Tennessee's 3rd congressional district

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Tennessee's 3rd congressional district
Tennessee US Congressional District 3 (since 2013).tif
Tennessee's 3rd congressional district - since January 3, 2013.
Representative
  Chuck Fleischmann
RChattanooga
Distribution
  • 62.76% urban[1]
  • 37.24% rural
Population (2019)743,225[2]
Median household
income
$52,491[3]
Ethnicity
Cook PVIR+19[4]

The 3rd congressional district of Tennessee is a congressional district in East Tennessee. It has been represented by Republican Chuck Fleischmann since January 2011.

Current boundaries[edit]

The district comprises two halves, joined together through a narrow tendril in Roane County near Ten Mile.

The upper half borders Kentucky to the north and is composed of Scott, Morgan, Roane, Anderson, and Union counties, as well as most of Campbell County.

The lower half borders North Carolina to the east and Georgia to the south. It is composed of Hamilton, Polk, McMinn, and Monroe, and the southern half of Bradley County.

Characteristics[edit]

The third district has been centered on Chattanooga since before the Civil War.[5]

In area, the district is sparsely populated. Almost half of the district's population lives in Hamilton County, home to Chattanooga.

The region is very mountainous, due to its location in the Appalachian Mountains. It contains many "natural wonders" such as: The Lost Sea, Frozen Head, Ocoee Whitewater Center, and perhaps most famously, Lookout Mountain, which contains both Ruby Falls and Rock City from the "See Rock City" signs dotted across the South.

Election results from presidential races[edit]

Year Office Result
2000 President George W. Bush 57% - Al Gore 31%
2004 President George W. Bush 61% - John Kerry 38%
2008 President John McCain 61.3% - Barack Obama 37.3%
2012 President Mitt Romney 63.3% - Barack Obama 35%
2016 President Donald Trump 65.4% - Hillary Clinton 30.2%
2020 President Donald Trump 65.3% - Joe Biden 32.9%

History[edit]

The 3rd district is on the dividing line between counties and towns that favored or opposed Southern secession in the Civil War. George Washington Bridges was elected as a Unionist (the name used by a coalition of Republicans, northern Democrats and anti-Confederate Southern Democrats) to the Thirty-seventh Congress, but he was arrested by Confederate troops while en route to Washington, D.C. and taken back to Tennessee. Bridges was held prisoner for more than a year before he escaped and went to Washington, D.C., and assumed his duties on February 23, 1863; serving until March 3, 1863.

During much of the 20th century, southeastern Tennessee was the only portion of traditionally heavily Republican East Tennessee where Democrats were able to compete on a more-or-less even basis. The Chattanooga papers—the moderate-to-progressive Times and the archconservative Free Press (now consolidated into the Chattanooga Times Free Press)--printed diametrically-opposed political editorials. The northern counties have predominantly voted Republican since the 1860s, in a manner similar to their neighbors in the present 1st and 2nd districts. However, Democrats have received some support in coal mining areas (dating from the Great Depression). Also, in the years since World War II, the government-founded city of Oak Ridge, with its active labor unions and a population largely derived from outside the region, has been a source of potential Democratic votes.

This balance showed signs of changing beginning in the late 1950s, when rural and working-class whites began splitting their tickets in national elections to support Dwight Eisenhower and Barry Goldwater. In later years, the district warmly supported George Wallace in his third-party run for president in 1968, and gave equally strong support to Richard Nixon and Ronald Reagan, as well as Governors Winfield Dunn and Lamar Alexander. The district has only supported a Democrat for president twice in the last half century, in 1956 and 1992. Even in those cases, that support was almost entirely attributable to the presence of native sons as vice presidential candidates. In 1956, Senator Estes Kefauver, who had represented the 3rd from 1939 to 1949, was the Democratic vice presidential candidate. In 1992, Senator Al Gore was Bill Clinton's running mate, but even with Gore's presence, the Democrats only carried the 3rd by 39 votes out of 225,000 cast.

Even as the district became friendlier to Republicans at the national level, Democrats still held their own at the local level. This trend was broken when Republican Bill Brock won the congressional seat in 1962, ending a 40-year run by Democrats. He handed the seat to fellow Republican LaMar Baker in 1971. However, conservative Democrat Marilyn Lloyd (the widow of a popular television news anchorman in Chattanooga) regained it in 1974 and held it for 20 years. As late as the early 1990s, area Democrats held at least half the local offices in the region, particularly in the southern portion.

As the 1990s wore on, Democrats slowly began losing even county and local offices that they had held for generations. This trend actually began as early as 1992, when Lloyd barely held onto her seat against Republican Zach Wamp. Lloyd retired in 1994, and Wamp narrowly won the race to succeed her as part of that year's massive GOP wave. Wamp was handily reelected in 1996, and the Republicans have held it without serious difficulty since then. Indeed, the Democrats have only cleared 40 percent of the vote twice since Lloyd retired. Redistricting after the 2010 census consolidated the Republican hold on the seat, and it is now one of the most Republican districts in the nation.

Democrats still remain competitive in some local- and state-level races, particularly in Chattanooga and Oak Ridge. Chattanooga also sends some Democrats to the state legislature. However, even moderately liberal politics are a very hard sell, and most of the area's Democrats—particularly outside Chattanooga—are quite conservative on social issues. The 3rd district is home to several Evangelical Protestant denominations and colleges, contributing to the area's social conservatism.

After Wamp's January 2009 announcement that he would run for governor in 2010 instead of seeking re-election, several candidates announced campaigns for the seat. As of March 2010, the Republican field included former state party chairwoman Robin Smith, Air Force Captain Rick Kernea, Tommy Crangle, Chattanooga attorney Chuck Fleischmann, Bradley County sheriff Tim Gobble, Art Rhodes, Van Irion, and Basil Marceaux. Fleischmann won the August 5, 2010 primary with about 28% of the total vote.[6][7] Democratic candidates as of October 2009 were Paula Flowers of Oak Ridge, a former member of Governor Phil Bredesen's cabinet, and former Libertarian Party member Brent Benedict, who won the 2006 Democratic primary for the seat but lost the general election to Wamp.[8][9][10] Both of those Democrats later abandoned their campaigns, but four other candidates placed their names on the ballot for the August 2010 Democratic primary: Alicia Mitchell of Oak Ridge, Brenda Freeman Short of East Ridge, and Brent Staton and John Wolfe of Chattanooga. Wolfe was the winner in the August 5, 2010 primary.[11] Six independents also filed petitions to appear on the November 2010 ballot: Don Barkman, Mark DeVol, Gregory C. Goodwin, Robert Humphries, Mo Kiah and Savas T. Kyriakidis.[12] Republican nominee Chuck Fleischmann won the general election in November 2010 with 57% of the vote, trailed by Democrat John Wolfe with 28%, and independent Savas Kyriakidis with 10%.[13]

List of members representing the district[edit]

Name Years Cong
ress
Party Electoral history District location
District created March 4, 1805
William Dickson March 4, 1805 –
March 3, 1807
9th Democratic-Republican Redistricted from the at-large district and re-elected in 1805.
Retired.
1805–1813
"Mero district"
Jesse Wharton March 4, 1807 –
March 3, 1809
10th Democratic-Republican Elected in 1807.
Retired.
Pleasant Moorman Miller March 4, 1809 –
March 3, 1811
11th Democratic-Republican Elected in 1809.
Retired.
Grundy-felix-by-wb-cooper.jpg
Felix Grundy
March 4, 1811 –
March 3, 1813
12th Democratic-Republican Elected in 1811.
Redistricted to the 5th district.
Thomas K. Harris March 4, 1813 –
March 3, 1815
13th Democratic-Republican Elected in 1813.
Lost re-election.
1813–1823
[data unknown/missing]
Isaac Thomas March 4, 1815 –
March 3, 1817
14th Democratic-Republican Elected in 1815.
Retired.
Francis Jones March 4, 1817 –
March 3, 1823
15th
16th
17th
Democratic-Republican Elected in 1817.
Re-elected in 1819.
Re-elected in 1821.
Retired.
James I. Standifer March 4, 1823 –
March 3, 1825
18th Democratic-Republican Elected in 1823.
Lost re-election.
1823–1833
[data unknown/missing]
James C. Mitchell March 4, 1825 –
March 3, 1829
19th
20th
Jacksonian Elected in 1825.
Re-elected in 1827.
Lost re-election.
James I. Standifer March 4, 1829 –
March 3, 1833
21st
22nd
Jacksonian Elected in 1829.
Re-elected in 1831.
Redistricted to the 4th district.
Luke Lea March 4, 1833 –
March 3, 1835
23rd
24th
Jacksonian Elected in 1833.
Re-elected in 1835.
Retired.
1833–1843
[data unknown/missing]
March 4, 1835 –
March 3, 1837
Anti-Jacksonian
Joseph L. Williams March 4, 1837 –
March 3, 1843
25th
26th
27th
Whig Elected in 1837.
Re-elected in 1839.
Re-elected in 1841.
Lost renomination.
Julius W. Blackwell March 4, 1843 –
March 3, 1845
28th Democratic Elected in 1842.
Lost re-election.
1843–1853
[data unknown/missing]
John H. Crozier March 4, 1845 –
March 3, 1849
29th
30th
Whig Elected in 1845.
Re-elected in 1847.
Retired.
Josiah M. Anderson March 4, 1849 –
March 3, 1851
31st Whig Elected in 1849.
Lost re-election.
William M. Churchwell March 4, 1851 –
March 3, 1853
32nd Democratic Elected in 1851.
Redistricted to the 2nd district.
SamuelASmith.jpg
Samuel A. Smith
March 4, 1853 –
March 3, 1859
33rd
34th
35th
Democratic Elected in 1853.
Re-elected in 1855.
Re-elected in 1857.
Lost re-election.
1853–1863
[data unknown/missing]
Reese B. Brabson March 4, 1859 –
March 3, 1861
36th Opposition Elected in 1859.
Retired.
George W. Bridges March 4, 1861 –
March 3, 1863
37th Unionist Elected in 1861 but initially unable to take seat when taken prisoner by the Confederate Army.
Seated February 25, 1863 after escaping a Confederate prison.
Unable to seek re-election, as state was under Confederate occupation.
Vacant March 4, 1863 –
July 24, 1866
38th
39th
American Civil War 1863–1873
[data unknown/missing]
William Brickly Stokes - Brady-Handy.jpg
William B. Stokes
July 24, 1866 –
March 3, 1867
39th
40th
41st
Unconditional Unionist Elected in 1865.
Re-elected in 1867.
Re-elected in 1868.
Lost re-election.
March 4, 1867 –
March 3, 1871
Republican
Abraham E. Garrett March 4, 1871 –
March 3, 1873
42nd Democratic Elected in 1870.
Redistricted to the 2nd district and lost re-election.
William Crutchfield - Brady-Handy.jpg
William Crutchfield
March 4, 1873 –
March 3, 1875
43rd Republican Elected in 1872.
Retired.
1873–1883
[data unknown/missing]
George Gibbs Dibrell - Brady-Handy.jpg
George G. Dibrell
March 4, 1875 –
March 3, 1885
44th
45th
46th
47th
48th
Democratic Elected in 1874.
Re-elected in 1876.
Re-elected in 1878.
Re-elected in 1880.
Re-elected in 1882.
Retired.
1883–1893
[data unknown/missing]
John R. Neal (Tennessee Congressman).jpg
John R. Neal
March 4, 1885 –
March 3, 1889
49th
50th
Democratic Elected in 1884.
Re-elected in 1886.
Retired.
Portrait of Henry Clay Evans.jpg
Henry Clay Evans
March 4, 1889 –
March 3, 1891
51st Republican Elected in 1888.
Lost re-election.
HenryCSnodgrass.jpg
Henry C. Snodgrass
March 4, 1891 –
March 3, 1895
52nd
53rd
Democratic Elected in 1890.
Re-elected in 1892.
Lost re-election.
1893–1903
[data unknown/missing]
Foster V. Brown.jpg
Foster V. Brown
March 4, 1895 –
March 3, 1897
54th Republican Elected in 1894.
Retired.
John A Moon.jpg
John A. Moon
March 4, 1897 –
March 3, 1921
55th
56th
57th
58th
59th
60th
61st
62nd
63rd
64th
65th
66th
Democratic Elected in 1896.
Re-elected in 1898.
Re-elected in 1900.
Re-elected in 1902.
Re-elected in 1904.
Re-elected in 1906.
Re-elected in 1908.
Re-elected in 1910.
Re-elected in 1912.
Re-elected in 1914.
Re-elected in 1916.
Re-elected in 1918.
Lost re-election.
1903–1913
[data unknown/missing]
1913–1923
[data unknown/missing]
JosephEdgarBrown.jpg
Joseph E. Brown
March 4, 1921 –
March 3, 1923
67th Republican Elected in 1920.
Retired.
Samuel D. McReynolds (Tennessee Congressman).jpg
Sam D. McReynolds
March 4, 1923 –
July 11, 1939
68th
69th
70th
71st
72nd
73rd
74th
75th
76th
Democratic Elected in 1922.
Re-elected in 1924.
Re-elected in 1926.
Re-elected in 1928.
Re-elected in 1930.
Re-elected in 1932.
Re-elected in 1934.
Re-elected in 1936.
Re-elected in 1938.
Died.
1923–1933
[data unknown/missing]
1933–1943
[data unknown/missing]
Vacant July 11, 1939 –
September 13, 1939
76th
SenatorKefauver(D-TN).jpg
Estes Kefauver
September 13, 1939 –
January 3, 1949
76th
77th
78th
79th
80th
Democratic Elected to finish McReynolds's term.
Re-elected in 1940.
Re-elected in 1942.
Re-elected in 1944.
Re-elected in 1946.
Retired to run for U.S. senator.
1943–1953
[data unknown/missing]
James B. Frazier Jr. (Tennessee Congressman).jpg
James B. Frazier Jr.
January 3, 1949 –
January 3, 1963
81st
82nd
83rd
84th
85th
86th
87th
Democratic Elected in 1948.
Re-elected in 1950.
Re-elected in 1952.
Re-elected in 1954.
Re-elected in 1956.
Re-elected in 1958.
Re-elected in 1960.
Lost renomination.
1953–1963
[data unknown/missing]
Bill brock.jpg
Bill Brock
January 3, 1963 –
January 3, 1971
88th
89th
90th
91st
Republican Elected in 1962.
Re-elected in 1964.
Re-elected in 1966.
Re-elected in 1968.
Retired to run for U.S. senator.
1963–1973
[data unknown/missing]
LaMar Baker updated.jpg
LaMar Baker
January 3, 1971 –
January 3, 1975
92nd
93rd
Republican Elected in 1970.
Re-elected in 1972.
Lost re-election.
1973–1983
[data unknown/missing]
Marilyn Lloyd.jpg
Marilyn Lloyd
January 3, 1975 –
January 3, 1995
94th
95th
96th
97th
98th
99th
100th
101st
102nd
103rd
Democratic Elected in 1974.
Re-elected in 1976.
Re-elected in 1978.
Re-elected in 1980.
Re-elected in 1982.
Re-elected in 1984.
Re-elected in 1986.
Re-elected in 1988.
Re-elected in 1990.
Re-elected in 1992.
Retired.
1983–1993
[data unknown/missing]
1993–2003
[data unknown/missing]
Zach Wamp.jpg
Zach Wamp
January 3, 1995 –
January 3, 2011
104th
105th
106th
107th
108th
109th
110th
111th
Republican Elected in 1994.
Re-elected in 1996.
Re-elected in 1998.
Re-elected in 2000.
Re-elected in 2002.
Re-elected in 2004.
Re-elected in 2006.
Re-elected in 2008.
Retired to run for Governor of Tennessee.
2003–2013
[data unknown/missing]
Charles J. Fleischmann 113th Congress.jpg
Chuck Fleischmann
January 3, 2011 –
Present
112th
113th
114th
115th
116th
117th
Republican Elected in 2010.
Re-elected in 2012.
Re-elected in 2014.
Re-elected in 2016.
Re-elected in 2018.
Re-elected in 2020
2013–Present
Tennessee US Congressional District 3 (since 2013).tif

Recent election results[edit]

2012[edit]

Tennessee's 3rd congressional district, 2012
Party Candidate Votes %
Republican Chuck Fleischmann (incumbent) 157,830 61.5
Democratic Mary Headrick 91,094 35.4
Independent Matthew Deniston 7,905 3.1
Total votes 256,829 100
Republican hold

2014[edit]

Tennessee's 3rd congressional district, 2014
Party Candidate Votes %
Republican Chuck Fleischmann (incumbent) 97,344 62.3
Democratic Mary M. Headrick 53,983 34.6
Independent Cassandra J. Mitchell 4,770 3.1
Total votes 156,097 100.0
Republican hold

2016[edit]

Tennessee's 3rd congressional district, 2016
Party Candidate Votes %
Republican Chuck Fleischmann (incumbent) 176,613 66.4
Democratic Melody Shekari 76,727 28.9
Independent Rick Tyler 5,098 1.9
Independent Cassandra Mitchell 5,075 1.9
Independent Topher Kersting 2,493 0.9
Total votes 266,006 100.0
Republican hold

2018[edit]

Tennessee's 3rd congressional district, 2018[14]
Party Candidate Votes %
Republican Chuck Fleischmann (incumbent) 156,512 63.7
Democratic Danielle Mitchell 84,731 34.5
Independent Rick Tyler 4,522 1.8
Total votes 245,765 100.0
Republican hold

2020[edit]

Tennessee's 3rd congressional district, 2020[15]
Party Candidate Votes %
Republican Chuck Fleischmann (incumbent) 215,571 67.3
Democratic Meg Gorman 97,687 30.5
Independent Amber Hysell 5,043 1.6
Independent Nancy Baxley 1,990 0.6
Write-in 8 0.0
Total votes 320,299 100.0
Republican hold

Historical district boundaries[edit]

2003 - 2013

See also[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ https://www.census.gov/geo/maps-data/data/cd_state.html
  2. ^ https://www.census.gov/mycd/?st=47&cd=03
  3. ^ https://www.census.gov/mycd/?st=47&cd=03
  4. ^ "Introducing the 2021 Cook Political Report Partisan Voter Index". The Cook Political Report. April 15, 2021. Retrieved April 15, 2021.
  5. ^ https://github.com/JeffreyBLewis/congressional-district-boundaries
  6. ^ Republican Primary Unofficial Results, Tennessee Election Commission website, accessed August 6, 2010
  7. ^ Larry Henry, Fleischmann beats Smith in 3rd District, Chattanooga Times Free Press, August 6, 2010
  8. ^ 3rd District hopefuls tout finances, AllBusiness.com website, attributed to Chattanooga Times Free Press, October 17, 2009
  9. ^ Tom Humphrey, Congressional candidate money notes, Humphrey on the Hill, Knoxville News Sentinel website, October 15, 2009
  10. ^ Joe Lance, What Kind of Democrat Will Win the Third District Primary?, September 28, 2009
  11. ^ Democratic Primary Unofficial Results, Tennessee Election Commission website, accessed August 6, 2010
  12. ^ Official List of 2010 Candidates, Tennessee Department of State - Division of Elections, May 7, 2010
  13. ^ 2010 Congressional Election Results: Tennessee District 3, Washington Post, accessed December 9, 2010
  14. ^ Johnson, Cheryl L. (February 28, 2019). "Statistics of the Congressional Election of November 6, 2018". Clerk of the U.S. House of Representatives. Retrieved April 27, 2019.
  15. ^ State of Tennessee General Election Results, November 3, 2020, Results By Office (PDF) (Report). Secretary of State of Tennessee. December 2, 2020. Retrieved December 2, 2020.

Coordinates: 35°45′42″N 84°30′34″W / 35.76167°N 84.50944°W / 35.76167; -84.50944