This article needs more links to other articles to help integrate it into the encyclopedia. (June 2016) (Learn how and when to remove this template message)
|, TCRG, TRG@, T cell receptor gamma locus, T-cell receptor gamma locus|
T cell receptor gamma locus is a protein that in humans is encoded by the TRG gene, also known as TCRG or TRG@. It contributes the gamma (γ) chain to the larger TCR protein (T-cell receptor).
T cell receptors recognize foreign antigens which have been processed as small peptides and bound to major histocompatibility complex (MHC) molecules at the surface of antigen presenting cells (APC) (APC). Each T cell receptor is a dimer consisting of one alpha and one beta chain or one delta and one gamma chain. In a single cell, the T cell receptor loci are rearranged and expressed in the order delta, gamma, beta, and alpha. If both delta and gamma rearrangements produce functional chains, the cell expresses delta and gamma. If not, the cell proceeds to rearrange the beta and alpha loci. This region represents the germline organization of the T cell receptor gamma locus. The gamma locus includes V (variable), J (joining), and C (constant) segments. During T cell development, the gamma chain is synthesized by a recombination event at the DNA level joining a V segment with a J segment; the C segment is later joined by splicing at the RNA level. Recombination of many different V segments with several J segments provides a wide range of antigen recognition. Additional diversity is attained by junctional diversity, resulting from the random addition of nucleotides by terminal terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase. Several V segments of the gamma locus are known to be incapable of encoding a protein and are considered pseudogenes. Somatic rearrangement of the gamma locus has been observed in T cells derived from patients with T cell leukemia and ataxia telangiectasia.
In the αβ T cell lineage, these chains are disulfide-linked and noncovalently associated at the cell surface of T lymphocytes. While the αβ lineage has been widely studied, the γδ lineage has not due to the minimal amount of defined antigens, the unusual cellular responses to their environment, and the resulting challenge of identifying and studying this population in vivo. Recombinant technology has allowed for the identification of the T-cell receptor gamma (TRG) gene that is found associated with the CD3 complex on the cell surface. As early as 1988, the structure and genetic basis of the γδ TCR was reported. The γ and δ chains can be either disulfide-linked or noncovalently attached.
The genomic sequence of the TRG locus has been determined in Canis lupus familiaris, with the Carnivora order hypothesized as the putative origin of the TRG locus. Forty genes were discovered of the following three types: variable (TRGV), joining (TRGJ), and constant (TRGC). These genes are organized into eight cassettes aligned with the same transcriptional orientation. Each cassette is composed of a V-J-J-C unit, except one with a J-J-C unit on the 3’ end of the locus. The canine locus is approximately 460 kb in length. Eight of the sixteen total TRGV genes, seven of the sixteen TRGJ genes, and six of the eight TRGC genes were determined to be functional. The locus organization of the TRG chain has been found to vary greatly across species and can be traced back evolutionarily. The human TRG locus is located on chromosome 7 and includes 14 variable segments, of which eight are potentially active, five joining segments, and two constant segments.
T cells expressing the γ-chain (TRG+ cells) make up 3-10% of normal adult peripheral blood lymphocytes, with the majority (>80%) of the Vγ2Vδ2+ subtype (referred to as Vδ2+ T cells). All TRG+ cells also express CD3, CD4, and CD8 complexes. While CD3 complexes have been associated with cytolytic regulation, it is unclear whether TRG is also necessary for mediated cellular cytotoxicity.
The function of the γ chain as well as the γδ dimer is still largely unknown, although they have been implicated in cytokine secretion and cytotoxic activity as a part of the protective immune system. The Vδ2+ T cells recognize small nonpeptide antigens, but unlike αβ T cells, these antigens do not need to be processed by antigen-presenting cells or presented by classical major histocompatibility complex (MHC) molecules. This expansion in response to infections is specific to and more efficient in γδ T cells than αβ cells. There is a hypothesis that γδ T cells process these pathogenic antigens, transport them to draining lymph nodes, and then present the antigens to activate αβ T cells and other immune effectors. These Vδ2+ T cells have been reported to connect the innate and adaptive immune systems. Their innate effector functions include cell lysis and secretion of chemokines and cytokines, while their adaptive immunity functions include B cell help, DC maturation, and provision of memory T cells. Once activated these Vδ2+ T cells mimic professional APCs by potentially processing and presenting antigens. Specifically, these cells, only after activation, upregulate several antigen-presentation, adhesion, and co-stimulation molecules that mimic dendritic cells, a particular type of APC. These Vδ2+ T cells are exclusive to higher primates, indicating that they are responsible for protection against species-specific microbes.
Deletions and mutations of the TRG gene have been implicated in a variety of cancers. Specifically, γδ T cells may contribute to the immune response against several tumor types (lymphoma, myeloma, breast, colon, lung, ovary, and others). They act directly through mediation of cytotoxic activity and indirectly through the regulation of other cell types responsible for the anti-tumor response. The presence of γδ T cells in the tumor microenvironment has been associated with poor prognosis in some cancers. This has led to the suggestion that these cells have plasticity and can respond to environmental cues. A potential mechanism is the downregulation of dendritic cell maturation, leading to immunosuppression. While γδ T cells have been implicated in T cell lymphomas, there is also a specific subtype known as γδ T-cell lymphoma, characterized by the proliferation of those cells exclusively. This lymphoma can be quite aggressive with ulcerative plaques and subcutaneous nodules. In adenocarcinoma, polyclonal rearrangement of the TCR γ chain gene was significantly greater in N1 and N2 patients (using the TNM cancer staging system) than in N0 patients. Apart from carcinomas, TRG has also been correlated with heptatis B virus (HBV). Specifically, Vδ2+ T cell levels and TCR γδ T cell cytotoxicity were significantly lower was in patients with chronic HBV infections. These T cells may also play a role in immune cell reconstitution after hematopoietic stem cell transplantation, a procedure often used for cancers of the blood or bone marrow. The probability of infections post-procedure was significantly lower in patients with elevated levels of γδ T cells, as compared to low or normal levels.
- "Human PubMed Reference:".
- Lefranc MP, Chuchana P, Dariavach P, Nguyen C, Huck S, Brockly F, Jordan B, Lefranc G (June 1989). "Molecular mapping of the human T cell receptor gamma (TRG) genes and linkage of the variable and constant regions". European Journal of Immunology. 19 (6): 989–94. doi:10.1002/eji.1830190606. PMID 2526744.
- Littman DR, Newton M, Crommie D, Ang SL, Seidman JG, Gettner SN, Weiss A (Apr 1987). "Characterization of an expressed CD3-associated Ti gamma-chain reveals C gamma domain polymorphism". Nature. 326 (6108): 85–8. doi:10.1038/326085a0. PMID 3102973.
- "Entrez Gene: TRG@ T cell receptor gamma locus".
- Lefranc MP, Rabbitts TH (Aug 1989). "The human T-cell receptor γ (TRG) genes". Trends Biochem. Sci. 14 (6): 214–8. doi:10.1016/0968-0004(89)90029-7. PMID 2527426.
- Okada A, Bank I, Rogozinski L, Takihara Y, Mak TW, Chess L, Alt FW (October 1988). "Structure of the gamma/delta T cell receptor of a human thymocyte clone". The Journal of Experimental Medicine. 168 (4): 1481–6. doi:10.1084/jem.168.4.1481. PMC 2189084. PMID 2844954.
- Massari S, Bellahcene F, Vaccarelli G, Carelli G, Mineccia M, Lefranc MP, Antonacci R, Ciccarese S (Aug 2009). "The deduced structure of the T cell receptor gamma locus in Canis Lupis familiaris". Mol. Immunol. 46 (13): 2728–36. doi:10.1016/j.molimm.2009.05.008.
- Lefranc MP, Rabbitts TH (September 1990). "Genetic organization of the human T-cell receptor gamma and delta loci". Research in Immunology. 141 (7): 565–77. PMID 1965674.
- Brandes M, Willimann K, Moser B (July 2005). "Professional antigen-presentation function by human gammadelta T Cells". Science. 309 (5732): 264–8. doi:10.1126/science.1110267.
- Lafont V, Sanchez F, Laprevotte E, Michaud HA, Gros L, Eliaou JF, Bonnefoy N (2014). "Plasticity of γδ T Cells: Impact on the Anti-Tumor Response". Frontiers in Immunology. 5 (622): 622. doi:10.3389/fimmu.2014.00622. PMC 4259167. PMID 25538706.
- Gammon B, Gammon BR, Kim YH, Kim J (September 2016). "Neurotropic Gamma-Delta T-Cell Lymphoma With CD30-Positive Lymphoid Infiltrates". The American Journal of Dermatopathology. 38 (9): e133–6. doi:10.1097/DAD.0000000000000560. PMID 27391454.
- Castiglione F, Taddei A, Buccoliero AM, Garbini F, Gheri CF, Freschi G, Bechi P, Rossi Degl'Innocenti D, Taddei GL (2008). "TNM staging and T-cell receptor gamma expression in colon adenocarcinoma. Correlation with disease progression?". Tumori. 94 (3): 384–8. PMID 18705407.
- Chen M, Zhang D, Zhen W, Shi Q, Liu Y, Ling N, Peng M, Tang K, Hu P, Hu H, Ren H (December 2008). "Characteristics of circulating T cell receptor gamma-delta T cells from individuals chronically infected with hepatitis B virus (HBV): an association between V(delta)2 subtype and chronic HBV infection". The Journal of Infectious Diseases. 198 (11): 1643–50. doi:10.1086/593065. PMID 18954265.
- Perko R, Kang G, Sunkara A, Leung W, Thomas PG, Dallas MH (January 2015). "Gamma delta T cell reconstitution is associated with fewer infections and improved event-free survival after hematopoietic stem cell transplantation for pediatric leukemia". Biology of Blood and Marrow Transplantation. 21 (1): 130–6. doi:10.1016/j.bbmt.2014.09.027. PMC 4288038.
- Lefranc MP, Rabbitts TH (1991). "Genetic organization of the human T cell receptor gamma locus". Current Topics in Microbiology and Immunology. 173: 3–9. PMID 1655357.
- Lefranc MP, Rabbitts TH (June 1989). "The human T-cell receptor gamma (TRG) genes". Trends in Biochemical Sciences. 14 (6): 214–8. doi:10.1016/0968-0004(89)90029-7. PMID 2527426.
- Lefranc MP, Forster A, Rabbitts TH (December 1986). "Genetic polymorphism and exon changes of the constant regions of the human T-cell rearranging gene gamma". Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America. 83 (24): 9596–600. doi:10.1073/pnas.83.24.9596. PMC 387187. PMID 2879283.
- Yoshikai Y, Toyonaga B, Koga Y, Kimura N, Griesser H, Mak TW (January 1987). "Repertoire of the human T cell gamma genes: high frequency of nonfunctional transcripts in thymus and mature T cells". European Journal of Immunology. 17 (1): 119–26. doi:10.1002/eji.1830170120. PMID 2949984.
- Tighe L, Forster A, Clark DM, Boylston AW, Lavenir I, Rabbitts TH (December 1987). "Unusual forms of T cell gamma mRNA in a human T cell leukemia cell line: implications for gamma gene expression". European Journal of Immunology. 17 (12): 1729–36. doi:10.1002/eji.1830171208. PMID 2961573.
- Huck S, Lefranc MP (November 1987). "Rearrangements to the JP1, JP and JP2 segments in the human T-cell rearranging gamma gene (TRG gamma) locus". FEBS Letters. 224 (2): 291–6. doi:10.1016/0014-5793(87)80472-6. PMID 2961609.
- Huck S, Dariavach P, Lefranc MP (March 1988). "Variable region genes in the human T-cell rearranging gamma (TRG) locus: V-J junction and homology with the mouse genes". The EMBO Journal. 7 (3): 719–26. PMC 454380. PMID 2969332.
- Dialynas DP, Murre C, Quertermous T, Boss JM, Leiden JM, Seidman JG, Strominger JL (April 1986). "Cloning and sequence analysis of complementary DNA encoding an aberrantly rearranged human T-cell gamma chain". Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America. 83 (8): 2619–23. doi:10.1073/pnas.83.8.2619. PMC 323350. PMID 3458221.
- Essand M, Vasmatzis G, Brinkmann U, Duray P, Lee B, Pastan I (August 1999). "High expression of a specific T-cell receptor gamma transcript in epithelial cells of the prostate". Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America. 96 (16): 9287–92. doi:10.1073/pnas.96.16.9287. PMC 17772. PMID 10430935.
- Allison TJ, Winter CC, Fournié JJ, Bonneville M, Garboczi DN (June 2001). "Structure of a human gammadelta T-cell antigen receptor" (PDF). Nature. 411 (6839): 820–4. doi:10.1038/35081115. PMID 11459064.
- Uthoff SM, Hunt LE, Grant BS, Young VV, Eichenberger MR, Cobbs GA, Galandiuk S (2002). "T-cell receptor gamma: a microsatellite marker for colorectal cancer". Annals of Surgical Oncology. 9 (1): 88–93. doi:10.1245/aso.2002.9.1.88. PMID 11833498.
- Bartkowiak J, Kulczyck-Wojdala D, Blonski JZ, Robak T (2002). "Molecular diversity of gammadelta T cells in peripheral blood from patients with B-cell chronic lymphocytic leukaemia". Neoplasma. 49 (2): 86–90. PMID 12088111.
- Oyoshi MK, Nagata H, Kimura N, Zhang Y, Demachi A, Hara T, Kanegane H, Matsuo Y, Yamaguchi T, Morio T, Hirano A, Shimizu N, Yamamoto K (May 2003). "Preferential expansion of Vgamma9-JgammaP/Vdelta2-Jdelta3 gammadelta T cells in nasal T-cell lymphoma and chronic active Epstein-Barr virus infection". The American Journal of Pathology. 162 (5): 1629–38. doi:10.1016/S0002-9440(10)64297-6. PMC 1851204. PMID 12707047.
- Cheng WS, Giandomenico V, Pastan I, Essand M (August 2003). "Characterization of the androgen-regulated prostate-specific T cell receptor gamma-chain alternate reading frame protein (TARP) promoter". Endocrinology. 144 (8): 3433–40. doi:10.1210/en.2003-0121. PMID 12865322.
- van Hagen PM, Hooijkaas H, Vd Beemd MW, Verjans G, Baarsma GS (2003). "T-gammadelta receptor restriction in peripheral lymphocytes of patients with Behçet's disease". Advances in Experimental Medicine and Biology. 528: 267–8. doi:10.1007/0-306-48382-3_53. PMID 12918704.