Timeline of longest spaceflights

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Cosmonaut Valeriy Polyakov looks out space station Mir's window during his 438-day flight in 1994-1995

Timeline of longest spaceflights is a chronology of the longest spaceflights. Many of the first flights set records measured in hours and days, the space station missions of the 1970s and 1980s pushed this to weeks and months, and by the 1990s the record was pushed to over a year and has remained there into the 21st century.

A modern long-duration mission is the ISS year long mission (2015–2016) aboard the International Space Station. The most significant issue in such missions is the effects of spaceflight on the human body, due to such factors as zero-g and elevated radiation.

Record setting single-mission human stays[edit]

Duration (days) Astronaut/Cosmonaut(s) Mission(s) Mission start Flight up Space Station Flight down Record achieved Mission end Record held (days) Source Notes
437.75 Valery Poliyakov Mir EO‑15 January 8, 1994 Soyuz TM-18 Mir Soyuz TM-20 January 9, 1995 March 22, 1995 9007 [1] Current record
365.94 Vladimir Titov,

Musa Manarov

Mir EO-3 December 21, 1987 Soyuz TM-4 Mir Soyuz TM-6 November 11, 1988 December 21, 1988 2,250 [2]
326.48 Yuri Romanenko Mir EO-2 February 5, 1987 Soyuz TM-2 Mir Soyuz TM-3 September 30, 1987 December 29, 1987 408 [3]
236.95 Leonid Kizim

Vladimir Solovyov

Oleg Atkov

Salyut 7 EO‑3 February 8, 1984 Soyuz T-10 Salyut 7 Soyuz T-11 September 6, 1984 October 2, 1984 1,119 [4]
211.38 Anatoli Berezovoy

Valentin Lebedev

Salyut 7 EO‑1 May 13, 1982 Soyuz T-5 Salyut 7 Soyuz T-7 November 14, 1982 December 10, 1982 662 [5]
184.84 Leonid Popov

Valery Ryumin

Salyut 6 EO‑4 April 9, 1980 Soyuz 35 Salyut 6 Soyuz 37 October 1, 1980 October 11, 1980 774 [6]
175.02 Vladimir Lyakhov

Valery Ryumin

Salyut 6 EO‑3 February 25, 1979 Soyuz 32 Salyut 6 Soyuz 34 July 15, 1979 September 3, 1979 444 [6]
139.62 Vladimir Kovalyonok

Aleksandr Ivanchenkov

Salyut 6 EO‑2 June 15, 1978 Soyuz 29 Salyut 6 Soyuz 31 September 20, 1978 November 2, 1978 298 [6]
96.42 Yuri Romanenko

Georgi Grechko

Salyut 6 EO-1 December 10, 1977 Soyuz 26 Salyut 6 Soyuz 27 March 4, 1978 March 16, 1978 200 [7][8]
84.05 Gerald P. Carr

Edward G. Gibson

William R. Pogue

Skylab 4 November 16, 1973 SA‑208 Skylab CSM‑118 January 15, 1974 February 8, 1974 1,509 [9]
59.46 Alan L. Bean

Owen K. Garriott

Jack R. Lousma

Skylab 3 July 28, 1973 SA‑207 Skylab CSM‑117 August 25, 1973 September 25, 1973 143 [10][11]
28.03 Charles "Pete" Conrad, Jr.

Joseph P. Kerwin

Paul J. Weitz

Skylab 2 May 25, 1973 SA‑206 Skylab CSM‑116 June 17, 1973 June 22, 1973 69 [12][13]
23.32 Georgy Dobrovolsky

Vladislav Volkov

Viktor Patsayev

Soyuz 11 June 6, 1971 Soyuz 11 Salyut 1 Soyuz 11 June 23, 1971 June 29, 1971 725 [12] All three crewmembers died on return to Earth. [14][15]
17.71 Andrian Nikolayev

Vitali Sevastyanov

Soyuz 9 June 1, 1970 N/A N/A N/A June 15, 1970 June 19, 1970 373 [16][17] Soyuz 9 continues to hold the record for longest manned flight by a solo spacecraft.
13.77 Frank Borman

Jim Lovell

Gemini 7 December 4, 1965 N/A N/A N/A December 12, 1965 December 18, 1965 1,646 [16][18]
7.96 L. Gordon Cooper, Jr.

Charles "Pete" Conrad, Jr.

Gemini 5 August 21, 1965 N/A N/A N/A August 26, 1965 August 29, 1965 108 [16][19][20]
4.96 Valery Bykovsky Vostok 5 June 14, 1963 N/A N/A N/A June 18, 1963 June 19, 1963 800 [21][22]
3.93 Andriyan Nikolayev Vostok 3 August 11, 1962 N/A N/A N/A August 12, 1962 August 15, 1962 310 [23][24]
1.05 Gherman Titov Vostok 2 August 6, 1961 N/A N/A N/A August 6, 1961 August 7, 1961 371 [23][25]
0.075 Yuri Gagarin Vostok 1 April 12, 1961 N/A N/A N/A April 12, 1961 April 12, 1961 116 [23][26] First human spaceflight

References[edit]

  1. ^ Rex Hall & David Shayler (2003). Soyuz: A Universal Spacecraft. Springer-Praxis. ISBN 978-1-85233-657-8.
  2. ^ Pearlman, Robert (26 March 2015). "One Year in Space: A History of Ultra-Long Missions Off Planet Earth". Space.com. Retrieved 13 April 2015.
  3. ^ Carroll, Michael (2015). Living Among Giants: Exploring and Settling the Outer Solar System. Springer. p. 195. ISBN 3319106732.
  4. ^ Pearlman, Robert (17 June 2010). "Cosmonaut Leonid Kizim, Who Visited 2 Space Stations in 1 Mission, Dies". Space.com. Retrieved 13 April 2015.
  5. ^ "Soviet-era cosmonaut Anatoly Berezovoy, commanded Salyut space station, dies". collectSpace. 20 Sep 2014. Retrieved 13 April 2015.
  6. ^ a b c Häuplik-Meusburger, Sandra (18 October 2011). "Architecture for Astronauts: An Activity-based Approach". Springer Science & Business Media – via Google Books.
  7. ^ Kerrod, Robin (14 June 2017). "Space Stations". Gareth Stevens – via Google Books.
  8. ^ Pike, John. "Soyuz 26 and Soyuz 27". www.globalsecurity.org. Retrieved 2017-01-05.
  9. ^ "Skylab Flight Summary". www-pao.ksc.nasa.gov. Retrieved 2017-01-04.
  10. ^ [1]
  11. ^ "Second crew on Skylab: Breaking all records - Sen.com". Retrieved 2017-01-04.
  12. ^ a b Time Magazine (12 July 1971). "Triumph and Tragedy of Soyuz 11". Time Magazine. Retrieved 20 October 2007.
  13. ^ "Skylab Mission 2". www-pao.ksc.nasa.gov. Retrieved 2017-01-04.
  14. ^ "Salyut 1: The First Space Station". Space.com. Retrieved 2017-01-05.
  15. ^ "The Soyuz 11 Decompression Accident: Death in Space". Space Safety Magazine. 2013-04-28. Retrieved 2017-01-05.
  16. ^ a b c "ch9". history.nasa.gov. Retrieved 2017-02-03.
  17. ^ "Soyuz-9: New flight-duration record - Sen.com". Retrieved 2017-01-05.
  18. ^ "Gemini 7". www.astronautix.com. Retrieved 2017-01-05.
  19. ^ Granath, Bob (3 August 2015). "Gemini V: Paving the Way for Long Duration Spaceflight".
  20. ^ "Gemini 5". www.astronautix.com.
  21. ^ "Astronautic World Records: Spacecraft with one astronaut – General category". Fédération Aéronautique Internationale. Archived from the original on 2015-09-24. Cite uses deprecated parameter |deadurl= (help)
  22. ^ "NASA – NSSDCA – Spacecraft – Details". nssdc.gsfc.nasa.gov. Retrieved 2017-01-05.
  23. ^ a b c "ch9". history.nasa.gov.
  24. ^ "Vostok 3". www.astronautix.com. Retrieved 2017-01-05.
  25. ^ "Vostok 2". www.astronautix.com. Retrieved 2017-01-05.
  26. ^ "The Most Extreme Human Spaceflight Records". Space.com. Retrieved 2017-01-05.

See also[edit]