Thymus

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
Jump to navigation Jump to search
Thymus
Illu thymus.jpg
Thymus
Details
PrecursorThird pharyngeal arch
SystemLymphatic system, part of the immune system
Lymphtracheobronchial, parasternal
FunctionSupport the development of functional T cells
Identifiers
LatinThymus
MeSHD013950
TAA13.1.02.001
FMA9607
Anatomical terminology

The thymus is a specialized primary lymphoid organ of the immune system. Within the thymus, T cells mature. T cells are critical to the adaptive immune system, where the body adapts specifically to foreign invaders. The thymus is composed of two identical lobes and is located in the anterior superior mediastinum, in front of the heart and behind the sternum. Each lobe of the thymus can be divided into a central medulla and a peripheral cortex which is surrounded by an outer capsule.

The cortex and medulla play different roles in the development of T cells. Cells in the thymus can be divided into thymic stromal cells and cells of hematopoietic origin (derived from bone marrow resident hematopoietic stem cells). Developing T cells are referred to as thymocytes and are of hematopoietic origin. Stromal cells include epithelial cells of the thymic cortex and medulla, and dendritic cells. The thymus provides an environment for development of T cells from precursor cells. The cells of the thymus provide for development of T cells that are functional and self-tolerant. Therefore, one of the most important roles of the thymus is the induction of central tolerance.

The thymus is largest and most active during the neonatal and pre-adolescent periods. By the early teens, the thymus begins to decrease in size and activity and the tissue of the thymus is gradually replaced by adipose tissue (fat). Nevertheless, residual T lymphopoiesis continues throughout adult life.

Structure[edit]

In children, the thymus is pinkish-gray, soft, and lobulated on its surfaces.[1] At birth it is about 4–6 cm long, 2.5–5 cm wide, and about 1 cm thick.[2] It increases in size until puberty, where it may have a size of about 40 - 50 g,[3][4] following which it decreases in size in a process known as involution.[4]

The thymus is made up of two lobes that meet in the upper midline, and stretch from below the thyroid in the neck to as low as the cartilage of the fourth rib.[1] The lobes are covered by a capsule.[3] The thymus lies beneath the sternum, rests on the pericardium, and is separated from the aortic arch and great vessels by a layer of fascia. The left brachiocephalic vein may even be embedded within the thymus.[1] In the neck, it lies on the front and sides of the trachea, behind the sternohyoid and sternothyroid muscles.[1]

Microanatomy[edit]

The thymus consists of two lobes, merged in the middle, surrounded by a capsule that extends with blood vessels into the interior.[2] The lobes consist of an outer cortex rich with cells and an inner less dense medulla.[4] The lobes are divided into smaller lobules 0.5-2mm diameter, between which extrude radiating insertions from the capsule along septa.[1]

The cortex is mainly made up of thymocytes and epithelial cells.[3] The thymocytes, immature T cells, are supported by a network of the finely-branched epithelial reticular cells, which is continuous with a similar network in the medulla. This network forms an adventitia to the blood vessels, which enter the cortex via septa near the junction with the medulla.[1] Other cells are also present in the thymus, including macrophages, dendritic cells, and a small amount of B cells, neutrophils and eosinophils.[3]

In the medulla, the network of epithelial cells is coarser than in the cortex, and the lymphoid cells are relatively fewer in number.[1] Concentric, nest-like bodies called Hassall's corpuscles (also called thymic corpuscles) are formed by aggregations of the medullary epithelial cells.[3] These are concentric, layered whorls of epithelial cells that increase in number throughout life.[1] They are the remains of the epithelial tubes, which grow out from the third pharyngeal pouches of the embryo to form the thymus.[5]


Blood and nerve supply[edit]

The arteries supplying the thymus are branches of the internal thoracic, and inferior thyroid arteries, with branches from the superior thyroid artery sometimes seen.[2] The branches reach the thymus and travel with the septa of the capsule into the area between the cortex and medulla, where they enter the thymus itself; or alternatively directly enter the capsule.[2]

The veins of the thymus end in the left brachiocephalic vein, internal thoracic vein, and in the inferior thyroid veins.[2] Sometimes the veins end directly in the superior vena cava.[2]

Lymphatic vessels travel only away from the thymus, accompanying the arteries and veins. These drain into the brachiocephalic, tracheobronchial and parasternal lymph nodes.[2]

The nerves supplying the thymus arise from the vagus nerve and the cervical sympathetic chain.[2] Branches from the phrenic nerves reach the capsule of the thymus, but do not enter into the thymus itself.[2]

Variation[edit]

The two lobes differ slightly in size, with the left lobe usually higher than the right. Thymic tissue may be found scattered on or around the gland, and occasionally within the thyroid.[2] The thymus in children stretches variably upwards, at times to as high as the thyroid gland.[2]

Development[edit]

Scheme showing development of branchial epithelial bodies from the thoracic cavity of the foetus. I, II, III, IV. Branchial pouches.

The thymocytes and the epithelium of the thymus have different developmental origins.[4] The epithelium of the thymus develops first, appearing as two outgrowths, one on either side, of the third pharyngeal pouch.[4] It sometimes also involves the fourth pharyngeal pouch.[3] These extend outward and backward into the surrounding mesoderm and neural crest-derived mesenchyme in front of the ventral aorta. Here the thymocytes and epithelium meet and join with connective tissue. The pharyngeal opening of each diverticulum is soon obliterated, but the neck of the flask persists for some time as a cellular cord. By further proliferation of the cells lining the flask, buds of cells are formed, which become surrounded and isolated by the invading mesoderm.[6]

The epithelium forms fine lobules, and develops into a sponge-like structure. During this stage, hematopoietic bone-marrow precursors migrate into the thymus.[4] Normal development is dependent on the interaction between the epithelium and the hematopoietic thymocytes. Iodine is also necessary for thymus development and activity.[7]

Involution[edit]

The thymus continues to grow after the birth reaching the relative maximum size by puberty.[2] It is most active in fetal and neonatal life.[8] It increases to 20 - 50 grams by puberty.[3] It then begins to decrease in size and activity in a process called thymic involution.[4] After the first year of life the amount of T cells produced begins to fall.[4] Fat and connective tissue fills a part of the thymic volume.[2] During involution, the thymus decreases in size and activity.[4] Fat cells are present at birth, but increase in size and number markedly after puberty, invading the gland from the walls between the lobules first, then into the cortex and medulla.[4] This process continues into old age, where whether with a microscope or with the human eye, the thymus may be difficult to detect,[4] although typically weights 5 - 15 grams.[3]

The atrophy is due to the increased circulating level of sex hormones, and chemical or physical castration of an adult results in the thymus increasing in size and activity.[9] Severe illness or human immunodeficiency virus infection may also result in involution.[3]

Function[edit]

Intrathymic T Cell Differentiation.JPG

T cell maturation[edit]

The thymus facilitates the maturation of T cells, an important part of the immune system providing cell-mediated immunity.[10] T cells begin as hematopoietic precursors from the bone-marrow, and migrate to the thymus, where they are referred to as thymocytes. In the thymus they undergo a process of maturation, which involves ensuring the cells react against antigens ("positive selection"), but that they do not react against antigens found on body tissue ("negative selection").[10] Once mature, T cells emigrate from the thymus to provide vital functions in the immune system.[11][10]

Each T cell has a distinct T cell receptor, suited to a specific substance, called an antigen.[11] Most T cell receptors bind to the major histocompatibility complex on cells of the body. The MHC presents an antigen to the T cell receptor, which becomes active if this matches the specific T cell receptor.[11] In order to be properly functional, a mature T cell needs to be able to bind to the MHC molecule ("positive selection"), and not to react against antigens that are actually from the tissues of body ("negative selection").[11] Positive selection occurs in the cortex and negative selection occurs in the medulla of the thymus.[12] After this process T cells that have survived leave the thymus, regulated by sphingosine-1-phosphate.[12] Further maturation occurs in the peripheral circulation.[12] Some of this is because of hormones and cytokines secreted by the thymus, including thymulin, thymopoietin, and thymosins.[4]

Positive selection[edit]

T cells have distinct T cell receptors. These distinct receptors are formed by process of V(D)J recombination gene rearrangement stimulated by RAG1 and RAG2 genes.[12] This process is error-prone, and some thymocytes fail to make functional T-cell receptors, whereas other thymocytes make T-cell receptors that are autoreactive.[13] If a functional T cell receptor is formed, the thymocyte will begin to express simultaneously the cell surface proteins CD4 and CD8.[12]

The survival and nature of the T cell then depends on its interaction with surrounding thymic epithelial cells. Here, the T cell receptor interacts with the MHC molecules on the surface of epithelial cells.[12] A T cell with a receptor that doesn't react, or reacts weakly will die by apoptosis. A T cell that does react will survive and proliferate.[12] A mature T cell expresses only CD4 or CD8, but not both.[11] This depends on the strength of binding between the TCR and MHC class 1 or class 2.[12] A T cell receptor that binds mostly to MHC class I tends to produce a mature "cytotoxic" CD8 positive T cell; a T cell receptor that binds mostly to MHC class II tends to produces a CD4 positive T cell.[13]

Negative selection[edit]

T cells that attack the body's own proteins are eliminated in the thymus, called "negative selection".[11] Epithelial cells in the medulla and dendritic cells in the thymus express major proteins from elsewhere in the body.[12] The gene that stimulates this is AIRE.[12][11] Thymocytes that react strongly to self antigens do not survive, and die by apoptosis.[11][12] Some CD4 positive T cells exposed to self antigens persist as T regulatory cells.[11]

Clinical significance[edit]

Immunodeficiency[edit]

As the thymus is the organ of T-cell development, any congenital defect in thymic genesis or a defect in thymocyte development can lead to a profound T cell deficiency in primary immunodeficiency disease.[8] Loss of the thymus at an early age through genetic mutation (as in Digeorge, CHARGE syndrome or a vary rare "nude" thymus causing absence of hair and the thymus[14]) results in severe immunodeficiency and subsequent high susceptibility to infection by viruses, protozoa, and fungi.[15] Nude mice with the very rare "nude" deficiency as a result of FOXN1 mutation are a strain of research mice as a model of T cell deficiency.[16]

The most common congenital cause of thymus-related immune deficiency results from the deletion of the 22nd chromosome, called DiGeorge syndrome.[15][14] This results in a failure of development of the third and fourth pharyngeal pouches, resulting in failure of development of the thymus, and variable other associated problems, such as congenital heart disease, and abnormalities of mouth (such as cleft palate and cleft lip), failure of development of the parathyroid glands, and the presence of a fistula between the trachea and the oesophagus.[15] Very low numbers of circulating T cells are seen.[15] The condition is diagnosed by fluorescent in situ hybridization and treated with thymus transplantation.[14]

Severe combined immunodeficiency (SCID) are group of rare congenital genetic diseases that can result in combined T, B, and NK cell deficiencies.[15] These syndromes are caused by mutations that affect the maturation of the hematopoietic progenitor cells, which are the precursors of both B and T cells.[15] A number of genetic defects can cause SCID, including IL-2 receptor gene loss of function, and mutation resulting in deficiency of the enzyme adenine deaminase.[15]

Autoimmune disease[edit]

Autoimmune polyendocrine syndrome[edit]

Autoimmune polyendocrine syndrome type 1, is a rare genetic autoimmune syndrome that results from a genetic defect of the thymus tissues.[17] Specifically, the disease results from defects in the autoimmune regulator (AIRE) gene, which stimulates expression of self antigens in the epithelial cells within the medulla of the thymus. Because of defects in this condition, self antigens are not expressed, resulting in T cells that are not conditioned to tolerate tissues of the body, and may treat them as foreign, stimulating an immune response and resulting in autoimmunity.[17] People with APECED develop an autoimmune disease that affects multiple endocrine tissues, with the commonly affected organs being hypothyroidism of the thyroid gland, addison's disease of the adrenal glands, and candida infection of body surfaces including the inner lining of the mouth and of the nails nails due to dysfunction of TH17 cells, and symptoms often beginning in childhood. Many other autoimmune diseases may also occur.[17] Treatment is directed at the affected organs.[17]

Thymoma-associated multiorgan autoimmunity (TAMA)[edit]

A GVHD-like disease called thymoma-associated multiorgan autoimmunity (TAMA) can occur in patients with thymoma. In these patients rather than a donor being a source of pathogenic T cells, the patient's own malignant thymus produces self-directed T cells. This is because the malignant thymus is incapable of appropriately educating developing thymocytes to eliminate self-reactive T cells. The end result is a disease virtually indistinguishable from GVHD.[18]

Myasthenia gravis[edit]

Myasthenia gravis is an autoimmune disease caused by antibodies that block acetylcholine receptors. It is often associated with thymic hyperplasia or malignancy, probably because of "abnormally conditioned" T cells.[19] Thymectomy may be necessary to treat the disease.

Cancer[edit]

Thymomas[edit]

Tumours originating from the thymic epithelial cells are called thymomas.[3] They most often occur in adults older than 40.[3] Tumours are generally detected when they cause symptoms, such as a neck mass or affecting nearby structures such as the superior vena cava;[19] detected because of screening in patients with myasthenia gravis, which has a strong association with thymomas and hyperplasia;[3] and detected as an incidental finding on imaging such as chest x-rays.[19] Hyperplasia and tumours originating form the thymus are associated with other autoimmune diseases - such as hypogammaglobulinemia, Graves disease, pure red cell aplasia, pernicious anaemia and dermatomyositis, likely because of defects in negative selection in proliferating T cells.[3][20]

Thymomas can be benign; benign but by virtue of expansion, invading beyond the capsule of the thymus ("invasive thyoma"), or malignant (a carcinoma).[3] This classification is based on the appearance of the cells.[3] A WHO classification also exists but is not used as part of standard clinical practice.[3] Benign tumours confined to the thymus are most common; followed by locally invasive tumours, and then by carcinomas.[3] There is variation in reporting, with some sources reporting malignant tumours as more common.[20] Invasive tumours, although not technically malignant, can still spread (metastasize) to other areas of the body.[3] Even though thymomas occur of epithelial cells, they can also contain thymocytes.[3] Treatment of thymomas often requires surgery to remove the entire thymus.[20] This may also result in temporary remission of any associated autoimmune conditions.[20]

Lymphomas[edit]

Tumours originating from T cells of the thymus form a subset of acute lymphoblastic leukaemia (ALL).[21] These are similar in symptoms, investigation approach and management to other forms of ALL.[21] Symptoms that develop, like other forms of ALL, relate to deficiency of platelets, resulting in bruising or bleeding; immunosuppression resulting in infections; or infltration by cells into parts of the body, resulting in an enlarged liver, spleen, lymph nodes or other sites.[21] Blood test might reveal a large amount of white blood cells or lymphoblasts, and deficiency in other cell lines - such as low platelets or anaemia.[21] Immunophenotyping will reveal cells that are CD3, a protein found on T cells, and help further distinguish the maturity of the T cells. Genetic analysis including karyotyping may reveal specific abnormalities that may influence prognosis or treatment, such as the Philadelphia translocation.[21] Management can include multiple courses of chemotherapy, stem cell transplant, and management of associated problems, such as treatment of infections with antibiotics, and blood transfusions. Very high white cell counts may also require cytoreduction with apheresis.[21]

Tumours originating from the small population of B cells present in the thymus lead to primary mediastinal (thymic) large B cell lymphomas.[22] These are a rare subtype of non-hodgkins lymphoma, although by the activity of genes and occasionally microscopic shape, unusually they also have the characteristics of Hodgkins lymphomas.[23] that occur most commonly in young and middle-aged, more prominent in females.[23] Most often, when symptoms occur it is because of compression of structures near the thymus, such as the superior vena cava or the upper respiratory tract; when lymph nodes are nodes are affected it is often in the mediasteinum and neck groups.[23] Such tumours are often detected with a biopsy that is subject to immunohistochemistry. This will show the presence of clusters of differentiation, cell surface proteins - namely CD30, with CD19, CD20 and CD22, and with the absence of CD15. Other markers may also be used to confirm the diagnosis.[23] Treatment usually includes the typical regimens of CHOP or EPOCH or other regimens; regimens generally including cyclophosphamide, an anthracycline, prednisone, and other chemotherapeutics; and potentially also a stem cell transplant.[23]

Thymic cysts[edit]

The thymus may contain cysts, usually less than 4cm. Thymic cysts are usually detected incidentally and do not cause symptoms.[3][24] Thymic cysts can be divided into two broad types according to their location – cervical thymic cysts, and mediastinal thymic cysts.[24] Thymic tissue containing cysts is rarely described in the literature, ectopic glandular tissue included in the wall of cystic formation can trigger a series of problems similar to those of thymomas, by compressing nearby structures.[3] In addition, because thymic cysts may relate to distortion of the thymus' tissue and predispose to cysts, when cysts are found, investigation may include a workup for tumours.[3]

Thymic cysts are uncommon lesions, with about 150 cases being reported in scientific literature. While thymic cyst and ectopic cervical thymus are identified most frequently in childhood, the mean age at which thymoma is diagnosed is 45 years. However, studies have shown the existence of necrotic thymic tissue masses in the neck (asymptomatic intravital) more frequently, the incidence reaching nearly 30%. These observations may mean absence of clinical observation.

Surgical removal[edit]

Thymectomy is the surgical removal of the thymus.[2] The usual reason for removal is to gain access to the heart for surgery to correct congenital heart defects in the neonatal period.[25] In neonates the relative size of the thymus obstructs surgical access to the heart and its surrounding vessels.[25] Removal of the thymus in infancy results in often fatal immunodeficiency, because functional T cells have not developed.[2] In older children and adults, which have a functioning lymphatic system with mature T cells also situated in other lymphoid organs, the effect is lesser, and limited to failure to mount immune responses against new antigens.[2]

Other indications for thymectomy include the removal of thymomas and the treatment of myasthenia gravis.[2] Thymectomy is not indicated for the treatment of primary thymic lymphomas. However, a thymic biopsy may be necessary to make the pathologic diagnosis.

Society and culture[edit]

When used as food for humans, the thymus of animals is known as one of the kinds of sweetbread.[26]

History[edit]

The thymus was known to the ancient Greeks, and its name comes from the Greek word θυμός (thumos), meaning "anger", or "heart, soul, desire, life", possibly because of its location in the chest, near where emotions are subjectively felt;[27] or else the name comes from the herb thyme (also in Greek θύμος or θυμάρι), which became the name for a "warty excrescence", possibly due to its resemblance to a bunch of thyme.[28]

Galen was the first to note that the size of the organ changed over the duration of a person's life.[29]

In the nineteenth century, a condition was identified as status thymicolymphaticus defined by an increase in lymphoid tissue and an enlarged thymus. It was thought to be a cause of sudden infant death syndrome but is now an obsolete term.[30]

The importance of the thymus in the immune system was discovered in 1961 by Jacques Miller, by surgically removing the thymus from one day old mice, and observing the subsequent deficiency in a lymphocyte population, subsequently named T cells after the organ of their origin.[31][32] Until the discovery of its immunological role, the thymus had been dismissed as a "evolutionary accident", without functional importance.[13] The role the thymus played in ensuring mature T cells tolerated the tissues of the body was uncovered in 1962, with the finding that T cells of a transplanted thymus in mice demonstrated tolerance towards tissues of the donor mouse.[13] B cells and T cells were identified as different types of lymphocytes in 1968, and the fact that T cells required in the thymus was understood.[13] The subtypes of T cells (CD8 and CD4) were identified by 1975.[13] The way that these subclasses of T cells matured - positive selection of cells that functionally bound to MHC receptors - was known by the 1990s.[13] The important role of the AIRE gene, and the role of negative selection in preventing autoreactive T cells from maturing, was understood by 1994.[13]

Recently, advances in immunology have allowed the function of the thymus in T-cell maturation to be more fully understood.[13]

Other animals[edit]

A sheep thymus, several times enlarged, in peste des petits ruminants

The thymus is present in all jawed vertebrates, where it undergoes the same shrinkage with age and plays the same immunological function as in other vertebrates. Recently, a discrete thymus-like lympho-epithelial structure, termed the thymoid, was discovered in the gills of larval lampreys.[33] Hagfish possess a protothymus associated with the pharyngeal velar muscles, which is responsible for a variety of immune responses.[34] Little is known about the immune mechanisms of tunicates[35] or of Amphioxus.

The thymus is also present in most other vertebrates, with similar structure and function as the human thymus. Some animals have multiple secondary (smaller) thymi in the neck; this phenomenon has been reported for mice[36] and also occurs in 5 out of 6 human fetuses.[37] As in humans, the guinea pig's thymus naturally atrophies as the animal reaches adulthood, but the athymic hairless guinea pig (which arose from a spontaneous laboratory mutation) possesses no thymic tissue whatsoever, and the organ cavity is replaced with cystic spaces.

Additional images[edit]

References[edit]

This article incorporates text in the public domain from page 1273 of the 20th edition of Gray's Anatomy (1918)

  1. ^ a b c d e f g h Susan Standring; et al., eds. (2008). Gray's anatomy : the anatomical basis of clinical practice (40th ed.). London: Churchill Livingstone. ISBN 978-0-8089-2371-8.
  2. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m n o p q Standring, Susan, ed. (2016). Gray's anatomy : the anatomical basis of clinical practice (41st ed.). Philadelphia. pp. 983–6. ISBN 9780702052309. OCLC 920806541.
  3. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m n o p q r s t u v "Chapter 13. Diseases of White Blood Cells, Lymph Nodes, Spleen, and Thymus: Thymus.". Robbins and Cotran Pathologic Basis of Disease (9th (online) ed.). ISBN 9780323296397.
  4. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l Young, Barbara; O'Dowd, Geraldine; Woodford, Phillip (2013). Wheater's functional histology: a text and colour atlas (6th ed.). Philadephia: Elsevier. pp. 204–6. ISBN 9780702047473.
  5. ^ Larsen, W (2001). Human Embryology (3rd ed.). Elsevier. pp. 366–367. ISBN 978-0-443-06583-5.
  6. ^ Swiss embryology (from UL, UB, and UF) qblood/lymphat03
  7. ^ Venturi, S; Venturi. M (2009). "Iodine, thymus, and immunity". Nutrition. 25 (9): 977–979. doi:10.1016/j.nut.2009.06.002. PMID 19647627.
  8. ^ a b Davidson's 2018, p. 67.
  9. ^ Sutherland, J. S. (2005). "Activation of thymic regeneration in mice and humans following androgen blockade". J Immunol. 175 (4): 2741–53. doi:10.4049/jimmunol.175.4.2741. PMID 16081852.
  10. ^ a b c Hall, John E (2016). Guyton and Hall textbook of medical physiology (13th ed.). Philadelphia: Elsevier. pp. 466–7. ISBN 978-1-4557-7016-8.
  11. ^ a b c d e f g h i "Chapter 6. Diseases of the immune system. The normal immune system.". Robbins and Cotran Pathologic Basis of Disease (9th (online) ed.). ISBN 9780323296397.
  12. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k Hohl, Tobias M. (2019). "6. Cell mediated defence against infection: Thymic selection of CD4+ and CD8+ T Cells". In John E. Bennett, MD, Raphael Dolin, MD and Martin J. Blaser (ed.). Mandell, Douglas, and Bennett's principles and practice of infectious diseases (9th (online) ed.). Elsevier. ISBN 9780323482554.CS1 maint: multiple names: editors list (link)
  13. ^ a b c d e f g h i Miller, Jacques F. A. P. (2011). "The golden anniversary of the thymus". Nature Reviews Immunology. 11 (7): 489–495. doi:10.1038/nri2993. ISSN 1474-1733.
  14. ^ a b c Harrison's 2015, pp. 2493.
  15. ^ a b c d e f g Davidson's 2018, pp. 79-80.
  16. ^ Fox, James G. (2006). The Mouse in Biomedical Research: Immunology. Elsevier. p. 277. ISBN 978-0-08-046908-9.
  17. ^ a b c d Harrison's 2015, pp. 2756-7.
  18. ^ Wadhera A, Maverakis E, Mitsiades N, Lara PN, Fung MA, Lynch PJ (Oct 2007). "Thymoma-associated multiorgan autoimmunity: a graft-versus-host-like disease". J Am Acad Dermatol. 57 (4): 683–9. doi:10.1016/j.jaad.2007.02.027. PMID 17433850.
  19. ^ a b c Engels, Eric A. (2010). "Epidemiology of thymoma and associated malignancies". Journal of thoracic oncology : official publication of the International Association for the Study of Lung Cancer. 5 (10 Suppl 4): S260–S265. doi:10.1097/JTO.0b013e3181f1f62d. ISSN 1556-0864. PMC 2951303. PMID 20859116.
  20. ^ a b c d Harrison's 2015, pp. 2759.
  21. ^ a b c d e f Larson, Richard A. (2015). "Chapter 91: Acute Lymphoblastic Leukemia". Williams hematology (online) (9th ed.). McGraw-Hill Education. ISBN 978-0071833004.
  22. ^ Dabrowska-Iwanicka, A; Walewski, JA (September 2014). "Primary mediastinal large B-cell lymphoma". Current hematologic malignancy reports. 9 (3): 273–83. doi:10.1007/s11899-014-0219-0. PMID 24952250.
  23. ^ a b c d e Smith, Stephen D.; Press, Oliver W. (2015). "Chapter 98. Diffuse Large B-Cell Lymphoma and Related Diseases". Williams hematology (online) (9th ed.). McGraw-Hill Education. ISBN 978-0071833004.
  24. ^ a b Gaillard, Frank. "Thymic cyst | Radiology Reference Article | Radiopaedia.org". Radiopaedia. Retrieved 12 December 2019.
  25. ^ a b Eysteinsdottir, J. H.; et al. (2004). "The influence of partial or total thymectomy during open heart surgery in infants on the immune function later in life". Clin Exp Immunol. 136 (2): 349–355. doi:10.1111/j.1365-2249.2004.02437.x. PMC 1809033. PMID 15086401.
  26. ^ "Sweetbread recipes - BBC Food". BBC Food. Retrieved 2019-12-12.
  27. ^ Henry George Liddell, Robert Scott. "θυμός". A Greek-English Lexicon. Retrieved 2019-12-10.
  28. ^ "thymus | Origin and meaning of thymus by Online Etymology Dictionary". www.etymonline.com. Retrieved 2019-12-10.
  29. ^ Nishino M, Ashiku SK, Kocher ON, Thurer RL, Boiselle PM, Hatabu H (2006). "The thymus: a comprehensive review". Radiographics. 26 (2): 335–48. doi:10.1148/rg.262045213. PMID 16549602.
  30. ^ Sapolsky, Robert M. (2004). Why zebras don't get ulcers (3rd ed.). New York: Henry Hold and Co./Owl Books. pp. 182–185. ISBN 978-0805073690.
  31. ^ Miller JF (2002). "The discovery of thymus function and of thymus-derived lymphocytes". Immunol. Rev. 185 (1): 7–14. doi:10.1034/j.1600-065X.2002.18502.x. PMID 12190917.
  32. ^ Miller JF (2004). "Events that led to the discovery of T-cell development and function--a personal recollection". Tissue Antigens. 63 (6): 509–17. doi:10.1111/j.0001-2815.2004.00255.x. PMID 15140026.
  33. ^ Bajoghli; et al. (2011). "A thymus candidate in lampreys". Nature. 470 (7332): 90–94. doi:10.1038/nature09655. PMID 21293377.
  34. ^ Riviere; et al. (1975). "In Search of the Hagfish Thymus" (PDF). American Zoologist. 15 (1): 39–49. doi:10.1093/icb/15.1.39. JSTOR 3882269.
  35. ^ Sawada (1992). "Tunicates and Their Immune Mechanism" (PDF). Bull. Yamaguchi Med. SCH. 39 (3–4): 83–88.
  36. ^ Terszowski, G; et al. (2006). "Evidence for a Functional Second Thymus in Mice". Science. 312 (5771): 284–7. doi:10.1126/science.1123497. PMID 16513945.
  37. ^ Surprise organ discovered in mice, Nature News, 2 March 2006
Books
  • Ralston, Stuart H.; Penman, Ian D.; Strachan, Mark W.; Hobson, Richard P. (eds.) (2018). Davidson's principles and practice of medicine (23rd ed.). Elsevier. ISBN 978-0-7020-7028-0.CS1 maint: extra text: authors list (link)
  • Kasper, Dennis; Fauci, Anthony; Hauser, Stephen; Longo, Dan; Jameson, J.; Loscalzo, Joseph (2015). Harrison's Principles of Internal Medicine (19 ed.). McGraw-Hill Professional. ISBN 9780071802154.

External links[edit]