Verse of Ikmal al-Din

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The Āyat Ikmāl ad-Dīn (Arabic: آیَة إِکْمَال الدِّيْن‎, Verse of the Perfection of the Religion) is the third verse of Surah Al-Ma'idah in the Quran (Q5:3). In this verse God (Allah) says that he had perfected the religion and completed the blessing. According to Sunni Muslims, the verse was revealed on the day of Arafah during the Farewell Pilgrimage.[1] Shia Muslims meanwhile believe that it was revealed during the Event of Ghadir Khumm.[2]

Context[edit]

حُرِّ‌مَتْ عَلَيْكُمُ الْمَيْتَةُ وَالدَّمُ وَلَحْمُ الْخِنزِيرِ‌ وَمَا أُهِلَّ لِغَيْرِ‌ اللهِ بِهِ وَالْمُنْخَنِقَةُ وَالْمَوْقُوذَةُ وَالْمُتَرَ‌دِّيَةُ وَالنَّطِيحَةُ وَمَا أَكَلَ السَّبُعُ إِلَّا مَا ذَكَّيْتُمْ وَمَا ذُبِحَ عَلَى النُّصُبِ وَأَن تَسْتَقْسِمُوا بِالْأَزْلَامِ ۚ ذَٰلِكُمْ فِسْقٌ ۗ الْيَوْمَ يَئِسَ الَّذِينَ كَفَرُ‌وا مِن دِينِكُمْ فَلَا تَخْشَوْهُمْ وَاخْشَوْنِ ۚ الْيَوْمَ أَكْمَلْتُ لَكُمْ دِينَكُمْ وَأَتْمَمْتُ عَلَيْكُمْ نِعْمَتِي وَرَ‌ضِيتُ لَكُمُ الْإِسْلَامَ دِينًا ۚ فَمَنِ اضْطُرَّ‌ فِي مَخْمَصَةٍ غَيْرَ‌ مُتَجَانِفٍ لِّإِثْمٍ ۙ فَإِنَّ اللهَ غَفُورٌ‌ رَّ‌حِيمٌ

...

Forbidden to you (for food) are: dead meat, blood, the flesh of swine, and that on which hath been invoked the name of other than Allah; that which hath been killed by strangling, or by a violent blow, or by a headlong fall, or by being gored to death; that which hath been (partly) eaten by a wild animal; unless ye are able to slaughter it (in the due form); that which is sacrificed on stone (altars); (forbidden) also is the division (of meat) by raffling with arrows: that is impiety. This day have those who reject faith given up all hope of your religion: yet fear them not but fear Me. This day have I perfected your religion for you, completed My favour upon you, and have chosen for you Islam as your religion. But if any is forced by hunger, with no inclination to transgression, Allah is indeed Oft-forgiving, Most Merciful.

— Quran, 5:3[3]

Tafsir[edit]

According to some sources this verse is the final verse that was revealed to Muhammad.[4] Sa ibn 'Abdullah on the authority of his father on the authority of his grandfather narrated that Ali said: "Quranic texts used to be repealed by the newer ones; consequently, the Holy Prophet used to take up the latest. Sura al-Ma'ida repealed the other surah because it was the final."[5] Also in Dur al-Manthur, Al-Muhalla, Majma al-Zawa'id, Al-Tibbyan Fi Tafsir al-Quran, and al-Ghadir, are mentioned that this verse is the final verse of Quran.[6][7][8][9][10]

Place and day of revelation[edit]

All Shi'ite and Sunni scholars believe this verse is revealed in farewell pilgrimage but there is no consensus that which day of farewell pilgrimage is the day of its revelation. There are three opinions:

Pond of Khumm[edit]

Some scholars such as Muhammad ibn Jarir al-Tabari, Al-Khatib al-Baghdadi, Hakim Haskani and Abu'l-Faraj ibn al-Jawzi hold the opinion that this verse was revealed at the pond of Khumm.[11] Moreover, in Sahih hadiths that Shia sources have narrated this verse was revealed at Khumm or after soon.[12][13][14] According to some Sunni sources this verse was revealed on that day but scholars hold the opinion that such narrations are weak and unreliable.[15][16]

Day of Arafah[edit]

According to some Narration this verse was revealed on the day of 'Arafah: Narrated 'Umar ibn Al-Khattab:

Once a Jew said to me, "O the chief of believers! There is a verse in your Holy Book Which is read by all of you (Muslims), and had it been revealed to us, we would have taken that day on which it was revealed as a day of celebration." 'Umar bin Al-Khattab asked, "Which is that verse?" The Jew replied, "This day I have perfected your religion For you, completed My favour upon you, And have chosen for you Islam as your religion." (5:3) 'Umar replied, "No doubt, we know when and where this verse was revealed to the Prophet. It was Friday and the Prophet was standing at 'Arafa."

— Umar ibn Al-Khattab[1][17]

There are a few narrations in Shi'ite sources that are said this verse is revealed in day of Arafah but the cause of revelation is the Wilayah of Ali.[18]

Both days[edit]

Some scholars hold the view that this verse was revealed twice, once on the day of Arafah and once on the day of pond of Khumm.[19][20]

Cause of the Revelation[edit]

Shia Scholars say that the cause of revelation of this verse was announcing of Wilayah of Ali.[21][22] For example, Muhammad Husayn Tabataba'i in Tafsir al-Mizan has said that the cause of the revelation of this verse was the pond of Khumm event and Ali's Wilayah.[2]

See also[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ a b al-Bukhari, Muhammad. Sahih al-Bukhari. 5. p. 89.
  2. ^ a b Tabataba'i, Muhammad Husayn. Tafsir al-Mizan. 5.
  3. ^ "Al-Ma'ida (5:3)".
  4. ^ Ya'qubi. Tarikh al-Yaqubi. 2. p. 35.
  5. ^ Al-Mustafa center for Islamic Researchers. Verses of Ghadir. Ansarian Paplications-Qom.
  6. ^ al-Suyuti, Jalal al-Din. Dur al-Manthur. 2. p. 252.
  7. ^ Ibn Hazm. Al-Muhalla. 9. p. 407.
  8. ^ al-Haythami, Ali ibn Abu Bakr. Majma al-Zawa'id. 1. p. 256.
  9. ^ Shaykh Tusi. Al-Tibbyan Fi Tafsir al-Quran. 3. p. 413.
  10. ^ Amini, Abd Al Husayn. al-Ghadir. 1. p. 228.
  11. ^ Answering to religious questions, Nasir Makarem Shirazi, Ja'far Sobhani, publication: the school of al-Imam al-Ali ibn abi Talib, p.187
  12. ^ al-Bahrani, Seyyed Hashim. Al-Burhan Fi Tafsir al-Quran. 1. pp. 434–437.
  13. ^ Makarem Shirazi, Naser. Tafsir Nemooneh. 4. pp. 263–271.
  14. ^ Sobhani, Ja'far. Al-Iman va al-Kofr fi al-Ketab va al-Sunnah. 1. p. 244.
  15. ^ Ibn Kathir. Tafsir al-Quran al-Azim. 2. p. 14.
  16. ^ Suyuti, Jalaluddin. Dur al-Manthur. 3. p. 19.
  17. ^ Ibn Kathir. "Tafsir al-Quran al-Azim".
  18. ^ al-Kulayni, Muhammad ibn Ya'qub. Kitab al-Kafi. 1. p. 291.
  19. ^ Suyuti, Jalaluddin. Al-Itqan fi Ulum al-Qur'an. 1. p. 75.
  20. ^ al-Bukhari, Muhammad. Sahih al-Bukhari. 31. p. 311.
  21. ^ al-Bahrani, Syyed Hashim. Al-Burhan Fi Tafsir al-Quran. 1. p. 421.
  22. ^ Howayzi, Abdul Ali Aroussi. Tafsir Noor al-Thaqalayn. 1. p. 590.