Texas's 1st congressional district
|Texas's 1st congressional district|
Texas's 1st congressional district - since January 3, 2013.
|Current Representative||Louie Gohmert (R–Tyler)|
Texas's 1st congressional district in the United States House of Representatives is a Congressional district that serves the northeastern portion of the state of Texas. As of the 2000 Census, the First District contained 651,619 people. It consists largely of three small East Texas metropolitan areas—Lufkin-Nacogdoches, Longview-Marshall, and Tyler.
The First District once encompassed large parts of North Texas and Central Texas, but as the population of Texas grew, the district got smaller until it only encompassed about half of Northeast Texas.
For most of its history, the district was based in Texarkana, but in a controversial 2003 redistricting orchestrated by then-House Majority Leader Tom DeLay, Texarkana was drawn out of the district and moved to the neighboring Fourth congressional district. Lufkin, Tyler and Longview were added in its place.
The district was predominantly rural for much of its history, and thus was far friendlier to electing Democrats to Congress even as most of Texas swung toward the Republicans. The district's four-term Democratic incumbent, Max Sandlin, was a particularly severe critic of the DeLay-led redistricting effort, claiming that lumping rural areas with urban ones stifled the voice of rural voters. Indeed, the 2003 redistricting made the district more urban and Republican, especially with the addition of the Republican strongholds of Tyler and Longview. Sandlin was heavily defeated in November 2004 by Republican Louie Gohmert, a longtime judge in the Tyler area. Gohmert is the first Republican to represent the district since Reconstruction. Proving just how Republican the reconfigured 1st is, Gohmert has been reelected five times with no less than 68 percent of the vote (and faced only token opposition in 2010 and 2012).
The district's best-known congressman, Wright Patman, represented the district for 47 years — the second-longest tenure of any Texan in Congress. He was an early supporter of the New Deal, and later chaired the House Banking Committee for 12 years.
The 2012 redistricting process changed the district's northern section. All of Marion County, Cass County, and most of Upshur County were removed from the district. To compensate, the eastern half of Wood County was added.
Recent election results
Election results from recent races:
|Republican gain from Democratic||Swing|
|Democratic||Roger L. Owen||46,303||30.2||7.5|
|Independent||Roger L. Owen||26,814||12.4|
|Libertarian||Charles F. Parkes, III||14,811||10.3|
|Democratic||Shirley J. McKellar||67,222||26.9||26.9|
|2000||George W. Bush||68||32|
|2004||George W. Bush||69||30|
- Population: 651,619 (2000 Census)
- Under 18: 26.2%
- Over 65: 14.1%
- Married 58.7%
- Non-Hispanic White: 71%
- Black: 18%
- Hispanic: 9%
- Asian: 1%
- Foreign born: 5.3%
- Language other than English: 9.8%
- Median household income: $33,461
- Owner occupied housing: 71.9%
- Income above $200K: 1.4%
List of representatives
- "Partisan Voting Index – Districts of the 115th Congress" (PDF). The Cook Political Report. April 7, 2017. Retrieved April 7, 2017.
- Until 1872, Texas (like some other states) held its congressional elections after the March 4 beginning of the term but before the December date on which Congress began its formal business. Such elections are denoted here as "late."
- "Historical Maps (1846–2012)". Texas Redistricting. Texas Legislative Council.
- Acts 1846, 1st Leg., R.S., eff. Feb. 28, 1846.
- Acts 1850, 3rd Leg., R.S., Ch. 134, app. Feb. 11, 1850.
- Acts 1861, 8th Leg., 1st C.S., Ch. 46, eff. Apr. 6, 1861; Acts 1861, 8th Leg., 1st C.S., Ch. 53, eff. Apr. 8, 1861; Acts 1866, 11th Leg., R.S., Ch. 10, eff. Sep. 8, 1866; Acts 1866, 11th Leg., R.S., Ch. 31, eff. Oct. 8, 1866.
- Constitution of the State of Texas (1869)
- Acts 1874, 14th Leg., R.S., Ch. 161, eff. May 2, 1874.
- Acts 1879, 16th Leg., R.S., Ch. 102, eff. Apr. 18, 1879.
- Acts 1882, 17th Leg., 1st C.S., Ch. 30, eff. Aug. 3, 1882.
- Acts 1892, 22nd Leg., 1st C.S., Ch. 19, eff. Jul. 11, 1892.
- United States v. Texas, 162 U.S. 1 (1896)
- Acts 1901, 27th Leg., 1st C.S., Ch. 5, eff. Dec. 3, 1901
- Acts 1909, 31st Leg., R.S., Ch. 86, eff. Jun. 11, 1909.
- Acts 1917, 35th Leg., R.S., Ch. 119, eff. Jun. 19, 1917.
- Acts 1933, 43rd Leg., R.S., Ch. 135, eff. Aug. 30, 1933.
- Acts 1957, 55th Leg., R.S., Ch. 286, eff. Aug. 21, 1957; Bush v. Martin, 224 F. Supp. 499 (S.D. Tex. 1963); aff'd per curiam, Martin v. Bush, 376 U.S. 222 (1964); Acts 1965, 59th Leg., R.S., Ch. 349, eff. Aug. 30, 1965.
- Acts 1967, 60th Leg., R.S., Ch. 342, eff. Aug. 28, 1967; Bush v. Martin, 251 F. Supp. 484 (S.D. Tex. 1966).
- Acts 1971, 62nd Leg. 1st C.S., Ch. 12, eff. Sep. 3, 1971.
- White v. Weiser, --- F. Supp. --- (N.D. Tex. 1973); PLAN B
- Acts 1975, 64th Leg., R.S., Ch. 538, eff. Sep. 1, 1975.
- Acts 1981, 67th Leg., 1st C.S., Ch. 2, eff. Nov. 10, 1981; Seamon v. Upham, 536 F. Supp. 931, 958 (E.D. Tex. 1982); Acts 1983, 68th Leg., R.S., Ch. 531, eff. Jun. 19, 1983.
- Acts 1991, 72nd Leg., 2nd C.S., Ch. 7, eff. Nov. 24, 1991; Vera v. Richards, 861 F. Supp. 1304 (S.D. Tex. 1994); Bush v. Vera, 517 U.S. 952 (1996); Vera v. Bush, 933 F. Supp. 1341 (S.D. Tex. 1996); PLANC657
- Vera v. Bush, 933 F. Supp. 1341 (S.D. Tex. 1996); Vera v. Bush, 980 F. Supp. 254 (S.D. Tex. 1997); PLANC746
- Balderas v. State of Texas, --- F. Supp. --- (E.D. Tex. 2001); PLAN01151C
- Acts 2003, 78th Leg., 3rd C.S., Ch. 2, eff. Jan. 11, 2004; PLAN01374C; Lulac v. Perry, 457 F. Supp. 2d 716 (E.D. Tex. 2006); PLAN01440C.
- Martis, Kenneth C. (1989). The Historical Atlas of Political Parties in the United States Congress. New York: Macmillan Publishing Company.
- Martis, Kenneth C. (1982). The Historical Atlas of United States Congressional Districts. New York: Macmillan Publishing Company.
- Congressional Biographical Directory of the United States 1774–present