Handover of Hong Kong

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
Jump to navigation Jump to search

Handover of Hong Kong
Date(s)1 July 1997
Location(s)Hong Kong
ParticipantsPeople's Republic of China, United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland

The transfer of sovereignty over Hong Kong,[1][2][3] commonly known as the handover of Hong Kong (or simply the Handover, also the Return in mainland China and Hong Kong), occurred at midnight at the start of 1 July 1997, when the United Kingdom ended administration for the colony of Hong Kong and returned control of the territory to China. Hong Kong became a special administrative region and continues to maintain governing and economic systems separate from those of mainland China.

This event ended 156 years of British colonial rule in Hong Kong. The territory was Britain's last substantial overseas possession. With a population of about 6.5 million in 1997, Hong Kong constituted 97% of the total population of all British Dependent Territories at the time. The retrocession is considered by some to definitively mark the end of the British Empire.

Overview[edit]

Britain acquired Hong Kong Island in 1842, the Kowloon Peninsula in 1860, and the lease of the New Territories in 1898.

By the 1820s and 1830s, the British had conquered parts of India and had intentions of growing cotton in these lands to offset the amount of cotton they were buying from America. When this endeavour failed, the British realised they could grow poppies at an incredible rate. These poppies could then be turned into opium, which the Chinese highly desired, but their laws prohibited. So the British plan was grow poppies in India, convert it into opium, smuggle the opium in China and trade it for tea, and sell the tea back in Britain. The illegal opium trade was highly successful, and the drug was very profitably smuggled into China in extremely large volumes.[4]

The United Kingdom obtained control over portions of Hong Kong's territory through three treaties concluded with Qing China after the Opium Wars:

Despite the finite nature of the New Territories lease, this portion of the colony was developed just as rapidly as, and became highly integrated with, the rest of Hong Kong. As the end of the lease approached, and by the time of serious negotiations over the future status of Hong Kong in the 1980s, it was thought impractical to separate the ceded territories and return only the New Territories to China. In addition, with the scarcity of land and natural resources in Hong Kong Island and Kowloon, large-scale infrastructure investments had been made in the New Territories, with break-evens lying well past 30 June 1997.[5]

When the People's Republic of China obtained its seat in the United Nations as a result of the UN General Assembly Resolution 2758 in 1971, it began to act diplomatically on its previously lost sovereignty over both Hong Kong and Macau. In March 1972, the Chinese UN representative, Huang Hua, wrote to the United Nations Decolonization Committee to state the position of the Chinese government:

"The questions of Hong Kong and Macau belong to the category of questions resulting from the series of unequal treaties which the imperialists imposed on China. Hong Kong and Macau are part of Chinese territory occupied by the British and Portuguese authorities. The settlement of the questions of Hong Kong and Macau is entirely within China's sovereign right and do not at all fall under the ordinary category of colonial territories. Consequently they should not be included in the list of colonial territories covered by the declaration on the granting of independence to colonial territories and people. With regard to the questions of Hong Kong and Macau, the Chinese government has consistently held that they should be settled in an appropriate way when conditions are ripe."[6]

The same year, on 8 November, the United Nations General Assembly passed the resolution on removing Hong Kong and Macau from the official list of colonies.[6]

In March 1979 the Governor of Hong Kong, Murray MacLehose, paid his first official visit to the People's Republic of China (PRC), taking the initiative to raise the question of Hong Kong's sovereignty with Deng Xiaoping.[7] Without clarifying and establishing the official position of the PRC government, the arranging of real estate leases and loans agreements in Hong Kong within the next 18 years would become difficult.[5]

In response to concerns over land leases in the New Territories, MacLehose proposed that British administration of the whole of Hong Kong, as opposed to sovereignty, be allowed to continue after 1997.[8] He also proposed that contracts include the phrase "for so long as the Crown administers the territory".[9]

In fact, as early as the mid-1970s, Hong Kong had faced additional risks raising loans for large-scale infrastructure projects such as its Mass Transit Railway (MTR) system and a new airport. Caught unprepared, Deng asserted the necessity of Hong Kong's return to China, upon which Hong Kong would be given special status by the PRC government.

MacLehose's visit to the PRC raised the curtain on the issue of Hong Kong's sovereignty: Britain was made aware of the PRC's intent to resume sovereignty over Hong Kong, and began to make arrangements accordingly to ensure the sustenance of her interests within the territory, as well as initiating the creation of a withdrawal plan in case of emergency.

Three years later, Deng received the former British Prime Minister Edward Heath, who had been dispatched as the special envoy of Prime Minister Margaret Thatcher to establish an understanding of the PRC's plans with regards to the retrocession of Hong Kong; during their meeting, Deng outlined his plans to make the territory a special economic zone, which would retain its capitalist system under Chinese sovereignty.[10]

In the same year, Edward Youde, who succeeded MacLehose as the 26th Governor of Hong Kong, led a delegation of five Executive Councillors to London, including Chung Sze-yuen, Lydia Dunn, and Roger Lobo.[11] Chung presented their position on the sovereignty of Hong Kong to Thatcher, encouraging her to take into consideration the interests of the native Hong Kong population in her upcoming visit to China.[11]

In light of the increasing openness of the PRC government and economic reforms on the mainland, the then British Prime Minister Margaret Thatcher sought the PRC's agreement to a continued British presence in the territory.[12]

However, the PRC took a contrary position: not only did the PRC wish for the New Territories, on lease until 1997, to be placed under the PRC's jurisdiction, it also refused to recognise the onerous "unfair and unequal treaties" under which Hong Kong Island and Kowloon had been ceded to Britain in perpetuity after the Opium Wars.[13] Consequently, the PRC recognised only the British administration in Hong Kong, but not British sovereignty.[13]

Talks[edit]

Major events, 1979–1997
  • 24 March 1979: Hong Kong Governor Sir Murray MacLehose was invited to visit Guangzhou and Beijing to find out the attitude of the Chinese government on the issue of Hong Kong.
  • 29 March 1979: Sir Murray MacLehose met paramount leader Deng Xiaoping and raised the issue of Hong Kong for the first time. Deng remarked that the investors could set their minds at peace.
  • 4 April 1979: The Kowloon–Canton through-train routes were restored after 30 years of non-service.
  • 3 May 1979: The Conservative Party won the U.K. election.
  • 29 October 1979: Premier Hua Guofeng visited Britain and had a meeting with British prime minister Margaret Thatcher. Both of them expressed their concern to maintain the stability and prosperity of Hong Kong.
  • 12 May 1980: Tabled by the Conservative Party in the British government, a new status "British Overseas Territories citizen" was introduced. This status proposal was widely opposed by Hong Kong people.
  • 3 April 1981: Foreign Secretary Lord Carrington met Deng Xiaoping in his visit to Beijing.
  • 30 September 1981: Chairman of the NPC Ye Jianying issued nine guiding principles concerning a peaceful reunification of Taiwan and mainland China.
  • 30 October 1981: The House of Commons passed the new British Nationality Act.
  • November 1981: The Beijing government invited some Hong Kong citizens to help organising a united front in the handling of the Hong Kong issue.
  • 6 January 1982: Chinese Premier Zhao Ziyang received Lord Privy Seal Humphrey Atkins. Zhao insisted that the PRC would uphold its sovereignty over Hong Kong.
  • 10 March 1982: Vice Premier Gu Mu received Sir John Bremridge, promising to maintain Hong Kong's stability and prosperity.
  • 6 April 1982: Deng Xiaoping revealed his wish to have official contact with the British government.
  • 8 May 1982: Sir Edward Youde arrived as the 26th Governor of Hong Kong.
  • May 1982: Deng Xiaoping and Zhao Ziyang collected advice from Hong Kong notables such as Li Ka-shing and Ann Tse-kei.
  • 15 June 1982: Deng Xiaoping officially announced the position of the Chinese government in the context of the Hong Kong 97 Issue, marking the first public statement on part of the PRC with regards to the issue.

Before the negotiations[edit]

In the wake of Governor MacLehose's visit, Britain and the PRC established initial diplomatic contact for further discussions of the Hong Kong question, paving the way for Thatcher's first visit to the PRC in September 1982.[14]

Margaret Thatcher, in discussion with Deng Xiaoping, reiterated the validity of an extension of the lease of Hong Kong territory, particularly in light of binding treaties, including the Treaty of Nanking in 1842, the Convention of Peking in 1856, and the Convention for the Extension of Hong Kong Territory signed in 1890.

In response, Deng Xiaoping cited clearly the lack of room for compromise on the question of sovereignty over Hong Kong; the PRC, as the successor of Qing dynasty and the Republic of China on the mainland, would recover the entirety of the New Territories, Kowloon and Hong Kong Island. China considered treaties about Hong Kong as unequal and ultimately refused to accept any outcome that would indicate permanent loss of sovereignty over Hong Kong's area, whatever wording the former treaties had.[15]

During talks with Thatcher, China planned to invade and seize Hong Kong if the negotiations set off unrest in the colony. Thatcher later said that Deng told her bluntly that China could easily take Hong Kong by force, stating that "I could walk in and take the whole lot this afternoon", to which she replied that "there is nothing I could do to stop you, but the eyes of the world would now know what China is like".[16]

After her visit with Deng in Beijing, Thatcher was received in Hong Kong as the first British Prime Minister to set foot on the territory whilst in office. At a press conference, Thatcher re-emphasised the validity of the three treaties, asserting the need for countries to respect treaties on universal terms: "There are three treaties in existence; we stick by our treaties unless we decide on something else. At the moment, we stick by our treaties."[12]

At the same time, at the 5th session of the 5th National People's Congress, the constitution was amended to include a new Article 31 which stated that the country might establish Special Administrative Regions (SARs) when necessary.[17]

The additional Article would hold tremendous significance in settling the question of Hong Kong and later Macau, putting into social consciousness the concept of "One country, two systems". The concept would prove useful to deploy until the territories were secured and conditions were ripe for its gradual abrogation.

Negotiations begin[edit]

A few months after Thatcher's visit to Beijing, the PRC government had yet to open negotiations with the British government regarding the sovereignty of Hong Kong.

Shortly before the initiation of sovereignty talks, Governor Youde declared his intention to represent the population of Hong Kong at the negotiations. This statement sparked a strong response from the PRC, prompting Deng Xiaoping to denounce talk of "the so-called 'three-legged stool'", which implied that Hong Kong was a party to talks on its future, alongside Beijing and London.[18]

At the preliminary stage of the talks, the British government proposed an exchange of sovereignty for administration and the implementation of a British administration post-handover.[12]

The PRC government refused, contending that the notions of sovereignty and administration were inseparable, and although it recognised Macau as a "Chinese territory under Portuguese administration", this was only temporary.[19]

In fact, during informal exchanges between 1979 and 1981, the PRC had proposed a "Macau solution" in Hong Kong, under which it would remain under British administration at China's discretion.[7]

However, this had previously been rejected following the 1967 Leftist riots, with the then Governor, David Trench, claiming the leftists' aim was to leave the UK without effective control, or "to Macau us".[20]

The conflict that arose at that point of the negotiations ended the possibility of further negotiation. During the reception of former British Prime Minister Edward Heath during his sixth visit to the PRC, Deng Xiaoping commented quite clearly on the impossibility of exchanging sovereignty for administration, declaring an ultimatum: the British government must modify or give up its position or the PRC will announce its resolution of the issue of Hong Kong sovereignty unilaterally.[21]

In 1983, Typhoon Ellen ravaged Hong Kong, causing great amounts of damage to both life and property.[22] The Hong Kong dollar plummeted on Black Saturday, and the Financial Secretary John Bremridge publicly associated the economic uncertainty with the instability of the political climate.[23] In response, the PRC government condemned Britain through the press for "playing the economic card" in order to achieve their ends: to intimidate the PRC into conceding to British demands.[24]

British concession[edit]

Governor Youde with nine members of the Hong Kong Executive Council travelled to London to discuss with Prime Minister Thatcher the crisis of confidence—the problem with morale among the people of Hong Kong arising from the ruination of the Sino-British talks. The session concluded with Thatcher's writing of a letter addressed to the PRC Premier Zhao Ziyang.

In the letter, she expressed Britain's willingness to explore arrangements optimising the future prospects of Hong Kong while utilising the PRC's proposals as a foundation. Furthermore, and perhaps most significantly, she expressed Britain's concession on its position of a continued British presence in the form of an administration post-handover.

Two rounds of negotiations were held in October and November. On the sixth round of talks in November, Britain formally conceded its intentions of either maintaining a British administration in Hong Kong or seeking some form of co-administration with the PRC, and showed its sincerity in discussing PRC's proposal on the 1997 issue. Obstacles were cleared.

Simon Keswick, chairman of Jardine Matheson & Co., said they were not pulling out of Hong Kong, but a new holding company would be established in Bermuda instead.[25] The PRC took this as yet another plot by the British. The Hong Kong government explained that it had been informed about the move only a few days before the announcement. The government would not and could not stop the company from making a business decision.

Just as the atmosphere of the talks was becoming cordial, members of the Legislative Council of Hong Kong felt impatient at the long-running secrecy over the progress of Sino-British talks on the Hong Kong issue. A motion, tabled by legislator Roger Lobo, declared "This Council deems it essential that any proposals for the future of Hong Kong should be debated in this Council before agreement is reached", was passed unanimously.[26]

The PRC attacked the motion furiously, referring to it as "somebody's attempt to play the three-legged stool trick again".[27] At length, the PRC and Britain initiated the Joint Declaration on the question of Hong Kong's future in Beijing. Zhou Nan, the then PRC Deputy Foreign Minister and leader of the negotiation team, and Sir Richard Evans, British Ambassador to Beijing and leader of the team, signed respectively on behalf of the two governments.[28]

Sino-British Joint Declaration[edit]

The Sino-British Joint Declaration was signed by the Prime Ministers of the People's Republic of China and the United Kingdom governments on 19 December 1984 in Beijing. The Declaration entered into force with the exchange of instruments of ratification on 27 May 1985 and was registered by the People's Republic of China and United Kingdom governments at the United Nations on 12 June 1985.

In the Joint Declaration, the People's Republic of China Government stated that it had decided to resume the exercise of sovereignty over Hong Kong (including Hong Kong Island, Kowloon, and the New Territories) with effect from 1 July 1997 and the United Kingdom Government declared that it would restore Hong Kong to the PRC with effect from 1 July 1997. In the document, the People's Republic of China Government also declared its basic policies regarding Hong Kong.

In accordance with the "One country, two systems" principle agreed between the United Kingdom and the People's Republic of China, the socialist system of the People's Republic of China would not be practised in the Hong Kong Special Administrative Region (HKSAR), and Hong Kong's previous capitalist system and its way of life would remain unchanged for a period of 50 years. This would have left Hong Kong unchanged until 2047.

The Joint Declaration provided that these basic policies should be stipulated in the Hong Kong Basic Law. The ceremony of the signing of the Sino-British Joint Declaration took place at 18:00, 19 December 1984 at the Western Main Chamber of the Great Hall of the People. The Hong Kong and Macao Affairs Office at first proposed a list of 60–80 Hong Kong people to attend the ceremony. The number was finally extended to 101.

The list included Hong Kong government officials, members of the Legislative and Executive Councils, chairmen of the Hongkong and Shanghai Banking Corporation and Standard Chartered Bank, prominent businessmen such as Li Ka-shing, Pao Yue-kong and Fok Ying-tung, and also Martin Lee Chu-ming and Szeto Wah.

Universal suffrage[edit]

The Hong Kong Basic Law ensured, among other things, that Hong Kong will retain its legislative system, and people's rights and freedom for fifty years, as a special administrative region (SAR) of China. The central government in Beijing maintains control over Hong Kong's foreign affairs as well as the legal interpretation of the Basic Law. The latter has led democracy advocates and some Hong Kong residents to argue, after the fact, that the territory has yet to achieve universal suffrage as promised by the Basic Law, leading to mass demonstrations in 2014.[29][30][31] In 2019, demonstrations that started as a protest against an extradition law also led to massive demonstrations (1.7 million on 11 August and 18 August 2019), again demanding universal suffrage, but also the resignation of Carrie Lam (the current Chief Executive).[32]

Drafting of Basic Law[edit]

The Basic Law was drafted by a Drafting Committee composed of members from both Hong Kong and Mainland China. A Basic Law Consultative Committee formed purely by Hong Kong people was established in 1985 to canvas views in Hong Kong on the drafts.

The first draft was published in April 1988, followed by a five-month public consultation exercise. The second draft was published in February 1989, and the subsequent consultation period ended in October 1989.

The Basic Law was formally promulgated on 4 April 1990 by the NPC, together with the designs for the flag and emblem of the HKSAR. Some members of the Basic Law drafting committee were ousted by Beijing following 4 June 1989 Tiananmen Square protests, after voicing views supporting the student protesters.

The Basic Law was said to be a mini-constitution drafted with the participation of Hong Kong people. The political system had been the most controversial issue in the drafting of the Basic Law. The special issue sub-group adopted the political model put forward by Louis Cha. This "mainstream" proposal was criticised for being too conservative.[citation needed]

According to Clauses 158 and 159 of the Basic Law, powers of interpretation and amendment of the Basic Law are vested in the Standing Committee of the National People's Congress and the National People's Congress, respectively. Hong Kong's people have limited influence.

Tide of migration[edit]

After the Tiananmen Square protests of 1989, the Executive Councillors and the Legislative Councillors of Hong Kong unexpectedly held an urgent meeting, in which they agreed unanimously that the British Government should give the people of Hong Kong the right of abode in the United Kingdom.[33]

More than 10,000 Hong Kong residents rushed to Central in order to get an application form for residency in the United Kingdom. On the eve of the deadline, over 100,000 lined up overnight for a British National (Overseas) application form. While mass migration began well before 1989, the event led to the peak migration year in 1992 with 66,000 leaving.[34]

Many citizens were pessimistic towards the future of Hong Kong and the transfer of the region's sovereignty. A tide of emigration, which was to last for no less than five years, broke out. At its peak, citizenship of small countries, such as Tonga, was also in great demand.[35]

Singapore, which also had a predominantly Chinese population, was another popular destination, with the country's Commission (now Consulate-General) being besieged by anxious Hong Kong residents.[36] By September 1989, 6000 applications for residency in Singapore had been approved by the Commission.[37]

Some consul staff were suspended or arrested for their corrupt behaviour in granting immigration visas. In April 1997, the acting immigration officer at the US Consulate-General, James DeBates, was suspended after his wife was arrested for smuggling of Chinese migrants into the United States.[38] The previous year, his predecessor, Jerry Stuchiner, had been arrested for smuggling forged Honduran passports into the territory before being sentenced to 40 months in prison.[39]

Canada (Vancouver and Toronto), the United Kingdom (London, Glasgow, and Manchester), Australia (Sydney and Melbourne), and the United States (San Francisco and New York) were, by and large, the most popular destinations. The United Kingdom devised the British Nationality Selection Scheme, granting 50,000 families British citizenship under the British Nationality Act (Hong Kong) 1990.[40]

Vancouver was among the most popular destinations, earning the nickname of "Hongcouver".[41] Richmond, a suburb of Vancouver, was nicknamed "Little Hong Kong".[42] All in all, from the start of the settlement of the negotiation in 1984 to 1997, nearly 1 million people emigrated; consequently, Hong Kong suffered serious loss of human and financial capital.[43]

Last governor[edit]

Chris Patten became the last governor of Hong Kong. This was regarded as a turning point in Hong Kong's history. Unlike his predecessors, Patten was not a diplomat, but a career politician and former Member of Parliament. He introduced democratic reforms which pushed PRC–British relations to a standstill and affected the negotiations for a smooth handover.

Patten introduced a package of electoral reforms in the Legislative Council. These reforms proposed to enlarge the electorate, thus making voting in the Legislative Council more democratic. This move posed significant changes because Hong Kong citizens would have the power to make decisions regarding their future.

Handover ceremony[edit]

The handover ceremony was held at the new wing of the Hong Kong Convention and Exhibition Centre in Wan Chai on the night of 30 June 1997.

The principal British guest was Prince Charles, who read a farewell speech on behalf of the Queen. The newly elected Labour Prime Minister, Tony Blair, the Foreign Secretary Robin Cook, the departing Governor Chris Patten and General Sir Charles Guthrie, Chief of the Defence Staff, also attended.

Representing the People's Republic of China were the President, Jiang Zemin, the Premier, Li Peng, and the first chief executive Tung Chee-hwa. The event was broadcast around the world.[44][45]

Additional effects[edit]

Before and after handover[edit]

Unchanged after 30 June 1997 Changed after 30 June 1997
  1. English continued as an official language and is still taught in all schools. However, many schools teach in Cantonese in parallel with Mandarin and English.[46]
  2. The border with the mainland, while now known as the boundary, continued to be patrolled as before, with separate immigration and customs controls.[47]
  3. Hong Kong citizens were still required to apply for a Mainland Travel Permit, in order to visit mainland China.[48]
  4. Citizens of mainland China still did not have the right of abode in Hong Kong.[49] Instead, they had to apply for a permit to visit or settle in Hong Kong from the PRC government.[50]
  5. Hong Kong remained a common law jurisdiction, with a separate legal system from that used in the mainland, with previous laws remaining in force provided that they did not conflict with the Basic Law.[51]
  6. The Hong Kong dollar continued to be used as its sole currency, and the responsibility of the Hong Kong Monetary Authority.[52] The Bank of China had already started issuing banknotes in 1994.[53]
  7. Hong Kong continued to operate as a separate customs territory from mainland China under Article 116 of the Basic Law.[54]
  8. Hong Kong remained an individual member of various international organisations, such as the World Trade Organization and APEC.[55]
  9. Hong Kong, which remained an individual member of the International Olympic Committee, continued to send its own team to international sporting events such as the Olympics.[56]
  10. Hong Kong maintained Hong Kong Economic and Trade Offices overseas, as well as in the Greater China Region. These include the offices in London, Washington D.C., Brussels and Geneva, previously known as Hong Kong Government Offices.[57]
  11. Many countries' consulates-general in Hong Kong remained outside the jurisdiction of their embassies in Beijing, such as the United States Consulate General, which reports directly to the Department of State.[58]
  12. The Chung Hwa Travel Service, which functioned as Taiwan's de facto mission in Hong Kong, continued to function as before, issuing visas to visitors from Hong Kong, mainland China and other countries.[59] In 2011 it was renamed the Taipei Economic and Cultural Office in Hong Kong.[60]
  13. Hong Kong continued to negotiate and maintain its own aviation bilateral treaties with foreign countries and territories.[61] Agreements with Taiwan signed in 1996 remained in force after the change of sovereignty, and were replaced by "the air transportation agreement between Taiwan and Hong Kong", which retained international regulations, such as regulations on customs.[62]
  14. Signs (and fonts), labels, and roadway construction standards on Hong Kong roads and expressways continue to follow the European Union roadway standards, particularly those of the UK.[63]
  15. Hong Kong continued to drive on the left, unlike Mainland China, which drives on the right.[64] Vehicle registration plates continued to be modelled on those of the United Kingdom, white on the front and yellow on the back, with the vehicle registration mark in a similar font.[65]
  16. Hong Kong-registered vehicles still required special cross-border plates to travel to and from mainland China, similar to those of Guangdong.[66] Vehicles registered in the mainland can enter Hong Kong under the Hong Kong mainland China driving scheme.[67]
  17. Hong Kong citizens continued to have easier access to many countries, including those in Europe and North America, with Hong Kong SAR passport holders having visa-free access to 154 other countries and territories.[68]
  18. Many former colonial citizens could still use British National (Overseas) and British citizen passports after 1997. (Main article: British nationality law and Hong Kong)
  19. It continued to have more political freedoms than mainland China, with the holding of demonstrations and the annual memorial to commemorate the Tiananmen Square protests of 1989 continuing to be held in Victoria Park.[69]
  20. It continued to have a multi-party political system.[70] This is separate from the Communist-led United Front on the mainland.[71]
  21. It continued to have more freedom of the press than mainland China, under Article 27 of the Basic Law, despite the growing influence of Beijing.[72]
  22. It also continued to have more religious freedoms, with the Roman Catholic Diocese of Hong Kong remaining under the jurisdiction of the Holy See, instead of the Chinese Patriotic Catholic Association on the mainland.[73] The Falun Gong spiritual practice also remained legal in Hong Kong, despite encountering opposition from the SAR government.[74]
  23. Many other technical standards from the United Kingdom, such as electrical plugs (BS 1363) are still used in Hong Kong.[75] However, telephone companies changed from installing UK-style BS 6312 telephone sockets to installing US-style RJ11 ones.[76] Hong Kong also adopted the digital TV standard devised in mainland China for TV transmissions, instead of DVB-T, to replace PAL-I.[77] (Main article: Technical standards in colonial Hong Kong)
  24. Hong Kong retained a separate international dialling code (852) and telephone numbering plan from that of the mainland.[78] Calls between Hong Kong and the mainland still required international dialling.[79]
  25. Hong Kong retained a separate ISO 3166 code, HK.[80] It also retained a top-level domain, .hk.[81] However, the Chinese code CN-91 was also used.[82]
  26. Hong Kong retained its own separate postal services, with Hongkong Post operating separately from China Post. Hong Kong was not made part of the Chinese postcode system, nor did it introduce a postcode system of its own.[83]
  27. The Hong Kong government continued to make a subvention to the English Schools Foundation, responsible for English-medium schools, which would not be phased out until 2016.[84]
  28. The former British military drill, marching and words of command in English continued in all disciplinary services including all civil organisations.[85] The PLA soldiers of the Chinese Garrison in Hong Kong have their own drills and Mandarin words of command.
  29. Statues of British monarchs remained. Queen Victoria's statue remains in Victoria Park.[86] King George VI's statue similarly remained in Hong Kong Zoological and Botanical Gardens.[87]
  30. British-inspired road names remain unchanged.[88]
  1. From 2012, secondary education moved away from the English model of five years secondary schooling plus two years of university matriculation to the Chinese model of three years of junior secondary plus another three years of senior secondary, while university education was extended from three years to four.[89]
  2. The chief executive became the head of government, elected by a Selection Committee, whose members were mainly elected from among professional sectors and business leaders.[90] The Governor was appointed by the United Kingdom.[91]
  3. The Legislative Council, elected in 1995, was dissolved and replaced by a Provisional Legislative Council, before elections were held to a new Council, in which only 20 out of 60 seats were directly elected.[92] The decision to dissolve the Legislative Council and replace it with a Provisional Legislative Council was criticised by representatives of the UK government.[93]
  4. Foreign nationals were not allowed to stand for directly elected seats in the Legislative Council, only for indirectly elected seats.[94]
  5. All public office buildings now flew the flags of the PRC and the Hong Kong SAR. The Union Flag now flew only outside the British Consulate-General and other British premises.
  6. The British national anthem God Save the Queen, was no longer played after closedown on television stations.[95] The Chinese national anthem, March of the Volunteers was now played instead.[96]
  7. At international sporting events such as the Olympics, Hong Kong was now known as Hong Kong, China.[56] Hong Kong athletes and teams compete under the Hong Kong SAR flag instead of the British flag of Hong Kong, and gold medallists were honoured with the Chinese national anthem, instead of the British national anthem.[97]
  8. The Court of Final Appeal replaced the Judicial Committee of the Privy Council as the highest court of appeal.[98]
  9. The Supreme Court was replaced by the High Court.[99]
  10. The Attorney General was replaced by the Secretary for Justice.[100]
  11. The Central People's Government was now formally represented in Hong Kong by a Liaison Office, dealing with domestic matters.[101] This had been established under British rule as the Xinhua News Agency Hong Kong Branch, before it adopted its present name in 2000.[102]
  12. The Hong Kong SAR Government was now formally represented in Beijing by the Office of the Government of the Hong Kong Special Administrative Region.[103]
  13. The Ministry of Foreign Affairs of the People's Republic of China was represented in Hong Kong by a Commissioner.[104]
  14. The People's Liberation Army established a Garrison, taking over responsibility for defence from British Forces Overseas Hong Kong.[105] The Prince of Wales Building was renamed the Chinese People's Liberation Army Forces Hong Kong Building, while the Prince of Wales Barracks was similarly renamed the Central Barracks, with effect from January 2002.[106]
  15. Flags were no longer flown at the Cenotaph to remember the war dead; previously British troops raised flags representing the British Army, Royal Navy and Royal Air Force every morning, lowering them again before sunset.[107]
  16. Government House was not used as the residence of the first chief executive, Tung Chee-hwa.[108] However, his successor, Donald Tsang, moved into the compound in 2006.[109]
  17. Queen Elizabeth II's portrait was removed from public offices.[110] Coins issued since 1993 no longer had the Queen's head, instead having the Bauhinia.[111]
  18. Postage stamps now displayed the words "Hong Kong, China".[112] A set of definitive stamps, bearing the words "Hong Kong" with no connotation of sovereignty, was introduced in January 1997.[113]
  19. The "Royal" title was dropped from almost all organisations that had been granted it, with the exception of the Royal Hong Kong Yacht Club.[110]
  20. The Crown was removed from the crest of the Hong Kong Police Force, and replaced by the Bauhinia.[110]
  21. Legal references to the "Crown" were replaced by references to the "State".[114] Barristers who had been appointed Queen's Counsel would now be known as Senior Counsel.[115]
  22. The British honours system was replaced by a local system, in which the Grand Bauhinia Medal was the highest award.[116]
  23. Public holidays changed, with British-inspired occasions, such as the Queen's Official Birthday, Liberation Day, and Remembrance Day being replaced by PRC National Day and Hong Kong SAR Establishment Day.[88] Double Ten Day, commemorating the establishment of the Republic of China, was abolished as a public holiday in 1950.[117]
  24. Many of the red Royal Mail pillar boxes were removed from the streets of Hong Kong and replaced by green Hongkong Post boxes.[108] All others were re-painted.[118]
  25. British citizens (without right of abode in Hong Kong) were no longer able to work in Hong Kong without a visa; the policy was changed on 1 April 1997.[119][120]
  26. The United Kingdom was now represented by the British Consulate-General, which reports directly to the Foreign and Commonwealth Office.[121] This has responsibility for British citizens, instead of the Hong Kong Immigration Department.[122] Previously, the country's commercial interests were represented by a British Trade Commission.[123] It was headed by a Senior Trade Commissioner, who became the first Consul-General.[124]
  27. Hong Kong was no longer linked to the Commonwealth and no longer participated in related organisations or events.[125] Consular missions of Commonwealth member states in Hong Kong were no longer known as Commissions, but as Consulates-General.[126]
  28. Countries which did not have diplomatic relations with the United Kingdom, but had diplomatic relations with the People's Republic of China, such as North Korea and Iran, were allowed to establish or re-open Consulates-General.[127]
  29. Consulates of countries which maintained diplomatic relations with Taiwan were closed.[128] Only South Africa, which was to establish relations with the People's Republic of China from 1998, was allowed to keep its Consulate General open for an interim period.[129]
  30. Hong Kong's aircraft registration prefix changed from VR to B, bringing it into line with mainland China and Taiwan.[130]
  31. Newspapers, such as the South China Morning Post, changed to heading their pages with "National", rather than "Local" and 'China', and began including Chinese names in Chinese characters. However, the online edition still uses "China" and only displays Chinese names in Roman script.[131]
  32. A giant golden statue of a Bauhinia blakeana was erected in a public space outside the Hong Kong Convention and Exhibition Centre, named Golden Bauhinia Square, along with a Reunification Monument.[132]

Rose Garden Project[edit]

After the Tiananmen Square protests of 1989, the Hong Kong government proposed a grand "Rose Garden Project" to restore faith and solidarity among the residents.[133] As the construction of the new Hong Kong International Airport would extend well after the handover, Governor Wilson met PRC Premier Li Peng in Beijing to ease the mind of the PRC government.[134]

The communist press published stories that the project was an evil plan to bleed Hong Kong dry before the handover, leaving the territory in serious debt.[135] After three years of negotiations, Britain and the PRC finally reached an agreement over the construction of the new airport, and signed a Memorandum of Understanding.[136] Removing hills and reclaiming land, it took only a few years to construct the new airport.

Views of the Kowloon Walled City[edit]

The Walled City was originally a single fort built in the mid-19th century on the site of an earlier 17th century watch post on the Kowloon Peninsula of Hong Kong.[137] After the ceding of Hong Kong Island to Britain in 1842 (Treaty of Nanjing), Manchu Qing Dynasty authorities of China felt it necessary for them to establish a military and administrative post to rule the area and to check further British influence in the area.

The 1898 Convention which handed additional parts of Hong Kong (the New Territories) to Britain for 99 years excluded the Walled City, with a population of roughly 700. It stated that China could continue to keep troops there, so long as they did not interfere with Britain's temporary rule.

Britain quickly went back on this unofficial part of the agreement, attacking Kowloon Walled City in 1899, only to find it deserted. They did nothing with it, or the outpost, and thus posed the question of Kowloon Walled City's ownership squarely up in the air. The outpost consisted of a yamen, as well as buildings which grew into low-lying, densely packed neighbourhoods from the 1890s to 1940s.

The enclave remained part of Chinese territory despite the turbulent events of the early 20th century that saw the fall of the Qing government, the establishment of the Republic of China and later, a Communist Chinese government (PRC).

Squatters began to occupy the Walled City, resisting several attempts by Britain in 1948 to drive them out. The Walled City became a haven for criminals and drug addicts, as the Hong Kong Police had no right to enter the City and China refused maintainability. The 1949 foundation of the People's Republic of China added thousands of refugees to the population, many from Guangdong; by this time, Britain had had enough, and simply adopted a "hands-off" policy.

A murder that occurred in Kowloon Walled City in 1959 set off a small diplomatic crisis, as the two nations each tried to get the other to accept responsibility for a vast tract of land now virtually ruled by anti-Manchurian Triads.

After the Joint Declaration in 1984, the PRC allowed British authorities to demolish the City and resettle its inhabitants. The mutual decision to tear down the walled city was made in 1987.[138] The government spent up to HK$ 3 billion to resettle the residents and shops.

Some residents were not satisfied with the compensation, and some even obstructed the demolition in every possible way.[139] Ultimately, everything was settled, and the Walled City became a park.[140]

International reaction[edit]

The Republic of China on Taiwan promulgated the Laws and Regulations Regarding Hong Kong & Macao Affairs on 2 April 1997 by Presidential Order, and the Executive Yuan on 19 June 1997 ordered the provisions pertaining to Hong Kong to take effect on 1 July 1997.[141]

The United States–Hong Kong Policy Act or more commonly known as the Hong Kong Policy Act (PL no. 102-383m 106 Stat. 1448) is a 1992 act enacted by the United States Congress. It allows the United States to continue to treat Hong Kong separately from China for matters concerning trade export and economics control after the handover.[142]

The United States was represented by then Secretary of State Madeleine Albright at the Hong Kong handover ceremony.[143] However, she partially boycotted it in protest of China's dissolution of the democratically elected Hong Kong legislature.[144]

End of the British Empire[edit]

Hong Kong 1 July march with British Hong Kong flag

The handover marked the end of British rule in Hong Kong, which was Britain's last substantial overseas territory. Although in statute law set down by Parliament, British Hong Kong had no status of pre-eminence vis-a-vis the other British Dependent Territories (as they were then classified before the term British Overseas Territory was introduced in 2002), Hong Kong was by far the most populous and economically potent. In 1997 the colony had a population of approximately 6.5 million, which represented roughly 97% of the population of the British Dependent Territories as a whole at that time (the next largest, Bermuda, having a 1997 population of approximately only 62,000). With a gross domestic product of approximately US$180 billion in the last year of British rule,[145] Hong Kong's economy was roughly 11% the size of Britain's.[146] Therefore, although the economies of the United Kingdom and Hong Kong were measured separately, the Handover did mean the British economy in its very broadest sense became substantially smaller (by comparison, the acquisition of Hong Kong boosted the size of the Chinese economy, which was then smaller than the United Kingdom's, by 18.4%).[147] As a comparator to Hong Kong, in 2017 Bermuda (as with population, the economically largest of Britain's remaining territories) had a GDP of only US$4.7 billion.[148]

The cession of Hong Kong meant that Britain's remaining territories (excepting the United Kingdom itself) henceforth consisted either of uninhabited lands (for instance the British Antarctic Territory), small islands or micro land masses (such as Montserrat), territories used as military bases (for example Akrotiri and Dhekelia on the island of Cyprus, itself a former crown colony granted independence in 1960), or a combination of the latter two (like Gibraltar). And while many of Britain's remaining territories are significant to the global economy by virtue of being offshore financial centres (Bermuda, the British Virgin Islands, and the Cayman Islands being the most prominent of these), their economies are insubstantial. Demographically, they are also tiny compared to Britain, with a collective population of less than 0.4% of Britain's 2017 population of 66 millions.[149] As of 2018 the combined population of Britain's remaining fourteen Overseas Territories is only approximately 250,000, which is less than all but three districts of Hong Kong, and roughly equal to that of the City of Westminster

Consequently, because ceding Hong Kong came at the end of half a century of decolonisation, and because the handover meant that the United Kingdom became without significant overseas territories, dominions, or colonies for the first time in its history (Great Britain, having been bequeathed the incipient domains of its later empire by inheriting the colonial possessions of the Kingdom of England upon the passing of the Acts of Union 1707, always having been an imperial power, ab initio) the handover of Hong Kong to China is regarded by some as marking the conclusion of the British Empire, with 1 July 1997 being its end date and the handover ceremony being its last diplomatic act.

In popular culture[edit]

Scholars have begun to study the complexities of the transfer as shown in the popular media, such as films, television and video and online games. For example, Hong Kong director Fruit Chan made a sci-fi thriller The Midnight After (2014) that stressed the sense of loss and alienation represented by survivors in an apocalyptic Hong Kong. Chan infuses a political agenda in the film by playing on Hong Kongers' collective anxiety towards communist China.[150] Yiman Wang has argued that America has viewed China through the prisms of films from Shanghai and Hong Kong, with a recent emphasis on futuristic disaster films set in Hong Kong after the transfer goes awry.[151]

See also[edit]

Bibliography[edit]

  • Collins, Lawrence; Morse, C.G.J.; McClean, David; Briggs, Adrian; Harris, Jonathan; McLachlan, Campbell; Hill, Jonathan (2008). Dicey, Morris and Collins on the Conflict of Laws (14th ed.). Sweet & Maxwell. ISBN 978-0-421-88360-4.
  • Fawcett, J.J.; Carruthers, J.M.; North, Peter (2008). Cheshire, North & Fawcett: Private International Law. ISBN 978-0-19-928438-2.
  • Flowerdew, John. The final years of British Hong Kong: The discourse of colonial withdrawal (Springer, 1998).
  • Lane, Kevin. Sovereignty and the status quo: the historical roots of China's Hong Kong policy (Westview Press, 1990).
  • Mark, Chi-kwan. "To ‘educate’ Deng Xiaoping in capitalism: Thatcher's visit to China and the future of Hong Kong in 1982." Cold War History (2015): 1–20.
  • Tang, James TH. "From empire defence to imperial retreat: Britain's postwar China policy and the decolonization of Hong Kong." Modern Asian Studies 28.02 (1994): 317–337.

References[edit]

  1. ^ "This law took effect on 1 July 1997, upon the transfer of sovereignty from the United Kingdom to China" Hong Kong Year Book Archived 25 October 2018 at the Wayback Machine
  2. ^ "...existing system in order to preserve continuity in the administration of the public service after the transfer of sovereignty" Legislative Council of Hong Kong record Archived 6 October 2018 at the Wayback Machine
  3. ^ Parliament of Australia Inquiry: Hong Kong: The Transfer of Sovereignty
  4. ^ Beeching, Jack (1975). The Chinese Opium Wars. New York: Harcourt Brace Jovanovich. p. 74.
  5. ^ a b Feeling the Stones: Reminiscences by David Akers-Jones Archived 22 February 2017 at the Wayback Machine, David Akers-Jones, Hong Kong University Press, 2004, page 109
  6. ^ a b The Hong Kong Reader: Passage to Chinese Sovereignty Archived 22 February 2017 at the Wayback Machine, Ming K. Chan, Gerard A. Postiglione, M.E. Sharpe, 1996, page 45
  7. ^ a b Elections, Political Change and Basic Law Government: Hong Kong in Search of a Political Form Archived 22 February 2017 at the Wayback Machine, Suzanne Pepper in Elections and Democracy in Greater China, Larry Diamond, Ramon H. Myers, OUP Oxford, 2001, page 55
  8. ^ Lord MacLehose Archived 23 November 2016 at the Wayback Machine, The Guardian, 2 June 2000
  9. ^ Strong Borders, Secure Nation: Cooperation and Conflict in China's Territorial Disputes, M. Taylor Fravel, Princeton University Press, 2008, page 224
  10. ^ Hong Kong: The Pearl Made of British Mastery and Chinese Docile-diligence Archived 22 December 2016 at the Wayback Machine, Wei-Bin Zhang, Nova Publishers, 2006, page 68
  11. ^ a b Hong Kong's Journey to Reunification: Memoirs of Sze-yuen Chung Archived 22 February 2017 at the Wayback Machine, Sze Yuen Chung, Chinese University Press, 2001, page 123
  12. ^ a b c How Mrs Thatcher lost Hong Kong, The Independent, Robert Cottrell, 30 August 1992
  13. ^ a b Hong Kong: China's Challenge Archived 22 December 2016 at the Wayback Machine, Michael B. Yahuda, Routledge, 1996, page 45
  14. ^ Hong Kong: The Road to 1997 Archived 22 February 2017 at the Wayback Machine, Roger Buckley, Cambridge University Press, 1997, page 109
  15. ^ Ezra F. Vogel: Deng Xiaoping and the Transformation of China. Library of Congress Cataloging-in-Publication Data 2011. Pages 496–7.
  16. ^ China plotted Hong Kong invasion Archived 8 April 2016 at the Wayback Machine, Michael Sheridan, The Sunday Times, 25 June 2007
  17. ^ Constitution of the People's Republic of China Archived 16 April 2016 at the Wayback Machine, State Council of the People's Republic of China
  18. ^ Benefits of a three-legged stool Archived 27 April 2016 at the Wayback Machine, South China Morning Post, 26 April 2004
  19. ^ China Perspectives Archived 22 February 2017 at the Wayback Machine, Issues 21–26, C.E.F.C., 1999, page 13
  20. ^ Hong Kong's Watershed: The 1967 Riots Archived 22 February 2017 at the Wayback Machine, Gary Ka-wai Cheung, Hong Kong University Press, 2009, page 37
  21. ^ The Chinese government resumed exercise of sovereignty over Hong Kong Archived 1 April 2016 at the Wayback Machine, Ministry of Foreign Affairs, People's Republic of China
  22. ^ Typhoon Ellen Batters Hong Kong, killing 6 Archived 22 February 2017 at the Wayback Machine, United Press International, Sarasota Herald-Tribune, 10 September 1983
  23. ^ Hong Kong business world shaken by political uncertainties Archived 11 April 2016 at the Wayback Machine, Christian Science Monitor, 4 October 1983
  24. ^ Hong Kong Archived 14 April 2016 at the Wayback Machine Hansard, HC Deb 20 January 1988 vol 125 cc971-1018
  25. ^ Summary of World Broadcasts: Far East Archived 22 February 2017 at the Wayback Machine, Part 3, BBC Monitoring Service, 1984
  26. ^ Political Change and the Crisis of Legitimacy in Hong Kong Archived 22 February 2017 at the Wayback Machine, Ian Scott, Ian Scott University of Hawaii Press, 1989, page 210
  27. ^ Daily Report: People's Republic of China Archived 22 February 2017 at the Wayback Machine, Issues 38–45, United States. Foreign Broadcast Information Service, National Technical Information Service, 1993, page 79
  28. ^ ON THIS DAY: 26 September 1984: UK and China agree Hong Kong handover Archived 3 January 2008 at the Wayback Machine, BBC News
  29. ^ Boland, Rory. "What Country Is Hong Kong in? China or Not?". About.com Travel.
  30. ^ "China Resumes Control of Hong Kong, Concluding 156 Years of British Rule". The New York Times.
  31. ^ "1898 and all that—a Brief History of Hong Kong." The Economist, 28 June 1997
  32. ^ "Hong Kong: Timeline of extradition protests". BBC News. 4 September 2019. Retrieved 12 November 2019. What started as demonstrations against an extradition bill have since taken on a much wider scope and are now demanding full democratic rights for Hong Kongers.
  33. ^ A Rough Road ahead Archived 24 April 2016 at the Wayback Machine, Taiwan Review, 1 March 1990
  34. ^ Corruption by Design: Building Clean Government in Mainland China and Hong Kong Archived 22 February 2017 at the Wayback Machine, Melanie Manion, Harvard University Press, page 80
  35. ^ In the Court of the King of Tonga Archived 24 July 2016 at the Wayback Machine, The New York Times Company, 1992
  36. ^ Singapore Lure Stirs Crowds In Hong Kong Archived 2 October 2015 at the Wayback Machine, Chicago Tribune, 12 July 1989
  37. ^ 6,000 from HK given residency here Archived 20 April 2016 at the Wayback Machine, The New Paper, 21 September 1989, page 2
  38. ^ U.S. Immigration Officer in Hong Kong Investigated for Corruption Archived 24 July 2016 at the Wayback Machine, The New York Times, 6 April 1997
  39. ^ Smuggling People, Newsweek, 17 March 1997
  40. ^ Text of the British Nationality Act (Hong Kong) 1990 as in force today (including any amendments) within the United Kingdom, from legislation.gov.uk.
  41. ^ Chinese Vancouver: A decade of change Archived 16 November 2014 at the Wayback Machine, Vancouver Sun, 30 June 2007
  42. ^ A tale of two solitudes written anew Archived 18 April 2016 at the Wayback Machine, The Globe and Mail, 26 October 2001
  43. ^ Fosh, Patricia. Chan, Andy. Chow, Wilson WS. Snape, Ed. Westwood, Robert. [2000] (2000) Hong Kong Management and Labour. United Kingdom: Routledge. ISBN 0-415-22269-9.
  44. ^ China Live: People Power and the Television Revolution Archived 22 December 2016 at the Wayback Machine, Mike Chinoy, Rowman & Littlefield, 1999, page 395
  45. ^ Hong Kong Night – Sunday 1 July Archived 19 August 2007 at the Wayback Machine, BBC News, 27 June 2007
  46. ^ Education and colonial transition in Singapore and Hong Kong: Comparisons and contrasts Archived 22 February 2017 at the Wayback Machine, Jason Tan in Changing Educational Contexts, Issues and Identities: 40 Years of Comparative Education, Michael Crossley, Patricia Broadfoot, Michele Schweisfurth, Routledge, 2007, page 198
  47. ^ Lok Ma Chau Control Point to provide 24-hour passenger clearance services Archived 4 March 2016 at the Wayback Machine, Government Information Centre, 8 January 2003
  48. ^ LCQ1: Immigration clearance and entry visas to the Mainland for non-Chinese Hong Kong permanent residents with foreign passports Archived 9 January 2015 at the Wayback Machine, Government Information Centre, 15 February 2012
  49. ^ General Information on the Right of Abode in Hong Kong Archived 25 March 2016 at the Wayback Machine, Immigration Department
  50. ^ Exit and Entry Administration Law of the People's Republic of China Archived 31 March 2016 at the Wayback Machine, Office of the Commissioner of the Ministry of Foreign Affairs of the People's Republic of China in the Hong Kong Special Administrative Region
  51. ^ China Briefing's Business Guide to the Greater Pearl River Delta Archived 22 February 2017 at the Wayback Machine, China Briefing Media, Ltd., 2004, page 245
  52. ^ "Hong Kong Monetary Authority". Archived from the original on 29 March 2016. Retrieved 30 March 2016.
  53. ^ Bank of China Authorized to Issue HKD and MOP (1987–1992) Archived 11 April 2016 at the Wayback Machine, Bank of China
  54. ^ Hong Kong operates as a separate Customs territory Archived 8 September 2004 at the Wayback Machine, Government Information Centre, 30 September 2000
  55. ^ Address Via Video-Conference – A challenge to APEC business Archived 12 September 2014 at the Wayback Machine, Address given by Rt Hon Mike Moore, Director-General, World Trade Organization, 12 September 1999
  56. ^ a b "Sports Federation and Olympic Committee of Hong Kong China". Archived from the original on 16 March 2016. Retrieved 27 March 2016.
  57. ^ "Official report of proceedings, 11 November 1982, Legislative Council" (PDF). Archived (PDF) from the original on 3 March 2016. Retrieved 27 March 2016.
  58. ^ "Christopher J. Marut Appointed as Director of the Taipei Office of the American Institute in Taiwan". Archived from the original on 4 March 2016. Retrieved 24 July 2012.
  59. ^ The First Decade: The Hong Kong SAR in Retrospective and Introspective Perspectives Archived 22 December 2016 at the Wayback Machine, Yue-man Yeung, Chinese University Press, 2007, page 87
  60. ^ Is name change a game changer? Archived 3 March 2016 at the Wayback Machine, Taipei Times, 17 July 2011
  61. ^ List of Air Services Agreements and Air Services Transit Agreements Archived 11 April 2016 at the Wayback Machine, Department of Justice
  62. ^ New air accord a result of compromise, analysts say Archived 9 April 2016 at the Wayback Machine, Taipei Times, 1 July 2002
  63. ^ Celebrating 50 years of UK road signs Archived 6 July 2016 at the Wayback Machine, Auto Express, 8 January 2015
  64. ^ Hong Kong & Macau Archived 22 February 2017 at the Wayback Machine, Andrew Stone, Chung Wah Chow, Reggie Ho, Lonely Planet, 2008, page 278
  65. ^ Recognition of vehicle registration mark on moving vehicles in an outdoor environment Archived 12 April 2016 at the Wayback Machine, N. H. C. Yung*, K. H. Au & A. H. S. Lai, Laboratory for Intelligent Transportation Systems Research, University of Hong Kong, IEEE Conference on Intelligent Transportation Systems, Proceedings, Itsc, 1999, p. 418-422
  66. ^ Cross-border licence plates go for a million yuan on black market Archived 3 May 2016 at the Wayback Machine, South China Morning Post, 14 December 2012
  67. ^ New entry plan for mainland cars Archived 23 February 2012 at the Wayback Machine, South China Morning Post, 9 February 2012.
  68. ^ Visa-free access for HKSAR Passport Archived 31 March 2016 at the Wayback Machine, Hong Kong Immigration Department
  69. ^ Tens of Thousands Gather in Hong Kong to Remember the 1989 Tiananmen Massacre Archived 19 April 2016 at the Wayback Machine, Time Magazine, 4 June 2015
  70. ^ Political Development in Hong Kong: State, Political Society, and Civil Society Archived 22 February 2017 at the Wayback Machine, Ngok Ma, Hong Kong University Press, 2007, page 135
  71. ^ United Front chief Sun Chunlan tells young Hongkongers to love their country and make the most of close ties with China Archived 24 June 2016 at the Wayback Machine, South China Morning Post, 6 October 2015
  72. ^ Hong Kong * | Country report | Freedom of the Press | 2015 Archived 28 March 2016 at the Wayback Machine, Freedom House
  73. ^ Pope appoints Hong Kong bishop to Macau Archived 20 April 2016 at the Wayback Machine, Vatican Radio, 16 January 2016
  74. ^ Spiegel, Mickey (2002). Dangerous Meditation: China's Campaign Against Falungong. Human Rights Watch. ISBN 1-56432-269-6. Retrieved 28 September 2007.
  75. ^ Fast Facts in China Archived 9 April 2016 at the Wayback Machine, Frommer's
  76. ^ The RJ System of telephone plugs and sockets is gradually replacing the BT System in Hong Kong, Office of the Telecommunications Authority (OFTA), Hong Kong Special Administrative Region Government
  77. ^ World Radio TV Handbook Archived 22 February 2017 at the Wayback Machine, WRTH Publications Ltd, 2008, page 642
  78. ^ Hong Kong, China Archived 4 March 2016 at the Wayback Machine, International Telecommunication Union, 19 February 2013
  79. ^ China International Business: The Monthly Publication of the Ministry of Foreign Trade and Economic Cooperation, P.R.C Archived 22 February 2017 at the Wayback Machine, Issues 7–12, Ministry of Foreign Trade and Economic Cooperation, 2002
  80. ^ "ISO Online Browsing Platform: HK". Archived from the original on 17 June 2016. Retrieved 29 March 2016.
  81. ^ "Hong Kong Internet Registration Corporation". Archived from the original on 21 March 2016. Retrieved 29 March 2016.
  82. ^ "ISO Online Browsing Platform: CN". Archived from the original on 17 June 2016. Retrieved 29 March 2016.
  83. ^ Hongkong, China, Universal Postal Union
  84. ^ ESF's new chief executive Belinda Greer looks to boost efficiency, South China Morning Post, 19 November 2013
  85. ^ Training Archived 16 March 2016 at the Wayback Machine, Hong Kong Police Force
  86. ^ Victoria Park Archived 21 March 2016 at the Wayback Machine, Leisure and Cultural Services Department
  87. ^ "Hong Kong Zoological and Botanical Gardens". Archived from the original on 30 March 2016. Retrieved 31 March 2016.
  88. ^ a b 17 holidays to stay after 1997 Archived 3 May 2016 at the Wayback Machine, South China Morning Post, 12 September 1994
  89. ^ Hong Kong Undergraduate Education Reform Under "3+3+4" Archived 8 April 2016 at the Wayback Machine, University Design Consortium, Arizona State University
  90. ^ Annex I : Method for the Selection of the Chief Executive of the Hong Kong Special Administrative Region Archived 8 April 2016 at the Wayback Machine, Basic Law of the Hong Kong Special Administrative Region of the People's Republic of China
  91. ^ Chris Patten – Governor of Hong Kong Archived 2 April 2018 at the Wayback Machine, BBC, Politics 97
  92. ^ "Results of the 1998 Legislative Council Election". Archived from the original on 3 March 2016. Retrieved 15 April 2016.
  93. ^ An interview with the former British Prime Minister Thatcher just before Britain's handover of Hong Kong back to China on 1 July 1997; Reporter/Producer: Susan Yu; Published on 1 July 1997 and viewable on YouTube.
  94. ^ Lau in passport battle Archived 27 April 2016 at the Wayback Machine, The Independent, 16 December 1997
  95. ^ God Save the Queen Archived 16 March 2014 at the Wayback Machine, TVB Pearl, 1987
  96. ^ Vickers, Edward. "Learning to Love the Motherland: 'National Education' in Post-Retrocession Hong Kong" in Designing History in East Asian Textbooks: Identity Politics and Transnational Aspirations, p. 94 Archived 22 February 2017 at the Wayback Machine. Routledge (Abingdon), 2011. ISBN 9780415602525.
  97. ^ Fifa investigates Hong Kong over China match booing Archived 16 February 2018 at the Wayback Machine, BBC News, 25 November 2015
  98. ^ A Brief Overview of the Court of Final Appeal Archived 30 December 2015 at the Wayback Machine, Hong Kong Court of Final Appeal
  99. ^ Hong Kong's Court of Final Appeal: The Development of the Law in China's Hong Kong Archived 22 February 2017 at the Wayback Machine, Simon N. M. Young, Yash Ghai Cambridge University Press, 2013, page 227
  100. ^ Secretary for Justice, Mr Rimsky Yuen, SC, JP Archived 12 April 2016 at the Wayback Machine, Department of Justice
  101. ^ In Watching Hong Kong, China Loses The Shades Archived 24 July 2016 at the Wayback Machine, New York Times, 20 February 2000
  102. ^ Renamed Xinhua becomes a new force in Hong Kong's politics Archived 19 August 2017 at the Wayback Machine, Taipei Times, 21 January 2000
  103. ^ "Welcome Message Office of the Government of the Hong Kong Special Administrative Region (HKSAR) of the People's Republic of China in Beijing". Archived from the original on 16 April 2016. Retrieved 1 April 2016.
  104. ^ Office of the Commissioner of the Ministry of Foreign Affairs of the People's Republic of China in the Hong Kong Special Administrative Region
  105. ^ Hong Kong forces withdrawal outlined Archived 10 April 2016 at the Wayback Machine, The Independent, 19 July 1993
  106. ^ PLA Hong Kong Garrison Head Office to Use New Name Archived 4 March 2016 at the Wayback Machine, People's Daily, 31 December 2001
  107. ^ Confusion over flags leaves Cenotaph bare, South China Morning Post, 21 July 1997
  108. ^ a b Change in Hong Kong Is Slow but Sure Archived 24 July 2016 at the Wayback Machine, The New York Times, 9 October 1997
  109. ^ CE moves into Government House today Archived 3 March 2016 at the Wayback Machine, Government of Hong Kong, 12 January 2006
  110. ^ a b c A Battle Royal Rocks Imperial Yacht Club Archived 8 April 2016 at the Wayback Machine, Christian Science Monitor, 10 June 1996
  111. ^ Viewpoint: Bauhinia Coins Archived 4 March 2016 at the Wayback Machine, Hong Kong Monetary Authority, 18 November 1999
  112. ^ Hong Kong Archived 22 December 2016 at the Wayback Machine, Government Press, 1999, page 354
  113. ^ Hongkong Post Annual Report Archived 22 December 2016 at the Wayback Machine, Hongkong Post, Government Press, 1996, page 30
  114. ^ Continuity and Change in the Legal System, The Other Hong Kong Report 1998, edited by Larry Chuen-ho Chow, Yiu-Kwan Fan, Chinese University Press, 1998, page 39
  115. ^ About Us Archived 5 March 2016 at the Wayback Machine, Hong Kong Bar Association
  116. ^ Xinhua News Agency Archived 22 December 2016 at the Wayback Machine, 3 July 1997
  117. ^ Far Eastern Economic Review Archived 22 February 2017 at the Wayback Machine, 1968, page 450
  118. ^ Hong Kong to cover British insignia on postboxes to 'avoid confusion' Archived 15 December 2016 at the Wayback Machine, The Guardian, 7 October 2015
  119. ^ Warning: Deadline Ahead, Asiaweek, 11 April 1997
  120. ^ Hong Kong after the change of sovereignty, Jane McNair and Professor Peter Willoughby, Deacons Graham & James, Hong Kong SAR, Offshore Investment, January 1999, issue 92
  121. ^ The UK's relations with Hong Kong: 30 years after the Joint Declaration Archived 25 May 2017 at the Wayback Machine, Tenth Report of Session 2014–15, Foreign Affairs Select Committee, House of Commons, 6 March 2015, page 16 PDF Archived 19 July 2018 at the Wayback Machine
  122. ^ Hong Kong's New Constitutional Order: The Resumption of Chinese Sovereignty and the Basic Law, Yash Ghai, Hong Kong University Press, 1997, page 167
  123. ^ Hunting with the Tigers: Doing Business with Hong Kong, Indonesia, South Korea, Malaysia, the Philippines, Singapore, Taiwan, Thailand, and Vietnam, Claudia Cragg, Pfeiffer & Company, 1993, page 417
  124. ^ Chief Executive holds 'useful, cordial' talks with British Prime Minister Archived 13 June 2018 at the Wayback Machine, Government of Hong Kong, 22 October 1997
  125. ^ "Commonwealth Games Federation – Hong Kong". Archived from the original on 19 August 2014. Retrieved 24 November 2014.
  126. ^ About the Consulate-General Archived 29 October 2015 at the Wayback Machine, Ministry of Foreign Affairs, Singapore
  127. ^ Hong Kong's Transition to Chinese Rule: The Limits of Autonomy Archived 22 February 2017 at the Wayback Machine, Ralf Horlemann, Routledge, 2003, page 78
  128. ^ Liberian consulate forced to close Archived 26 April 2016 at the Wayback Machine, South China Morning Post, 10 October 1997
  129. ^ Statement on Future South Africa/Hong Kong Relations by the Deputy Minister of Foreign Affairs, Mr Aziz Pahad, 12 June 1997
  130. ^ Hong Kong – A New Era – Civil Aviation Archived 4 March 2016 at the Wayback Machine, Hong Kong Yearbook 1997, Hong Kong SAR Government
  131. ^ China News Archived 27 March 2016 at the Wayback Machine, South China Morning Post
  132. ^ Summary of World Broadcasts: Asia, Pacific Archived 22 December 2016 at the Wayback Machine, Issues 3986–3998, page G-8
  133. ^ Before and After Suzie: Hong Kong in Western Film and Literature Archived 22 February 2017 at the Wayback Machine, Thomas Y. T. Luk, James P. Rice New Asia College, The Chinese University of Hong Kong, 2002, page 88
  134. ^ A Concise History of Hong Kong Archived 22 February 2017 at the Wayback Machine, John M. Carroll, Rowman & Littlefield Publishers, 7 June 2007, page 195
  135. ^ Hong Kong Metamorphisis Archived 22 December 2016 at the Wayback Machine Denis Bray, Hong Kong University Press, 2001, page 232
  136. ^ A Modern History of Hong Kong Archived 22 February 2017 at the Wayback Machine, Steve Yui-Sang Tsang, Palgrave Macmillan, 2004, page 253
  137. ^ Lim, Patricia. [2002] (2002). Discovering Hong Hong's Cultural Heritage. Central, Hong Kong: Oxford University Press. ISBN Volume One 0-19-592723-0
  138. ^ Hong Kong's infamous Walled City to be converted into park area, Michael Browning, Knight Ridder, Ottawa Citizen, 29 January 1987, page c9
  139. ^ Riot police evict Hong Kong residents from Walled City Archived 30 June 2016 at the Wayback Machine, Associated Press, The News, 3 July 1992
  140. ^ Kowloon Walled City Park – History/Background Archived 23 March 2016 at the Wayback Machine, Leisure and Cultural Services Department
  141. ^ Ministry of Justice (Republic of China): Laws and Regulations Regarding Hong Kong & Macao Affairs: Legislative History
  142. ^ Hong Kong's reversion to China: effective monitoring critical to assess U.S. DIANE Publishing. ISBN 1-4289-7837-2
  143. ^ "Albright To Attend Hong Kong Transfer Ceremony". CNN. 16 April 1997. Archived from the original on 28 January 2011. Retrieved 27 August 2012.
  144. ^ "Smooth Hong Kong handover lifts China's image". CNN. 15 July 1997. Retrieved 27 August 2012.
  145. ^ "Hong Kong SAR, China". World Bank. Retrieved 21 December 2018.
  146. ^ "United Kingdom". World Bank. Retrieved 21 December 2018.
  147. ^ Bland and Pong, Ben and Jane. "Hong Kong since the handover in charts". Financial Times. Retrieved 21 September 2018.
  148. ^ "Gross Domestic Product - 2017 highlights" (PDF). Government of Bermuda, Department of Statistics. Retrieved 21 December 2018.
  149. ^ "Population estimates". Office for National Statistics. Retrieved 21 December 2018.
  150. ^ Chia-rong Wu, "Hong Kong Identity in Question: Fruit Chan's Uncanny Narrative and (Post-)97 Complex." American Journal of Chinese Studies (April 2017), Vol. 24 Issue 1, pp 43–56.
  151. ^ Yiman Wang, Remaking Chinese Cinema: Through the Prism of Shanghai, Hong Kong, and Hollywood (2014) pp 114, 131
  152. ^ China on Screen: Cinema and Nation Archived 22 December 2016 at the Wayback Machine, Chris Berry, Mary Ann Farquhar, Columbia University Press, 2006, page 2
  153. ^ a b c d Singh, Harminder (1 July 2016). "Everything you need to know about Hong Kong's return to Chinese sovereignty". South China Morning Post. Alibaba Group. Archived from the original on 18 October 2017. Retrieved 13 April 2017.
  154. ^ Knock Off 1998 Archived 8 May 2016 at the Wayback Machine, Amazon.com
  155. ^ A Death in Hong Kong Archived 12 March 2017 at the Wayback Machine, BBC Two, 27 February 2009
  156. ^ "Sam Hui 許冠傑 – 話知你97 (電影『新半斤八两』主題曲)". Archived from the original on 23 April 2017. Retrieved 1 April 2016.
  157. ^ "Artist : Jin Title : 1997 Album : ABC Track No : 9". Archived from the original on 16 April 2017. Retrieved 1 April 2016.
  158. ^ Zero Minus Ten (James Bond 007) Archived 14 April 2016 at the Wayback Machine, Amazon.com
  159. ^ Will James Bond bow to Beijing's censorship? Archived 3 May 2016 at the Wayback Machine, South China Morning Post, 12 November 2012
  160. ^ Hong Kong '97 Archived 20 November 2015 at the Wayback Machine, Entertainment Weekly, 4 November 1994
  161. ^ Racism, Violence & Madness Make This Awful Hong Kong Game One to Remember Archived 16 April 2016 at the Wayback Machine, Kotaku, 21 August 2012
  162. ^ Chinese Box (1997) FILM REVIEW; A Meditation on the Meaning of Hong Kong Archived 24 July 2016 at the Wayback Machine, Stephen Holden, The New York Times 17 April 1998

External links[edit]