Timeline of Afghan history
This is a timeline of Afghan history, comprising important legal and territorial changes and political events in Afghanistan and its predecessor states. To read about the background to these events, see History of Afghanistan. See also the list of leaders of Afghanistan and the list of years in Afghanistan.
|1709||21 April||Mirwais Hotak, an influential Afghan tribal chief, gained independence at Kandahar after a successful revolution against the Persian Safavid dynasty.|
|1709–1713||The Persian government sent two large armies to regain Kandahar Province but suffered defeat by the Afghans.|
|1715||November||Mirwais died of a natural cause and his brother Abdul Aziz inherited the throne until he was killed by Mahmud Hotaki, son of Mirwais.|
|1722||Battle of Gulnabad: Led by Mahmud, the Afghan army captured the Safavid capital of Isfahan and Mahmad was declared Shah of Persia.|
|1725||22 April||Mahmud was murdered by his cousin Ashraf, son of Abdul Aziz, and succeeded him as Shah of Persia.|
|1729||29 September||Battle of Damghan: Afsharid forces led by Nader Shah defeated Ashraf and his forces.|
|1738||Nader invaded and destroyed Kandahar, and restored the Abdali ethnic Pashtus to political prominence.|
|1747||19 June||Ahmad Shah Durrani of the Abdali Pashtun confederacy declared the establishment of an independent Afghanistan, with its capital at Kandahar.|
|1809||Durrani signed a treaty of alliance with the United Kingdom.|
|1826||Dost Mohammad Khan took the throne in Kabul, where he proclaimed himself emir.|
|1837||November||Siege of Herat: A Persian force attempts to capture Herat but are defeated and leave in 1838.|
|1839||March||First Anglo-Afghan War: A British expeditionary force captured Quetta|
|1841||November||First Anglo-Afghan War: A mob killed the British envoy to Afghanistan.|
|1842||January||Massacre of Elphinstone's army: A retreating British With mostly Indian regiment force of sixteen thousand was massacred by the Afghans.|
|1857||Afghanistan declared war on Persia.|
|Afghan forces re-captured Herat.|
|1878||January||Second Anglo-Afghan War: Afghanistan refused a British diplomatic mission, provoking a second Anglo-Afghan war.|
|1879||May||Second Anglo-Afghan War: To prevent British occupation of a large part of the country, the Afghan government ceded much power to the United Kingdom in the Treaty of Gandamak.|
|1880||22 July||Abdur Rahman Khan was officially recognized as emir of Afghanistan.|
|1893||12 November||Abdur Rahman and British Raj representative Mortimer Durand signed an agreement establishing the Durand Line.|
|1901||1 October||Habibullah Khan, son of Abdur Rahman, became emir of Afghanistan.|
|20 February 1919||Habibullah was assassinated. His son Amanullah Khan declared himself King of Afghanistan.|
|1919||May||Third Anglo-Afghan War: Amanullah led a surprise attack against the British.|
|19 August||Afghan Foreign Minister Mahmud Tarzi negotiated the Treaty of Rawalpindi with the British at Rawalpindi.|
|1922||Solar Hijri calendar officially adopted in Afghanistan.|
|1929||Amanullah was forced to abdicate in favor of Habibullah Kalakani in the face of a popular uprising.|
|Former General Mohammed Nadir Shah took control of Afghanistan.|
|1933||8 November||Nadir was assassinated. His son, Mohammed Zahir Shah, was proclaimed King.|
|1964||A new constitution was ratified which instituted a democratic legislature.|
|1965||1 January||The Marxist People's Democratic Party of Afghanistan (PDPA) held its first congress.|
|1973||17 July||Mohammed Daoud Khan declares himself President in a coup against the king, Mohammed Zahir Shah.|
|1978||27 April||Saur Revolution: Military units loyal to the PDPA assaulted the Afghan Presidential Palace, killing President Mohammed Daoud Khan and his family.|
|1 May||Saur Revolution: The PDPA installed its leader, Nur Muhammad Taraki, as President of Afghanistan.|
|July||A rebellion against the new Afghan government began with an uprising in Nuristan Province.|
|5 December||A treaty was signed which permitted deployment of the Soviet military at the Afghan government's request.|
|1979||14 September||Taraki was murdered by supporters of Prime Minister Hafizullah Amin.|
|24 December||Soviet–Afghan War: Fearing the collapse of the Amin regime, the Soviet army invaded Afghanistan.|
|27 December||Operation Storm-333: Soviet troops occupied major governmental, military and media buildings in Kabul, including the Tajbeg Palace, and executed Prime Minister Amin.|
|1988||14 April||Soviet–Afghan War: The Soviet government signed the Geneva Accords, which included a timetable for withdrawing their armed forces.|
|1989||15 February||Soviet–Afghan War: The last Soviet troops left the country.|
|1992||24 April||Civil war in Afghanistan (1989–1992): Afghan political parties signed the Peshawar Accord which created the Islamic State of Afghanistan and proclaimed Sibghatullah Mojaddedi its interim President.|
|Gulbuddin Hekmatyar's Hezbi Islami, with the support of neighboring Pakistan, began a massive bombardment against the Islamic State in the capital Kabul.|
|28 June||As agreed upon in the Peshawar Accord, Jamiat-e Islami leader Burhanuddin Rabbani took over as President.|
|1994||August||The Taliban government began to form in a small village between Lashkar Gah and Kandahar.|
|1995||January||The Taliban, with Pakistani support, initiated a military campaign against the Islamic State of Afghanistan and its capital Kabul.|
|1995||13 March||Taliban, tortured and killed Abdul Ali Mazari leader of the Hazara people.|
|1996||26 September||Civil war in Afghanistan (1996–2001): The forces of the Islamic State retreated to northern Afghanistan.|
|27 September||Civil war in Afghanistan (1996–2001): The Taliban conquered Kabul and declared the establishment of the Islamic Emirate of Afghanistan. Former President Mohammad Najibullah, who had been living under United Nations protection in Kabul, was tortured, castrated and executed by Taliban forces.|
|1998||August||Civil war in Afghanistan (1996–2001): The Taliban captured Mazar-e Sharif, forcing Abdul Rashid Dostum into exile.|
|20 August||Operation Infinite Reach: Cruise missiles were fired by the United States Navy into four militant training camps in the Islamic Emirate of Afghanistan.|
|2001||9 September||Resistance leader Ahmad Shah Massoud was killed in a suicide bomb attack by two Arabs who were disguised as French news reporters.|
|20 September||After the September 11 attacks in the United States, U.S. President George W. Bush demanded the Taliban government to hand over al-Qaeda head Osama bin Laden and close all terrorist training camps in the country.|
|21 September||The Taliban refused Bush's ultimatum for lack of evidence connecting bin Laden to 9/11 attacks.|
|7 October||Operation Enduring Freedom: The United States and the United Kingdom began an aerial bombing campaign against al-Qaeda and the Taliban.|
|5 December||The United Nations Security Council authorized the creation of the International Security Assistance Force (ISAF) to help maintain security in Afghanistan and assist the Karzai administration.|
|20 December||International Conference on Afghanistan in Germany: Hamid Karzai chosen as head of the Afghan Interim Administration.|
|2002||July||2002 loya jirga: Hamid Karzai appointed as President of the Afghan Transitional Administration in Kabul, Afghanistan.|
|2003||14 December||2003 loya jirga: A 502-delegate loya jirga was held to consider a new Afghan constitution.|
|2004||9 October||Hamid Karzai was elected President of the Islamic Republic of Afghanistan after winning the Afghan presidential election.|
|2005||Taliban insurgency: An insurgency began after a Pakistani decision to station around 80,000 soldiers next to the porous Durand Line border with Afghanistan.|
|2006||1 March||Bush and wife visited Afghanistan to inaugurate the renovated Embassy of the United States in Kabul.|
|2007||13 May||Afghanistan–Pakistan Skirmishes: Skirmishes began with Pakistan.|
|2010||U.S. President Barack Obama sent additional 33,000 U.S. soldiers to Afghanistan, with the total international troops reaching 150,000.|
|2011||After the death of Osama bin Laden in Pakistan, many high-profile Afghan officials were assassinated, including among them were Mohammed Daud Daud, Ahmed Wali Karzai, Jan Mohammad Khan, Ghulam Haider Hamidi, and Burhanuddin Rabbani.|
|2011||Afghanistan National Front was created by Tajik leader Ahmad Zia Massoud, Hazara leader Mohammad Mohaqiq and Uzbek leader Abdul Rashid Dostum|
Cities in Afghanistan:
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