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Scientific classification
Clostridia Rainey 2010
Thermoanaerobacterales Wiegel 2010
Families and genera

The Thermoanaerobacterales is a polyphyletic order of bacteria placed within the polyphyletic class Clostridia, and encompassing four families: the Thermoanaerobacteraceae, the Thermodesulfobiaceae, the Thermoanaerobacterales Family III. Incertae Sedis, and the Thermoanaerobacterales Family IV. Incertae Sedis, and various unplaced genera.[1]

This order is noted for the species' abilities to survive in extreme environments without oxygen and of relatively elevated temperatures for a living being (up to 80-90 °C). An example organism in this order is Thermoanaerobacter ethanolicus.[2]


The currently accepted taxonomy is based on the List of Prokaryotic names with Standing in Nomenclature (LPSN)[3] and National Center for Biotechnology Information (NCBI)[1] and the phylogeny is based on 16S rRNA-based LTP release 111 by The All-Species Living Tree Project.[4]

The Thermoanaerobacterales, as previously mentioned, is polyphyletic, and consists of over six morphologically and physiologically similar clades:


?T. acetatoxydansWesterholm et al. 2011

T. syntrophicus Sekiguchi et al. 2006 (type sp.)


T. gondwanense Ogg et al. 2010

T. ferriorganovorum Zavarzina et al. 2002 (type sp.)


T. litoriperuensis Lee et al. 2006

T. oceani Lee et al. 2006 (type sp.)

Fervidicola ferrireducens Ogg and Patel 2009

Caldanaerovirga acetigignens Wagner et al. 2009

Thermovorax subterraneus Mäkinen et al. 2012

  • Thermoanaerobacterales Unnamed clade II

?M. perchloratireducensBalk et al. 2008

M. thermoacetica (Fontaine et al. 1942) Collins et al. 1994 (type sp.)

M. thermoautotrophica (Wiegel et al. 1982) Collins et al. 1994

M. humiferrea Nepomnyashchaya et al. 2012

M. glycerini Slobodkin et al. 1997

M. mulderi Balk et al. 2005

Syntrophaceticus schinkii Westerholm et al. 2011

Thermacetogenium phaeum Hattori et al. 2000


C. pertinax Yoneda et al. 2012

C. islandicus Novikov et al. 2011

C. siderophilus Slepova et al. 2009

C. ferrireducens (Slobodkin et al. 1997) Slobodkin et al. 2006

C. hydrogenoformans Svetlichny et al. 1991 (type sp.)

Mahella australiensis Bonilla Salinas et al. 2004


C. fijiensis Lee et al. 2008 (type sp.)

C. polysaccharolyticus (Cann et al. 2001) Lee et al. 2008

C. zeae (Cann et al. 2001) Lee et al. 2008

Caloribacterium cisternae Slobodkina et al. 2012


?T. bryantiiStroot et al. 2002

?T. islandicumOrlygsson & Baldursson 2006

T. aotearoense Liu et al. 1996

T. thermostercoris Romano et al. 2011

T. thermosaccharolyticum (McClung 1935) Collins et al. 1994

Thermohydrogenium kirishiense Zacharova et al. 1996

T. aciditolerans Kublanov et al. 2007

T. saccharolyticum Lee et al. 1993

T. thermosulfurigenes (Schink and Zeikus 1983) Lee et al. 1993 (type sp.)

T. xylanolyticum Lee et al. 1993

International Journal of Systematic Bacteriology or International Journal of Systematic and Evolutionary Microbiology (IJSB/IJSEM) published species that are in press.
♠ Strains found at the National Center for Biotechnology Information (NCBI) but not listed in the List of Prokaryotic names with Standing in Nomenclature (LPSN).


  1. ^ a b Sayers; et al. "Thermoanaerobacterales". National Center for Biotechnology Information (NCBI) taxonomy database. Retrieved 2 March 2019.
  2. ^ C.Michael Hogan. 2010. Extremophile. eds. E.Monosson & C.Cleveland, Encyclopedia of Earth. National Council for Science and the Environment, Washington DC.
  3. ^ J.P. Euzéby. "Thermoanaerobacterales". List of Prokaryotic names with Standing in Nomenclature (LPSN). Retrieved 2 March 2019.
  4. ^ All-Species Living Tree Project."16S rRNA-based LTP release 111 (full tree)" (PDF). Silva Comprehensive Ribosomal RNA Database. Retrieved 20 March 2013.