wesley Johnson, G. (8 January 2010). Perspectives on the African past. Retrieved 10 August 2018.
- Hill, John E. 2004. "The Peoples of the West from the Weilue by Yu Huan 魚豢: A Third Century Chinese Account Composed between 239 and 265 CE". Archived from the original on 15 March 2005. Retrieved 17 September 2016.CS1 maint: BOT: original-url status unknown (link) Draft annotated English translation. See especially Section 15 on Zesan = Azania and notes.
- Evelyne Jone Rich; Immanuel Maurice Wallerstein (1971). Africa: Tradition and Change. p. 124. ISBN 9780394009384.
- W.H. Ingrams (1967). Zanzibar: Its History and Its People. p. 24.
- Mary Fitzpatrick; Tim Bewer (2012). Lonely Planet Tanzania.
- Rhonda M. Gonzales (30 August 2009). Societies, religion, and history: central-east Tanzanians and the world they created, c. 200 BCE to 1800 CE. Columbia University Press. p. 222. ISBN 978-0-231-14242-7.
- Roland Oliver, et al. "Africa South of the Equator," in Africa Since 1800. Cambridge, UK: Cambridge University Press, 2005, pp. 24–25.
- M. Martin, Phyllis and O'Meara, Patrick (1995). Africa. 3rd edition, Bloomington and Indianapolis: Indiana University Press, p. 156, ISBN 0-253-32916-7.
- ""World Population prospects – Population division"". population.un.org. United Nations Department of Economic and Social Affairs, Population Division. Retrieved 9 November 2019.
- ""Overall total population" – World Population Prospects: The 2019 Revision" (xslx). population.un.org (custom data acquired via website). United Nations Department of Economic and Social Affairs, Population Division. Retrieved 9 November 2019.
- "World Population Prospects 2019 – Population Division". Esa.un.org. 28 August 2019. Retrieved 22 December 2019.
- "Fertility rate, total (births per woman) | Data". data.worldbank.org. Retrieved 21 July 2016.
- According to the CIA Factbook: Angola, Benin, Burundi, Burkina Faso, the Central African Republic, Cameroon, Chad, the Republic of Congo, the Democratic Republic of Congo, Djibouti, Equatorial Guinea, Eritrea, Ethiopia, Gabon, the Gambia, Ghana, Guinea, Guinea-Bissau, Kenya, Liberia, Madagascar, Malawi, Mali, Mauritania, Mozambique, Namibia, Nigeria, Rwanda, Senegal, Sierra Leone, Somalia, Sudan, Swaziland, Tanzania, Togo, Uganda, and Zambia
- (2009). Africa Development Indicators 2008/2009: From the World Bank Africa Database African Development Indicators. World Bank Publications, p. 28, ISBN 978-0-8213-7787-1.
- "Country Comparison :: GDP - per capita (PPP) — The World Factbook - Central Intelligence Agency". www.cia.gov. Retrieved 2 January 2020.
- "Research – CPI – Overview". Transparency.org. Retrieved 29 September 2015.
- World Bank. Doing Business 2010, Economy Ranking
- "National Literacy Survey". National Bureau of Statistics. June 2010. Archived from the original on 17 September 2015. Retrieved 5 September 2015.
- "The World Factbook". Cia.gov. Retrieved 29 September 2015.
- Bowden, Rob (2007). Africa South of the Sahara. Coughlan Publishing: p. 37, ISBN 1-4034-9910-1.
- Brown, Keith and Ogilvie, Sarah(2008). Concise encyclopedia of languages of the world Concise Encyclopedias of Language and Linguistics Series. Elsevier, p. 12, ISBN 978-0-08-087774-7.
- Maaroufi, Youssef. "Recensement général de la population et de l'habitat 2004".
- African Languages at Michigan State University (ASC) | Michigan State University". Isp.msu.edu. 8 October 2010. Archived from the original on 20 April 2010. Retrieved 30 April 2013
- Peek, Philip M. and Yankah, Kwesi (2004). African folklore: an encyclopedia. London: (Routledge) Taylor & Francis, p. 205, ISBN 0-415-93933-X, 9780415939331
- Schneider, Edgar Werner and Kortmann, Bernd(2004). A handbook of varieties of English: a multimedia reference tool, Volume 1. Berlin: Walter de Gruyter, pp. 867–68, ISBN 978-3-11-017532-5.
- Güldemann, Tom and Edward D. Elderkin (forthcoming) "On external genealogical relationships of the Khoe family". Archived 25 March 2009 at the Wayback Machine In Brenzinger, Matthias and Christa König (eds.), Khoisan languages and linguistics: the Riezlern symposium 2003. Quellen zur Khoisan-Forschung 17. Köln: Rüdiger Köppe.
- Bellwood, Peter S.(2005). First farmers: the origins of agricultural societies. Wiley-Blackwell, p. 218, ISBN 978-0-631-20566-1.
- "DRC". CIA World Factbook. Retrieved 16 November 2014.
- "Rwanda". CIA World Factbook. Retrieved 13 November 2014.
- "Angola". CIA World Factbook. Retrieved 18 November 2014.
- "Republic of the Congo". CIA World Factbook. Retrieved 18 November 2014.
- "Burundi". CIA World Factbook. Retrieved 13 November 2014.
- "Memories of Utopia – Infoshop, World Bank" (PDF). secid.org. South East Consortium for International Development. 31 May 2006. Archived from the original (PDF) on 6 April 2012. Retrieved 14 October 2015.
- Darfur Relief and Documentation Centre (2010). 5th Population and Housing Census in Sudan – An Incomplete Exercise Archived 15 June 2013 at the Wayback Machine. Geneva: DRDC. Retrieved 16 November 2014.
- John A. Shoup (2011). Ethnic Groups of Africa and the Middle East. p. 333. "The Zaghawa is one of the major divisions of the Beri peoples who live in western Sudan and eastern Chad, and their language, also called Zaghawa, belongs to the Saharan branch of the Nilo-Saharan language group."
- "Sudan". CIA World Factbook. Retrieved 20 November 2014.
- "Summary and Statistical Report of the 2007: Population and Housing Census Results" (PDF). New York City: United Nations Population Fund. 2007. Archived from the original (PDF) on 5 March 2009. Retrieved 14 October 2015.
- "Eritrea". CIA World Factbook. Retrieved 20 November 2014.
- "Report on minority groups in Somalia" (PDF). somraf.org. Archived from the original (PDF) on 21 October 2013. Retrieved 14 October 2015.
- "Somalia". CIA World Factbook. Retrieved 20 November 2014.
- "Kenya". CIA World Factbook. Retrieved 20 November 2014.
- "Uganda". CIA World Factbook. 20 November 2014.
- Ethnologue, most of them are native speakers
- "Central African Republic". CIA World Factbook. Retrieved 13 November 2014.
- "South Sudan". CIA World Factbook. Retrieved 13 November 2014.
- "Nigeria". CIA World Factbook. Retrieved 13 November 2014.
- "Niger". CIA World Factbook. Retrieved 13 November 2014.
- "Chad" Archived 26 November 2016 at the Wayback Machine. CIA World Factbook. Retrieved 16 November 2014.
- "Population and Housing Census". www.knbs.or.ke. Kenya National Bureau of Statistics. 2009. Archived from the original on 2 February 2014. Retrieved 14 October 2015.
- "The Maasai of Kenya and Tanzania". The Language Journal. 22 April 2012. Retrieved 29 September 2015.
- "South Africa". CIA World Factbook. Retrieved 16 November 2014.
- "Botswana". CIA World Factbook. 20 November 2014.
- "Malawi". CIA World Factbook. Retrieved 16 November 2014.
- "Zambia". CIA World Factbook. 20 November 2014.
- "Mozambique". CIA World Factbook. 20 November 2014.
- "The Future of Portuguese". BB Portuguese. Archived from the original on 2 May 2012. Retrieved 11 April 2012.
- "Senegal". CIA World Factbook. Retrieved 20 November 2014.
- "The Gambia". CIA World Factbook. Retrieved 20 November 2014.
- "Cameroon". CIA World Factbook. Retrieved 20 November 2014.
- "Mali". CIA World Factbook. Retrieved 20 November 2014.
- Skoglund, Pontus; Thompson, Jessica C.; Prendergast, Mary E.; Mittnik, Alissa; Sirak, Kendra; Hajdinjak, Mateja; Salie, Tasneem; Rohland, Nadin; Mallick, Swapan; Peltzer, Alexander; Heinze, Anja (21 September 2017). "Reconstructing Prehistoric African Population Structure". Cell. 171 (1): 59–71.e21. doi:10.1016/j.cell.2017.08.049. ISSN 0092-8674. PMID 28938123.
Western-Eurasian-related ancestry is pervasive in eastern Africa today (Pagani et al., 2012, Tishkoff et al., 2009), and the timing of this admixture has been estimated to be ∼3,000 BP on average (Pickrell et al., 2014). We found that the ∼3,100 BP individual (Tanzania_Luxmanda_3100BP), associated with a Savanna Pastoral Neolithic archeological tradition, could be modeled as having 38% ± 1% of her ancestry related to the nearly 10,000-year-old pre-pottery farmers of the Levant (Lazaridis et al., 2016).
- Porras-Hurtado, Liliana; Ruiz, Yarimar; Santos, Carla; Phillips, Christopher; Carracedo, Ángel; Lareu, Maria V. (29 May 2013). "An overview of STRUCTURE: applications, parameter settings, and supporting software". Frontiers in Genetics. 4. doi:10.3389/fgene.2013.00098. ISSN 1664-8021. PMC 3665925. PMID 23755071 – via www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov.
- Tishkoff, SA; et al. (2009). "The Genetic Structure and History of Africans and African Americans" (PDF). Science. 324 (5930): 1037–39. Bibcode:2009Sci...324.1035T. doi:10.1126/science.1172257. PMC 2947357. PMID 19407144.
- Jason A. Hodgson; Connie J. Mulligan; Ali Al-Meeri; Ryan L. Raaum (12 June 2014). "Early Back-to-Africa Migration into the Horn of Africa". PLOS Genetics. 10 (6). pp. e1004393. doi:10.1371/journal.pgen.1004393. PMC 4055572. PMID 24921250.; "Supplementary Text S1: Affinities of the Ethio-Somali ancestry component". doi:10.1371/journal.pgen.1004393.s017.
- Begoña Dobon; et al. (28 May 2015). "The genetics of East African populations: a Nilo-Saharan component in the African genetic landscape". Scientific Reports. 5: 9996. Bibcode:2015NatSR...5E9996D. doi:10.1038/srep09996. PMC 4446898. PMID 26017457.
- Arun Durvasula; Sriram Sankararaman (2020). "Recovering signals of ghost archaic introgression in African populations". Science Advances. 6 (7): eaax5097. doi:10.1126/sciadv.aax5097. PMC 7015685. PMID 32095519. "Non-African populations (Han Chinese in Beijing and Utah residents with northern and western European ancestry) also show analogous patterns in the CSFS, suggesting that a component of archaic ancestry was shared before the split of African and non-African populations...One interpretation of the recent time of introgression that we document is that archaic forms persisted in Africa until fairly recently. Alternately, the archaic population could have introgressed earlier into a modern human population, which then subsequently interbred with the ancestors of the populations that we have analyzed here. The models that we have explored here are not mutually exclusive, and it is plausible that the history of African populations includes genetic contributions from multiple divergent populations, as evidenced by the large effective population size associated with the introgressing archaic population...Given the uncertainty in our estimates of the time of introgression, we wondered whether jointly analyzing the CSFS from both the CEU (Utah residents with Northern and Western European ancestry) and YRI genomes could provide additional resolution. Under model C, we simulated introgression before and after the split between African and non-African populations and observed qualitative differences between the two models in the high-frequency–derived allele bins of the CSFS in African and non-African populations (fig. S40). Using ABC to jointly fit the high-frequency–derived allele bins of the CSFS in CEU and YRI (defined as greater than 50% frequency), we find that the lower limit on the 95% credible interval of the introgression time is older than the simulated split between CEU and YRI (2800 versus 2155 generations B.P.), indicating that at least part of the archaic lineages seen in the YRI are also shared with the CEU..."
-  Supplementary Materials for Recovering signals of ghost archaic introgression in African populations", section "S8.2" "We simulated data using the same priors in Section S5.2, but computed the spectrum for both YRI [West African Yoruba] and CEU [a population of European origin] . We found that the best fitting parameters were an archaic split time of 27,000 generations ago (95% HPD: 26,000-28,000), admixture fraction of 0.09 (95% HPD: 0.04-0.17), admixture time of 3,000 generations ago (95% HPD: 2,800-3,400), and an effective population size of 19,700 individuals (95% HPD: 19,300-20,200). We find that the lower bound of the admixture time is further back than the simulated split between CEU and YRI (2155 generations ago), providing some evidence in favor of a pre-Out-of-Africa event. This model suggests that many populations outside of Africa should also contain haplotypes from this introgression event, though detection is difficult because many methods use unadmixed outgroups to detect introgressed haplotypes [Browning et al., 2018, Skov et al., 2018, Durvasula and Sankararaman, 2019] (5, 53, 22). It is also possible that some of these haplotypes were lost during the Out-of-Africa bottleneck."
- Busby, George BJ; Band, Gavin; Si Le, Quang; Jallow, Muminatou; Bougama, Edith; Mangano, Valentina D; Amenga-Etego, Lucas N; Enimil, Anthony; Apinjoh, Tobias (2016). "Admixture into and within sub-Saharan Africa". eLife. 5. doi:10.7554/eLife.15266. ISSN 2050-084X. PMC 4915815. PMID 27324836.
- Ramsay, Michèle; Hazelhurst, Scott; Sengupta, Dhriti; Aron, Shaun; Choudhury, Ananyo (1 August 2018). "African genetic diversity provides novel insights into evolutionary history and local adaptations". Human Molecular Genetics. 27 (R2): R209–R218. doi:10.1093/hmg/ddy161. ISSN 0964-6906. PMC 6061870. PMID 29741686.
- Hodgson, Jason A.; Mulligan, Connie J.; Al-Meeri, Ali; Raaum, Ryan L. (12 June 2014). "Early Back-to-Africa Migration into the Horn of Africa". PLOS Genetics. 10 (6): e1004393. doi:10.1371/journal.pgen.1004393. ISSN 1553-7404. PMC 4055572. PMID 24921250.
The African Ethiopic ancestry is tightly restricted to HOA populations and likely represents an autochthonous HOA population. The non-African ancestry in the HOA, which is primarily attributed to a novel Ethio-Somali inferred ancestry component, is significantly differentiated from all neighboring non-African ancestries in North Africa, the Levant, and Arabia.
- Lipson, Mark; Reich, David (2017). "A Working Model of the Deep Relationships of Diverse Modern Human Genetic Lineages Outside of Africa". Molecular Biology and Evolution. 34 (4): 889–902. doi:10.1093/molbev/msw293. PMC 5400393. PMID 28074030.
The former [eastern clade] includes present-day East Asians and had differentiated as early as the ∼40 kya Tianyuan individual (Fu et al. 2013), while early members of the latter [western clade] include ancient European hunter-gatherers (Lazaridis et al. 2014; Seguin-Orlando et al. 2014; Fu et al. 2016) and the ancient northern Eurasian Mal'ta 1 (MA1, a ∼24 kya Upper Paleolithic individual from south-central Siberia) (Raghavan et al. 2014). More recent (Neolithic and later) western Eurasians, such as Europeans, are mostly descended from the western clade but with an additional component of "Basal Eurasian" ancestry (via the Near East) splitting more deeply than any other known non-African lineage (Lazaridis et al. 2014, 2016). The timing of the eastern/western split is uncertain, but several papers (Gutenkunst et al. 2009; Laval et al. 2010; Gravel et al. 2011) have used present-day European and East Asian populations to infer dates of initial separation of 40–45 kya (adjusted for a mutation rate of 0.5 × 10−9 per year; Scally 2016).
- Dewar, Robert E.; Wright, Henry T. (1 December 1993). "The culture history of Madagascar". Journal of World Prehistory. 7 (4): 417–466. doi:10.1007/BF00997802. ISSN 1573-7802.
- Burney, David A; Burney, Lida Pigott; Godfrey, Laurie R; Jungers, William L; Goodman, Steven M; Wright, Henry T; Jull, A. J. Timothy (1 July 2004). "A chronology for late prehistoric Madagascar". Journal of Human Evolution. 47 (1): 25–63. doi:10.1016/j.jhevol.2004.05.005. ISSN 0047-2484.
- Kusuma, Pradiptajati; Brucato, Nicolas; Cox, Murray P.; Pierron, Denis; Razafindrazaka, Harilanto; Adelaar, Alexander; Sudoyo, Herawati; Letellier, Thierry; Ricaut, François-Xavier (18 May 2016). "Contrasting Linguistic and Genetic Origins of the Asian Source Populations of Malagasy". Scientific Reports. 6 (1): 26066. doi:10.1038/srep26066. ISSN 2045-2322. PMC 4870696. PMID 27188237.
- Brucato, Nicolas; Kusuma, Pradiptajati; Cox, Murray P.; Pierron, Denis; Purnomo, Gludhug A.; Adelaar, Alexander; Kivisild, Toomas; Letellier, Thierry; Sudoyo, Herawati; Ricaut, François-Xavier (September 2016). "Malagasy Genetic Ancestry Comes from an Historical Malay Trading Post in Southeast Borneo". Molecular Biology and Evolution. 33 (9): 2396–2400. doi:10.1093/molbev/msw117. ISSN 0737-4038. PMC 4989113. PMID 27381999.
- "Chinese archaeologists' African quest for sunken ship of Ming admiral". the Guardian. 25 July 2010. Retrieved 20 November 2020.
- Rey, Sola (17 September 2016). "DNA test proves some East Africans are descendants of Chinese sailors shipwrecked on Kenya's shores 600 years ago". Sola Rey. Retrieved 20 November 2020.
- "The Y-chromosome of the Soliga, an ancient forest-dwelling tribe of South India". Gene: X. 5: 100026. 1 December 2020. doi:10.1016/j.gene.2019.100026. ISSN 2590-1583.
- African Cities Driving the NEPAD Initiative. UN-HABITAT. 2006. p. 202. ISBN 9789211318159.
- John Hartley; Jason Potts; Terry Flew; Stuart Cunningham; Michael Keane; John Banks (2012). Key Concepts in Creative Industries. SAGE. p. 47. ISBN 978-1-446-2028-90.
- Helmut K Anheier; Yudhishthir Raj Isar (2012). Cultures and Globalization: Cities, Cultural Policy and Governance. SAGE. p. 118. ISBN 9781446258507.
- Stuart Cunningham (2013). Hidden Innovation: Policy, Industry and the Creative Sector (Creative Economy and Innovation Culture Se Series). University of Queensland Press. p. 163. ISBN 978-0-702-2509-89.
- Lisa Benton-Short; John Rennie Short (2013). Cities and Nature. Routledge Critical Introductions to Urbanism and the City. p. 71. ISBN 9781134252749.
- Kerstin Pinther; Larissa Förster; Christian Hanussek (2012). Afropolis: City Media Art. Jacana Media. p. 18. ISBN 978-1-431-4032-57.
- Salif Diop; Jean-Paul Barusseau; Cyr Descamps (2014). The Land/Ocean Interactions in the Coastal Zone of West and Central Africa Estuaries of the World. Springer. p. 66. ISBN 978-3-319-0638-81.
- "What Makes Lagos a Model City". The New York Times. 7 January 2014. Retrieved 16 March 2015.
- John Campbell (10 July 2012). "This Is Africa's New Biggest City: Lagos, Nigeria, Population 21 Million". The Atlantic. Washington D.C. Retrieved 23 September 2012.
- "Lagos and Its Potentials for Economic Growth". 2 July 2015. Retrieved 26 October 2015.
- "Africa's biggest shipping ports". Businesstech. 8 March 2015. Retrieved 26 October 2015.
- Brian Rajewski (1998). Africa, Volume 1 of Cities of the world: a compilation of current information on cultural, geographical, and political conditions in the countries and cities of six continents, based on the Department of State's "post reports". Gale Research International, Limited. ISBN 9780810376922.
- Loretta Lees; Hyun Bang Shin; Ernesto López Morales (2015). Global Gentrifications: Uneven Development and Displacement. Policy Press. p. 315. ISBN 978-1-447-3134-89.
- "Major urban areas - population". cia.gov. Retrieved 18 November 2014.
- "Johannesburg". Retrieved 25 May 2015.
- Pulse Africa. "Not to be Missed: Nairobi 'Green City in the Sun'". pulseafrica.com. Archived from the original on 28 April 2007. Retrieved 14 June 2007.
- Pugliese, Jessica (2 January 2014). "Rethinking Financing for Development in Sub-Saharan Africa". brookings.edu. Retrieved 5 January 2014.
- "Africa's impressive growth". The Economist. 29 August 2014.
- "Africa's impressive growth". World Bank. 29 August 2014.
- Creamer Media Reporter (12 November 2009). "Africa's energy problems threatens growth, says Nepad CEO". www.engineeringnews.co.za. Engineering News. Archived from the original on 4 June 2013. Retrieved 14 October 2015.
- Christian K.M. Kingombe 2011. Mapping the new infrastructure financing landscape Archived 18 September 2012 at the Wayback Machine. London: Overseas Development Institute
- "Creamer Media" (PDF). Us-cdn.creamermedia.co.za. Retrieved 29 September 2015.
- RedOrbit.com Redorbit Archived 20 May 2013 at the Wayback Machine
- Flatow, Ira. Could Africa Leapfrog The U.S. In Solar Power?. Science Friday 6 June 2008.
- Hepeng, Jia (20 August 2004). "China to train developing nations in solar technologies". scidev.net.
- English, Cynthia. Radio the Chief Medium for News in Sub-Saharan Africa. Gallup 23 June 2008.
- Africa Calling: Cellphone usage sees record rise. Mail&Guardian: 23 October 2009.
- Aker, Jenny C.(2008). “Can You Hear Me Now?”How Cell Phones are Transforming Markets in Sub-Saharan Africa Archived 4 March 2016 at the Wayback Machine, Center for Global Development.
- "MG.co.za". MG.co.za. 23 December 2009.
- Pfanner, Eric. Competition increases for pay TV in sub-Saharan Africa. The New York Times, 6 August 2007.
- John J. Saul and Colin Leys, Sub-Saharan Africa in Global Capitalism, Monthly Review, 1999, Volume 51, Issue 03 (July–August)
- Fred Magdoff, Twenty-First-Century Land Grabs: Accumulation by Agricultural Dispossession, Monthly Review, 2013, Volume 65, Issue 06 (November)
- Ken Gwilliam, Vivien Foster, Rodrigo Archondo-Callao, Cecilia Briceño-Garmendia, Alberto Nogales, and Kavita Sethi(2008). Africa infrastructure country diagnostic, Roads in Sub-Saharan Africa. World Bank and the SSATP: p. 4
- Lisa A. Corathers (January 2009). "Manganese" (PDF). Minerals.usgs.gov. Retrieved 19 October 2015.
Land-based manganese resources are large but irregularly distributed; those of the United States are very low grade and have potentially high extraction costs. South Africa accounts for about 80% of the world's identified manganese resources, and Ukraine accounts for 10%.
- John F. Papp (2001). "Chromium" (PDF). U.S. Geological Survey Minerals Yearbook. Minerals.usgs.gov. Retrieved 19 October 2015.
About 42% of world reserves and about 75% of the world reserve base are located in South Africa.
- Vronsky (1 May 1997). "Platinum: The Rich Man's Gold". Gold-Eagle.com. Retrieved 19 October 2015.
- E. Lee Bray (January 2009). "Bauxite and Alumina" (PDF). U.S. Geological Survey, Mineral Commodity Summaries. Minerals.usgs.gov. Retrieved 29 September 2015.
- Daniel L. Edelstein (January 2009). "Copper" (PDF). U.S. Geological Survey, Mineral Commodity Summaries. Minerals.usgs.gov. Retrieved 19 October 2015.
- "From the SelectedWorks of Maheta Matteo: From "Blood Diamond" to "Blood Coltan": Should International Corporations Pay the Price for the Rape of the DR Congo?". Works.bepress.com. Retrieved 29 September 2015.
- "MBendi.com". MBendi.com. Archived from the original on 10 May 2006. Retrieved 20 December 2009.
- "World-Nuclear.org". World-Nuclear.org.
- Ghazvinian, John (2008). Untapped: The Scramble for Africa's Oil. Houghton Mifflin Harcourt, pp. 1–16, ISBN 978-0-15-603372-5.
- Christopher Ehret, (2002). The Civilization of Africa. University of Virginia Press: Charlottesville, p. 98, ISBN 0-8139-2085-X.
- Vandaveer, Chelsie(2006). What was the cotton of Kush? Archived 14 January 2010 at the Wayback Machine KillerPlants.com, Plants That Change History Archive.
- National Research Council (U.S.). Board on Science and Technology for International Development (1996). Lost Crops of Africa: Grains. National Academy Press, ISBN 978-0-309-04990-0.
- "WorldDefenseReview.com". WorldDefenseReview.com.
- "Trading Forex, CFD and Binary Option News". Archived from the original on 4 March 2016.
- Evans, Ambrose (12 October 2009). "Blogspot.com". Tradeafrica.blogspot.com.
- "Africa Regional Brief" (PDF). World Bank. Retrieved 7 May 2012.
- Mathiason, Nick (2 November 2009). "Global protocol could limit Sub-Saharan land grab". The Guardian. London. Retrieved 9 April 2010.
- Gabara, Nthambeleni (12 November 2009). "Developed nations should invest in African universities". buanews.gov.za. BuaNews Online. Archived from the original on 23 February 2012. Retrieved 16 October 2015.
- "World". CIA Factbook.
- Baten, Jörg (2016). A history of the global economy. Cambridge University Press. pp. 328–329. ISBN 978-1-107-10470-9.
- Nordling, Linda (29 October 2009). "Africa Analysis: Progress on science spending?". scidev.net.
- "South Africa's Investment in Research and Development on the Rise" (Press release). Department of Science and Technology. 22 June 2006. Archived from the original on 27 July 2011.
- Agence Française de Développement, Agence universitaire de la Francophonie, Orange, & UNESCO. (2015). Digital Services for Education in Africa. Savoirs communs, 17. http://unesdoc.unesco.org/images/0023/002318/231867e.pdf
- UNESCO. (2012). Education for All Global Monitoring Report 2012 – Youth and Skills: Putting Education to Work. Luxembourg: UNESCO Publications. http://unesdoc.unesco.org/images/0021/002180/218003e.pdf
- Alphonce Shiundu (2 September 2018). "More must happen". D+C, development and cooperation. Retrieved 3 February 2019.
- "User fees for health: a background". Archived from the original on 28 November 2006. Retrieved 28 December 2006.
- Godfrey., Mugoti (2009). Africa (a-z). [Place of publication not identified]: Lulu Com. ISBN 978-1435728905. OCLC 946180025.[self-published source]
- Knippenberg R, Alihonou E, Soucat A, et al. (June 1997). "Implementation of the Bamako Initiative: strategies in Benin and Guinea". The International Journal of Health Planning and Management. 12 (Suppl 1): S29–47. doi:10.1002/(SICI)1099-1751(199706)12:1+<S29::AID-HPM465>3.0.CO;2-U. PMID 10173105.
- "Manageable Bamako Initiative schemes". Archived from the original on 8 October 2007. Retrieved 28 December 2006.
- "World Aids Day 2012" (PDF). Unaids.org. Retrieved 29 September 2015.
- "Desmond Tutu HIV Foundation: What we do". Desmond Tutu HIV Foundation. Archived from the original on 16 January 2013. Retrieved 27 May 2013.
- "UNAIDS reports more than 7 million people now on HIV treatment across Africa—with nearly 1 million added in the last year—while new HIV infections and deaths from AIDS continue to fall". Joint United Nations Programme on HIV/AIDS. 21 May 2013. Retrieved 29 September 2015.
- "Special Report: How Africa Turned AIDS Around" (PDF). Joint United Nations Programme on HIV/AIDS. 2013. Retrieved 29 September 2015.[permanent dead link]
- "UNAIDS Report on the Global AIDS Epidemic 2012" (PDF). Retrieved 13 May 2013.
- "Life expectancy at birth, total (years) - Sub-Saharan Africa | Data". data.worldbank.org. Retrieved 30 October 2019.
- "AIDSinfo". UNAIDS. Retrieved 4 March 2013.
- "WHO | Malaria". Who.int. Retrieved 29 September 2015.
- Verguet S, Jassat W, Hedberg C, Tollman S, Jamison DT, Hofman KJ (February 2012). "Measles control in Sub-Saharan Africa: South Africa as a case study". Vaccine. 30 (9): 1594–600. doi:10.1016/j.vaccine.2011.12.123. PMID 22230581.
- "WHO | Onchocerciasis". Who.int. Retrieved 29 September 2015.
- "WHO | Maternal mortality". Who.int. Retrieved 29 September 2015.
- Emma Bonino, "A brutal custom: Join forces to banish the mutilation of women", The New York Times, 15 September 2004; Charlotte Feldman-Jacobs, "Commemorating International Day of Zero Tolerance to Female Genital Mutilation" Archived 13 February 2010 at the Wayback Machine, Population Reference Bureau, February 2009.
- Canagarajah, Sudharshan; Ye, Xiao (April 2001). Public Health and Education Spending in Ghana in 1992-98 (PDF). World Bank Publication. p. 21.
- "The Global Religious Landscape" (PDF). Pewforum.org. Archived from the original (PDF) on 25 January 2017. Retrieved 7 May 2020.
- Encyclopædia Britannica. Britannica Book of the Year 2003. Encyclopædia Britannica, (2003) ISBN 978-0-85229-956-2 p. 306
However, Southern Africa is predominantly Christian. According to the Encyclopædia Britannica, as of mid-2002, there were 376,453,000 Christians, 329,869,000 Muslims and 98,734,000 people who practiced traditional religions in Africa. Ian S. Markham,(A World Religions Reader. Cambridge, MA: Blackwell Publishers, 1996.) is cited by Morehouse University as giving the mid-1990s figure of 278,250,800 Muslims in Africa, but still as 40.8% of the total. These numbers are estimates and remain a matter of conjecture. See Amadu Jacky Kaba. The spread of Christianity and Islam in Africa: a survey and analysis of the numbers and percentages of Christians, Muslims and those who practice indigenous religions. The Western Journal of Black Studies, Vol 29, Number 2, June 2005. Discusses the estimations of various almanacs and encyclopedium, placing Britannica's estimate as the most agreed figure. Notes the figure presented at the World Christian Encyclopedia, summarised here Archived 5 March 2016 at the Wayback Machine, as being an outlier. On rates of growth, Islam and Pentecostal Christianity are highest, see: The List: The World’s Fastest-Growing Religions, Foreign Policy, May 2007.
- "The Global Religious Landscape" (PDF). Pewforum.org. Archived from the original (PDF) on 25 January 2017. Retrieved 7 May 2020.
- Ehret, Christopher (2002). The Civilizations of Africa: A History to 1800. James Currey Publishers. ISBN 978-0-85255-475-3.CS1 maint: ref=harv (link)
- A Conversation with Christopher Ehret
- Okwu AS (1979). "Life, Death, Reincarnation, and Traditional Healing in Africa". Issue: A Journal of Opinion. 9 (3): 19–24. doi:10.2307/1166258. JSTOR 1166258.
- Stanton, Andrea L. (2012). Cultural Sociology of the Middle East, Asia, and Africa: An Encyclopedia. SAGE. ISBN 9781412981767.
- Baldick, Julian (1997). Black God: the Afroasiatic roots of the Jewish, Christian, and Muslim religions. Syracuse University Press:ISBN 0-8156-0522-6
- [view.https://worldhistoryconnected.press.uillinois.edu/2.1/ehret.html, A Conversation with Christopher Ehret]
- Christopher Ehret, (2002). The Civilizations of Africa. Charlottesville: University of Virginia, pp. 102–03, ISBN 0-8139-2085-X.
- Vontress, Clemmont E. (2005), "Animism: Foundation of Traditional Healing in Sub-Saharan Africa", Integrating Traditional Healing Practices into Counseling and Psychotherapy, SAGE Publications, Inc., pp. 124–137, doi:10.4135/9781452231648, ISBN 9780761930471, retrieved 2 November 2019
- Davidson, Basil (1969). The African Genius, An Introduction to African Social and Cultural History. Little, Brown and Company: Boston, pp. 168–80. LCCN 70-80751.
- Eglash, Ron: "African Fractals: Modern computing and indigenous design." Rutgers 1999 ISBN 0-8135-2613-2
- Richmond, Yale; Gestrin, Phyllis (2009). Into Africa: a guide to Sub-Saharan culture and diversity. Boston: Intercultural Press. ISBN 978-1-931930-91-8.
- "ScienceDaily.com". ScienceDaily.com. 18 June 2007.
- "'Oldest' prehistoric art unearthed". BBC News. 10 January 2002. Retrieved 9 April 2010.
- ">TARA – Trust for African Rock Art: Rock Art in Africa". 6 January 2009. Archived from the original on 6 January 2009.
- "African Influences in Modern Art | Thematic Essay | Heilbrunn Timeline of Art History | The Metropolitan Museum of Art". Metmuseum.org. 2 June 2014. Retrieved 29 September 2015.
- Alexandre, Marc(1998). World Bank Publication: DC. ISBN 978-0-8213-4195-7
- Bowden, Rob(2007). Africa South of the Sahara. Coughlan Publishing: p. 40, ISBN 1-4034-9910-1.
- Christopher Ehret, (2002). The Civilizations of Africa. Charlottesville: University of Virginia, p. 103, ISBN 0-8139-2085-X.
- Njogu, K.; Ngeta, K.; Wanjau, M. (2010). Ethnic Diversity in Eastern Africa: Opportunities and Challenges. Twaweza Communications. pp. 78–79. ISBN 978-9966-7244-8-9. Retrieved 30 November 2017.
- "Intangible Heritage Home –- intangible heritage – Culture Sector". UNESCO.
- Yoshida, Reiko. Proclamation 2005: Barcloth making in Uganda Unesco: Intangible Cultural Heritage (Uganda) 13 May 2009
- "Archived copy". Archived from the original on 17 February 2009. Retrieved 17 November 2009.CS1 maint: archived copy as title (link)
- "About.com". Goafrica.about.com.
- "AllAfrica.com". AllAfrica.com. 16 November 2009.
- "European Soccer's Racism Problem". Deutsche Welle. Deutsche Welle. 2 December 2005.
- "Men's outdoor world records". iaaf.org. Retrieved 26 October 2013.
As can be seen: 800m is Kenya; 5000m is Ethiopia; 10000m is Ethiopia; marathon is Kenya. The two exceptions are the 1500m and 3000m steeplechase records, though the latter is held by Stephen Cherono, who was born and raised in Kenya.
- Tucker, Ross and Dugas, Jonathan. Sport's great rivalries: Kenya vs. Ethiopia, and a one-sided battle (at least on the track) Archived 20 April 2010 at the Wayback Machine, The Science of Sport, 14 July 2008.
- "Tourism in Africa : Harnessing Tourism for Growth and Improved Livelihoods" (PDF). Worldbank.org. Retrieved 29 September 2015.
- "South Africa: Political Issues: Constitution: Provincial Government". BBC. 29 October 2014. Retrieved 29 September 2015.
- Malik, Nesrine (23 November 2009). "'Nubian monkey' song and Arab racism". The Guardian. London. Retrieved 9 April 2010.
- Towson.edu Archived 3 December 2013 at the Wayback Machine
- "Worldbank.org". Web.worldbank.org. 27 October 2006.
- "CDCdevelopmentSolutions.org". CDCdevelopmentSolutions.org. Archived from the original on 20 June 2010.
- "Where We Work | U.S. Agency for International Development". Usaid.gov. 29 May 2012. Archived from the original on 17 October 2011. Retrieved 29 September 2015.
- "Transparency International - The Global Anti-Corruption Coalition". www.transparency.org. Archived from the original on 13 April 2012.
- "U.N. doubles force in turbulent South Sudan [UPDATE 2". UPI.com. Retrieved 29 September 2015.
- Taking Action to Reduce Poverty in Sub-Saharan Africa, World Bank Publications (1997), ISBN 0-8213-3698-3.
- Chido, Diane E. From Chaos to Cohesion: A Regional Approach to Security, Stability, and Development in Sub-Saharan Africa. Carlisle, Pa.: Strategic Studies Institute and U.S. Army War College Press, 2013.
- Wm. Roger Louis and Jean Stengers: E.D. Morel's History of the Congo Reform Movement, Clarendon Press Oxford, 1968.