Sudan Revolutionary Front

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Sudan Revolutionary Front
الجبهة الثورية السودانية
Leaders Abdelaziz al-Hilu[dubious ]
Minni Minnawi
Abdul Wahid al Nur
Khalil Ibrahim 
Gibril Ibrahim
Dates of operation12 November 2011 — present
Group(s) Justice and Equality Movement
Sudan Liberation Movement (al-Nur)
Sudan Liberation Movement (Minnawi)
Sudan People's Liberation Movement-North[dubious ]
Active regions Sudan
Blue Nile
North Darfur
North Kordofan
South Darfur
South Kordofan
West Darfur
IdeologyNew Sudan
Allies South Sudan (alleged)
Opponents Sudanese government

The Sudan Revolutionary Front (Arabic: الجبهة الثورية السودانيةAl-Jabhat Al-Thawriyat Al-Sudan), or the Sudanese Revolutionary Front (SRF), is an alliance between Sudanese factions that was created in opposition to the government of President Omar al-Bashir. It was declared on 12 November 2011, following several months of support by Darfuri rebel groups for the Sudan People's Liberation Movement-North in the conflict in South Kordofan and Blue Nile.


The alliance created in November 2011 aimed to bring together the two main factions of the Sudan Liberation Movement/Army, as well as the other major rebel group in Darfur, the Justice and Equality Movement, with rebels in South Kordofan and Blue Nile states. The declaration of the SRF's formation was delayed until a disagreement between JEM and the other factions on the role of Islam in a post-revolutionary federal government was resolved.[1]

The signers for each group were Yasir Arman for the SPLM-N, Ahmed Tugud for the JEM, Abul Gassim Al-Haj for the SLM-al-Nur, and Al-Rayah Mahmoud for the SLM-Minnawi.[2]

Areas of operation[edit]

Yasir Arman, the secretary-general of the SPLM-N and a prominent member of the SRF's high political committee, said shortly after the SRF's formation that "all Sudan is a theatre for operations, including Khartoum". As of 2011, the JEM and both SLM factions were still based in the region of Darfur, and the SPLM-N had not expanded its fight against the Sudanese government north of Blue Nile and South Kordofan.[1][3] In late December 2011, JEM fighters advanced into North Kordofan with the stated intention of ousting President Omar al-Bashir from power, though they suffered a setback when their leader, Khalil Ibrahim, was killed in action in the state.[4]

Around the time of the SRF's formation in November 2011, the Sudanese government accused neighbouring South Sudan of supporting the rebel groups. In addition to bombing South Sudanese infrastructure and camps, South Sudanese authorities stated that Sudan had backed armed opposition factions within South Sudan.[2]

Sudanese peace process[edit]

The August 2019 Draft Constitutional Declaration, signed by military and civilian representatives during the 2018–19 Sudanese Revolution, requires that a peace agreement for resolving the War in Darfur and the Sudanese conflict in South Kordofan and Blue Nile be made within the first six months of the 39-month transition period to democratic civilian government.[5][6] As part of the resulting Sudanese peace process, on 21 October 2019, el-Hadi Idris, on behalf of the SRF, and Hemetti, on behalf of the Sovereignty Council (the collective head of state), signed a political agreement (co-signed by a South Sudanese mediator) including a renewed ceasefire, the delivering of humanitarian assistance by government agencies to areas under conflict, and commitment to negotiate further.[7]

On 31 August 2020, a peace agreement was signed between the Sudanese authorities and rebel factions led by Gibril Ibrahim, Minni Minnawi, el-Hadi Idris and Malik Agar to end armed hostilities.[8] Under the terms of the agreement, the factions that signed will be entitled to three seats on the sovereignty council, a total of five ministers in the transitional cabinet and a quarter of seats in the transitional legislature. At a regional level, signatories will be entitled between 30 and 40% of the seats on transitional legislatures of their home states or regions.[9][10]

See also[edit]


  1. ^ a b "Sudanese Darfur Rebel Group Joins Anti-Government Alliance". Businessweek. 13 November 2011. Retrieved 13 November 2011.
  2. ^ a b "Rebel groups agree to work together for regime change in Sudan". Sudan Tribune. 12 November 2011. Retrieved 13 November 2011.
  3. ^ "Sudan rebels form alliance to oust president". Al Jazeera English. 13 November 2011. Retrieved 13 November 2011.
  4. ^ "Sudan army kills Darfur rebel leader". Al Jazeera English. 25 December 2011. Retrieved 25 December 2011.
  5. ^ FFC; TMC (2019-08-04). "(الدستوري Declaration (العربية))" [(Constitutional Declaration)] (PDF). (in Arabic). Archived (PDF) from the original on 2019-08-05. Retrieved 2019-08-05.
  6. ^ FFC; TMC; IDEA; Reeves, Eric (2019-08-10). "Sudan: Draft Constitutional Charter for the 2019 Transitional Period". Archived from the original on 2019-08-10. Retrieved 2019-08-10.
  7. ^ "SRF rebels, Sudan govt sign agreement in Juba". Radio Dabanga. 2019-10-21. Archived from the original on 2019-10-22. Retrieved 2019-10-22.
  8. ^ "Sudan signs peace deal with rebel groups from Darfur". Al Jazeera. 31 August 2020.
  9. ^
  10. ^