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Protein THBD PDB 1adx.png
Available structures
PDBOrtholog search: PDBe RCSB
AliasesTHBD, AHUS6, BDCA3, CD141, THPH12, THRM, TM, thrombomodulin
External IDsOMIM: 188040 MGI: 98736 HomoloGene: 308 GeneCards: THBD
Gene location (Human)
Chromosome 20 (human)
Chr.Chromosome 20 (human)[1]
Chromosome 20 (human)
Genomic location for THBD
Genomic location for THBD
Band20p11.21Start23,045,633 bp[1]
End23,049,741 bp[1]
RNA expression pattern
PBB GE THBD 203888 at fs.png

PBB GE THBD 203887 s at fs.png
More reference expression data
RefSeq (mRNA)



RefSeq (protein)



Location (UCSC)Chr 20: 23.05 – 23.05 MbChr 2: 148.4 – 148.41 Mb
PubMed search[3][4]
View/Edit HumanView/Edit Mouse

Thrombomodulin (TM), CD141 or BDCA-3 is an integral membrane protein expressed on the surface of endothelial cells and serves as a cofactor for thrombin. It reduces blood coagulation by converting thrombin to an anticoagulant enzyme from a procoagulant enzyme.[5] Thrombomodulin is also expressed on human mesothelial cell,[6] monocyte and a dendritic cell subset.

Genetics and structure[edit]

In humans, thrombomodulin is encoded by the THBD gene.[7] The protein has a molecular mass of 74kDa, and consists of a single chain with six tandemly repeated EGF-like domains, a Serine/Threonine-rich spacer and a transmembrane domain.[8] It is a member of the C-type lectin domain (CTLD) group 14 family.[9]


Thrombomodulin functions as a cofactor in the thrombin-induced activation of protein C in the anticoagulant pathway by forming a 1:1 stoichiometric complex with thrombin. This raises the speed of protein C activation thousandfold. Thrombomodulin-bound thrombin has procoagulant effect at the same time by inhibiting fibrinolysis by cleaving thrombin-activatable fibrinolysis inhibitor (TAFI, aka carboxypeptidase B2) into its active form.[citation needed]

Thrombomodulin is a glycoprotein on the surface of endothelial cells that, in addition to binding thrombin, regulates C3b inactivation by factor I. Mutations in the thrombomodulin gene (THBD) have also been reported to be associated with atypical hemolytic-uremic syndrome (aHUS).[citation needed]

The antigen described as BDCA-3[10] has turned out to be identical to thrombomodulin.[11] Thus, it was revealed that this molecule also occurs on a very rare (0.02%) subset of human dendritic cells called MDC2. Its function on these cells is unknown.[citation needed]


Thrombomodulin has been shown to interact with thrombin.[12][13]


  1. ^ a b c GRCh38: Ensembl release 89: ENSG00000178726 - Ensembl, May 2017
  2. ^ a b c GRCm38: Ensembl release 89: ENSMUSG00000074743 - Ensembl, May 2017
  3. ^ "Human PubMed Reference:". National Center for Biotechnology Information, U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  4. ^ "Mouse PubMed Reference:". National Center for Biotechnology Information, U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  5. ^ IPR001491 Thrombomodulin Accessed January 19, 2012.
  6. ^ Verhagen HJ, Heijnen-Snyder GJ, Pronk A, Vroom TM, van Vroonhoven TJ, Eikelboom BC, Sixma JJ, de Groot PG (Dec 1996). "Thrombomodulin activity on mesothelial cells: perspectives for mesothelial cells as an alternative for endothelial cells for cell seeding on vascular grafts". British Journal of Haematology. 95 (3): 542–9. doi:10.1046/j.1365-2141.1996.d01-1935.x. PMID 8943899.
  7. ^ Wen DZ, Dittman WA, Ye RD, Deaven LL, Majerus PW, Sadler JE (Jul 1987). "Human thrombomodulin: complete cDNA sequence and chromosome localization of the gene". Biochemistry. 26 (14): 4350–7. doi:10.1021/bi00388a025. PMID 2822087.
  8. ^ Sadler JE (Jul 1997). "Thrombomodulin structure and function". Thrombosis and Haemostasis. 78 (1): 392–5. doi:10.1055/s-0038-1657558. PMID 9198185.
  9. ^ Khan KA, McMurray JL, Mohammed FM, Bicknell R. "C-type lectin domain group 14 proteins in vascular biology, cancer and inflammation". FEBS Journal. PMID 31287944.CS1 maint: multiple names: authors list (link)
  10. ^ Dzionek A, Fuchs A, Schmidt P, Cremer S, Zysk M, Miltenyi S, Buck DW, Schmitz J (Dec 2000). "BDCA-2, BDCA-3, and BDCA-4: three markers for distinct subsets of dendritic cells in human peripheral blood". Journal of Immunology. 165 (11): 6037–46. doi:10.4049/jimmunol.165.11.6037. PMID 11086035.
  11. ^ Dzionek A, Inagaki Y, Okawa K, Nagafune J, Röck J, Sohma Y, Winkels G, Zysk M, Yamaguchi Y, Schmitz J (Dec 2002). "Plasmacytoid dendritic cells: from specific surface markers to specific cellular functions". Human Immunology. 63 (12): 1133–48. doi:10.1016/S0198-8859(02)00752-8. PMID 12480257.
  12. ^ Bajzar L, Morser J, Nesheim M (Jul 1996). "TAFI, or plasma procarboxypeptidase B, couples the coagulation and fibrinolytic cascades through the thrombin-thrombomodulin complex". The Journal of Biological Chemistry. 271 (28): 16603–8. doi:10.1074/jbc.271.28.16603. PMID 8663147.
  13. ^ Jakubowski HV, Owen WG (Jul 1989). "Macromolecular specificity determinants on thrombin for fibrinogen and thrombomodulin". The Journal of Biological Chemistry. 264 (19): 11117–21. PMID 2544585.

Further reading[edit]

External links[edit]