Page semi-protected

Trump wall

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
Jump to navigation Jump to search

President Donald Trump looking at new border wall prototypes in San Diego, March 2018

The Trump wall, commonly referred to as just "the wall", is a colloquial name for a proposed expansion of the Mexico–United States barrier during the U.S. presidency of Donald Trump.[1] Throughout his 2016 presidential campaign, Trump called for the construction of a much larger border wall, claiming that if elected, he would "build the wall and make Mexico pay for it." At the time, President of Mexico Enrique Peña Nieto said his country would not pay for the wall.[2][3][4]

In January 2017, Trump signed Executive Order 13767, which formally directed the U.S. government to begin attempting wall construction along the Mexican border using existing federal funding;[5] actual construction did not begin at this time due to the significant expense and lack of clarity on how it would be funded. In 2018–19 the federal government was partly shut down for 35 days because of Trump's insistence that he would veto any spending bill that did not include $5.7 billion in border wall funding.[6] In February 2019, Trump signed a declaration of National Emergency, saying that the situation at the U.S.–Mexico border is a crisis requiring money allocated for other purposes to be used to build the wall. Congress passed a joint resolution to overturn the emergency order, but Trump vetoed the resolution. In July 2019, the Supreme Court approved the reallocation of $2.5 billion in Department of Defense anti-drug funding to construct the wall while other legal proceedings continue; in September 2019, an additional $3.6 billion was diverted, this time from U.S. military construction projects around the world, including schools for children of American soldiers.

In September 2019, Trump said he planned to build 450–500 miles of new wall by the end of 2020.[7] However, as of November 2019, while at least 76 miles of existing wall has been replaced or reinforced during Trump's presidency,[8] no new wall has yet been completed,[9] but preparations for new wall construction have begun.[10]

A private organization called We Build the Wall has constructed .5 miles (0.80 km) of new wall on private property near El Paso, Texas, with Trump's encouragement.

Current Mexico–United States barrier

Map of the Mexico-United States barrier (2017)
People protesting the wall in 2016
Fence between San Diego's border patrol offices in California (left) and Tijuana, Mexico

The Mexico–United States barrier is a series of vertical barriers along the Mexico–United States border aimed at preventing illegal crossings from Mexico into the United States.[11] The barrier is not one contiguous structure, but a discontinuous series of physical obstructions variously classified as "fences" or "walls".

Between the physical barriers, security is provided by a "virtual fence" of sensors, cameras, and other surveillance equipment used to dispatch United States Border Patrol agents to suspected migrant crossings.[12] As of January 2009, U.S. Customs and Border Protection reported that it had more than 580 miles (930 km) of barriers in place.[13] The total length of the continental border is 1,954 miles (3,145 km).


In February 2017, Trump said "the wall is getting designed right here" but did not offer specifics.[14] In March 2017, U.S. Customs and Border Protection (CBP) began accepting prototype ideas for a U.S.–Mexico border wall from companies and said it would issue a request for proposals by March 24.[15][16]

In June 2017, Trump said his proposed border wall should be covered with solar panels as a means of making "beautiful structures" and helping pay for the wall. This suggestion was criticized by some as illogical or impracticable—Albert Pope of the Rice University School of Architecture of Houston, Texas noted that solar farms cannot be efficiently dispersed along a wall[17][18]—while carried by others—John Griese, co-owner of the solar installation firm "Elemental Energy", estimated a profit of over $100 million per year from the panels.[19] During the following month, Trump said the wall should be "see through" in order to detect smugglers who "throw the large sacks of drugs over."[20][21]

The Associated Press reported "upwards of 200 organizations had expressed interest in designing and building" the wall for CBP.[22] By April 2017, several companies had released their proposed designs to the public (CBP does not publicly release bids, and intends to name only the winning bid). Various ideas advanced by companies included placing solar panels along part of a wall; placing artwork along the wall ("a polished concrete wall augmented with stones and artifacts" related to the local region); incorporating ballistics resistance technology and sensors for above ground and below ground penetration; and even the creation of a "co-nation" where the border is maintained by both countries in an open status.[22][23]

In September 2017, the U.S. government announced the start of construction of eight prototype barriers made from concrete and other materials.[24][25] On June 3, 2018, the San Diego section of wall construction began.[26] On October 26, a two-mile stretch of steel bollards in Calexico, California, was commemorated as the first section of Trump's wall, although media coverage heavily debated whether it should be considered a "wall" or a "fence".[27] Trump scheduled a visit to this section in April 2019.[28]

A manufacturing company based in Pine City, Minnesota, was awarded a bid to help build the "virtual wall" along the border in 2018. Instead of using physical walls, this plan for a "virtual wall" would involve easily transportable "roll-up" towers with attached motion sensing and camera equipment. While initially small and mobile, when deployed the internal structure of the tower telescopes upwards to create a tall surveillance apparatus. Along remote parts of the border, this method could be cheaper and more practical than building permanent structures on location.[29]

Cost estimates

According to experts and analyses, the actual cost to construct a wall along the remaining 1,300 miles (2,100 km) of the border could be as high as $20 million per mile ($12.5 million/km), with a total cost of up to $45 billion, with the cost of private land acquisitions and fence maintenance pushing up the total cost further.[30] Maintenance of the wall could cost up to $750 million a year, and if the Border Patrol agents were to patrol the wall, additional funds would have to be expended.[30] Rough and remote terrain on many parts of the border, such as deserts and mountains, would make construction and maintenance of a wall expensive.[30] Experts also note that on federally protected wilderness areas and Native American reservations, the Department of Homeland Security may have only limited construction authority, and a wall could cause environmental damage.[30]

Some estimates show an $8 to $12 billion cost for such a project, while others find there are enough uncertainties to drive the cost to between $15 and $25 billion.[3][31][32][33]

In February 2017, Reuters reported that an internal report by the Department of Homeland Security estimated that Trump's proposed border wall would cost $21.6 billion and take 3.5 years to build. This estimate is higher than estimates by Trump during the campaign ($12 billion) and the $15 billion estimate from Republican House Speaker Paul Ryan and Senate Majority Leader Mitch McConnell.[34]


Many contemporary examples of border barriers are considered to be effective. Barriers such as the Hungarian border barrier, the Israeli border walls, and the Israeli West Bank barrier have lowered the number of illegal border crossings.[35] In Hungary, for example, the number of illegal immigrants dropped from 4500 per day to 15 after a 175-kilometer long, four-meter high fence was constructed in 2015.[36]

On the other hand, research at Texas A&M University and Texas Tech University indicates that the wall, and border walls in general, are unlikely to be effective at reducing illegal immigration or movement of contraband.[37]

Critics of Trump's plan note that expanding the wall would not stop the routine misuse of legal ports of entry by people smuggling contraband, overstaying travel visas, using fraudulent documents, or stowing away.[38] They also point out that in addition to the misuse of ports of entry, even a border-wide wall could be bypassed by tunneling, climbing, or by using boats or aircraft.[30][37][39][40][41] Additionally, along some parts of the border, the existing rough terrain may be a greater deterrent than a wall.[30]

The U.S. Customs and Border Protection agency has frequently called for more physical barriers, citing their efficacy. "I started in the San Diego sector in 1992 and it didn't matter how many agents we lined up," said Chief Patrol Agent Rodney Scott. "We could not make a measurable impact on the flow [of undocumented immigrants] across the border. It wasn't until we installed barriers along the border that gave us the upper hand that we started to get control."[42]

Carla Provost, the chief of U.S. border patrol, stated "We already have many miles, over 600 miles [1,000 km] of barrier along the border. I have been in locations where there was no barrier, and then I was there when we put it up. It certainly helps. It's not a be all end all. It's a part of a system. We need the technology, we need that infrastructure".[43]

Trump has privately spoken of fortifying the wall with a water-filled trench inhabited by snakes or alligators, and electric fencing topped with spikes that can pierce human flesh.[44]

Funding plans and actions

Campaign promise (2016)

Throughout his 2015-2016 presidential campaign, Donald Trump called for construction of a large fortified border wall, claiming that if elected he would "build the wall and make Mexico pay for it."[45] Even before declaring his candidacy he declared he wanted "nothing to do with Mexico other than to build an impenetrable WALL". In his June 2015 announcement of his candidacy he promised "I would build a great wall, and no one builds walls better than me, believe me, and I'll build them very inexpensively. I will build a great wall and I'll have Mexico pay for that wall."[46] Throughout his campaign he described his vision of a concrete wall, 30 to 50 feet (10–15 m) high and covering 1,000 miles (1,600 km) of the 1,900 mile (3,050 km) border, with the rest of the border being secured by natural barriers. After taking office he suggested a "steel wall with openings" so border agents could see through it; starting in 2018 he referred to it as a "steel slat barrier".[46]

Trump repeatedly said Mexico will pay for the construction of the border wall, but he did not explain how the U.S. government would compel Mexico to do so. Trump said, "there will be a payment; it will be in a form, perhaps a complicated form".[47] The Mexican government has rejected Trump's statements and has rejected the idea of Mexico funding construction of a wall.[47][48]

Upon taking office Trump signed an executive order to begin building the wall, but left open the question of payment. The Trump administration suggested that wall construction could be funded by a 20% tariff on Mexico imports, a proposal which immediately encountered objections from members of Congress of both parties. After the negative response, White House Chief of Staff Reince Priebus indicated that the administration was considering "a buffet of options" for funding a wall.[49] In April 2016, Trump said he would "compel Mexico to pay for a border wall by blocking remittances and canceling visas unless Mexico makes a one-time payment of $5 billion to $10 billion to the U.S."[50] Experts[according to whom?] have identified a number of legal, economic, and practical obstacles to such a proposal, saying it would be impossible to track all money transfers between Mexico and the United States, or to effectively block all remittances.[48][50] Some economists argue that blocking remittances could harm the U.S. economy.[50] Brookings Institution fellow Aaron Klein said a move to block remittances would be a reversal of the existing U.S. policy "to encourage the flow of money to come into the official system and to discourage the flow of funds through the underground network".[50]

Executive Order (2017)

President Donald Trump displaying the executive order on January 25, 2017

On January 25, 2017, the Trump administration signed Executive Order 13767, which formally directed the government to begin attempting to construct a border wall using existing federal funding, although actual construction of a wall did not begin at this time due to the large expense and lack of clarity on how it would be paid for.[5]

Trump had planned to meet Peña Nieto at the White House on January 27, 2017, to discuss topics including border security and possible negotiations around the wall. However, the day before the meeting, Trump announced that the U.S. would impose a 20% tariff on imported Mexican goods as Mexico's payment for the wall.[51] In response, Peña Nieto gave a national televised address saying Mexico would not pay for the wall, and cancelled his meeting with Trump.[52][53]

In March 2017, the Trump administration submitted a budget amendment for fiscal year 2017 that includes a $3 billion continuing budget for "border security and immigration enforcement." Trump's FY 2018 Budget Blueprint increases discretionary funds for the Department of Homeland Security (DHS) by $2.8 billion (to $44.1 billion).[54][55] The DHS Secretary John F. Kelly told the Senate Homeland Security and Governmental Affairs Committee during a hearing the Budget Blueprint "includes $2.6 billion for high-priority border security technology and tactical infrastructure, including funding to plan, design and construct the border wall."[54]

In July 2017, U.S. Representative Michael McCaul, Republican of Austin, Texas, the chairman of the House Homeland Security Committee, said the Republican-controlled U.S. House of Representatives would seek to pass a special supplemental appropriations bill to spend money on initial construction of the wall, a demand of the Trump administration.[56][57] Such a supplemental spending bill was supported by then-House Speaker Paul Ryan.[57] However, Senate Democrats have expressed confidence that they can block an appropriations bill for wall construction, with the aid of some Republicans who also oppose the construction of a wall due to its enormous cost.[58][59] Speaking at a Trump rally on August 22, 2017, Trump threatened to close down the government if Congress did not approve funding: "The obstructionist Democrats would like us not to do it, but believe me, if we have to close down our government, we're building that wall."[60]

In August 2017, while speaking at a rally in Phoenix, Arizona, Trump said he would close down the U.S. government if necessary to force Congress to pay for the wall.[61] He was harshly criticized by prominent leaders of his political base such as Ann Coulter and Rush Limbaugh for failing to secure $5 billion in funding for the wall in the previous fiscal year's appropriations bill.[62][63]

Build the Wall Act introduced (2018)

In January 2018, there was a proposal by the U.S. Customs and Border Protection that asked for $18 billion in funding over the next ten years.[64] This proposal from the Trump Administration called for "316 miles [509 km] of additional barrier by September 2027, bringing total coverage to 970 miles [1560 km], or nearly half the border, according to the Associated Press." The proposal also called for 407 miles (655 km) of replacement fencing"[65] When Trump was on the campaign trail in February 2016, he estimated the cost to be just $8 billion to build the wall.[66]

In March 2018, Trump also cited a study by the Center for Immigration Studies, which claimed that a wall along the Mexican border could save taxpayers $64 billion by reducing crime and welfare costs for undocumented immigrants for the ten years after its construction, thereby breaking even on construction costs and "paying for itself". Eric Boehm of Reason magazine disputed this claim, saying the study massively underestimated the actual cost of building and maintaining the wall. Boehm also criticized that the analysis overestimated the positive economic impact of stopping illegal immigration and how good the wall would be at preventing it, citing that a "third of all illegal immigrants" were simply overstaying their visa and had not actually entered the U.S. illegally.[67][68][69] As of the end of 2018, Mexico had not entered into any agreement to pay for any amount of the wall and there have been no new tariffs or earmarks dedicated to funding it. In March 2018, Congress appropriated $1.6 billion out of a $1.3 trillion spending bill towards the border barrier, characterized by Trump as a "down payment" that would be spent "building not only some new wall ... but also fixing existing walls".[70][71] In the end, this specific appropriation ended up funding only about 90 miles (145 km) of barriers with Mexico.[72] By May 2019, 1.7 miles (2.7 km) of barrier had been constructed from the appropriation.[73]

The Build the Wall, Enforce the Law Act of 2018 was introduced on October 12, 2018 by then-House Majority Leader Kevin McCarthy who said that, in his opinion, "President Trump's election was a wake-up call to Washington."[citation needed]

Government shutdown (2018–19)

From December 22, 2018, to January 25, 2019, the federal government was partially shut down due to Trump's declared intention to veto any spending bill that did not include $5 billion in funding for a border wall.[6] On January 4, 2019, Trump claimed that former presidents had privately told him they should have built a border wall, but every living former U.S. president denied this.[74] In a televised speech on January 8, Trump asserted that 90% of the heroin sold in America "floods across from our southern border," although virtually all drugs smuggled across the border flow through legal ports of entry rather than through open border spaces.[75][76] During a visit to McAllen, Texas on January 10, Trump said Mexico would not directly pay for the wall, despite his having said so during the 2016 campaign: "When during the campaign, I would say 'Mexico is going to pay for it,' obviously, I never said this, and I never meant they're gonna write out a check, I said they're going to pay for it. They are. Mexico is paying for the wall indirectly, and when I said Mexico will pay for the wall in front of thousands and thousands of people, obviously they're not gonna write a check. But they are paying for the wall indirectly many, many times over by the really great trade deal we just made."[77][78] Media fact-checkers determined this assertion to be false.[79][80][81][82]

On January 25, 2019, Trump agreed to endorse a stopgap bill to reopen the government, saying it was to allow for negotiations to take place to approve an appropriations bill both parties could agree on. He threatened to close the government again in three weeks if he was not satisfied with Congressional action.[83] This 35-day government shutdown was the longest in U.S. history. The previous record was 21 days in 1995–1996.[84]

Funding restrictions (2019)

In February 2019, Congress amended an existing appropriations bill, adding language that specifically prohibits new funding from being used to build border barriers at several sites, including the Santa Ana National Wildlife Refuge, the Bentsen-Rio Grande Valley State Park, the La Lomita Historical park, the National Butterfly Center, and the area "within or east of" the Vista del Mar Ranch tract of the Lower Rio Grande Valley National Wildlife Refuge.[85][86] Soon afterwards, however, President Trump declared a National Emergency Concerning the Southern Border of the United States, which the administration claimed invalidated the restrictions imposed by Congress.[87]

The funding restrictions, and the National Emergency executive order, became the centerpoints of the legal challenge to the appropriation of funds to construct the wall.

Declaration of national emergency (2019)

Trump signed a declaration of national emergency on February 15, 2019.

On February 15, 2019, Trump signed a bill to fund the government for the balance of the fiscal year, but derided the bill as inadequate because it contained only $1.375 billion for border security. Trump had earlier insisted he needed $5.7 billion to extend the Mexico–United States barrier. At the same time, Trump signed a declaration that the situation at the southern border constitutes a national emergency.[88] This declaration ostensibly made available $600 million from the Treasury Forfeiture Fund, $2.5 billion from the United States Department of Defense[a] (including anti-drug accounts), $3.6 billion from military construction accounts, for a total of $8 billion when added to the $1.375 billion allocated by Congress.[90] Around February 21–22, it emerged that more than a third of those funds had already been spent for their original purposes, and were therefore unavailable.[91][92]

On February 27, 2019, the House of Representatives voted in favor of a resolution rejecting Trump's declaration of a national emergency on the southern border.[93] On March 14, the Senate did the same.[94] The next day, Trump vetoed the bill. It was the first veto of his presidency.[95] In September, the House and Senate again voted in favor of ending the declaration of emergency,[96] and in October the president again vetoed it.[97] The same month, a lawsuit filed in El Paso County produced a ruling that Trump's declaration of emergency was unlawful, as it fails to meet the National Emergencies Act's definition of an emergency.[98]

Funding granted (2019)

In March 2019, the Pentagon issued a list of proposed military construction projects which could be postponed, under the president's emergency declaration, so that their funding could be used for the wall.[99] The Pentagon authorized up to $1 billion to be transferred to the Army Corps of Engineers for the construction of additional barriers.[100] In July, the five conservative justices on the Supreme Court achieved a majority to lift a May 2019 block placed by a lower federal court. Thus, the Supreme Court ruled to allow $2.5 billion of funds originally intended for Department of Defense anti-drug efforts to be reallocated to the Trump wall.[101]

In July 2019, U.S. Customs and Border Protection said that although they had begun replacement fencing, no new walls had yet been built.[102] In the next month, U.S. Border Patrol reported via Fox News that 60 miles of wall construction had been completed in the Southwest since 2017.[103] PolitiFact clarified that this figure was in reference to replacement wall.[104] Nevertheless, in mid-September the two aforementioned parties asserted that 65 miles of new wall had been built.[105] A day later, it was announced that multiple border wall projects had been halted because of depleted funds.[106] Over 450 miles are planned to be built by the end of 2020, which will cost an estimated total of $18.4 billion.[107]

On September 3, United States Secretary of Defense Mark Esper authorized the use of $3.6 billion in military construction funding for 175 miles of the barrier.[108][109] To fund 11 border barrier projects in Arizona, New Mexico, and Texas, the Pentagon will take funds from military construction projects in 23 states, three territories, and 19 countries, including schools and childcare centers for children of American soldiers.[b][112][113] Privately owned land adjacent to the border would have to be acquired by the U.S. government to be built upon.[109] In one instance, satirical party-game publisher Cards Against Humanity purchased a plot of land to prevent the wall from being built there.[114]

On November 2, it was reported that Mexican smugglers had begun sawing through steel bollards in areas where sensors to detect such breaches had not yet been installed.[115] Trump responded, "you can cut through any wall", and touted the barrier design by explaining that "it's very easily fixed. You put the chunk back in."[116] According to border agents, smugglers tend to return to areas of the wall that have previously been sawed through because the bollards have been weakened.[115]

Private efforts

We Build the Wall, a private organization founded by military veteran Brian Kolfage, raised over $23 million beginning in 2018, with President Trump's encouragement and with leadership from Kris Kobach and Steve Bannon. Over the 2019 Memorial Day weekend, the organization constructed a half-mile (800 m) "weathered steel" bollard fence near El Paso on private land adjoining the U.S.-Mexico border using $6–8 million of the donated funds. Kolfage's organization says it has plans to construct further barriers on private lands adjoining the border in Texas and California.[117][118] On December 3, 2019, a Hidalgo County judge ordered the group to temporarily halt all construction due to its plans to build adjacent to the Rio Grande, which a lawyer for the National Butterfly Center argues would create a flooding risk. According to Kolfage,

We have many people who try to stop us legally with silly attempts, and in the end we always prevail. I would put a 50/50 chance [that the court order] is fake news, and if it's not it will be crushed legally pretty fast.[119]

Environmental and archaeological impacts

Replacement border fencing construction in California in 2019

The construction of a border wall, as envisioned in the order, could cause significant environmental damage, including habitat destruction and habitat fragmentation that would harm wildlife, including endangered species.[120][121][122] Some of the species that may potentially be affected include ferruginous bighorn sheep, black bears, and pygmy owls.[123]

A lawsuit arguing some of these points was brought forward by the National Butterfly Center, after employees discovered that parts of the planned wall would be built through the property. However, Judge Richard J. Leon dismissed the case against the Department of Homeland Security, leading the Center to claim that they will refile or appeal the case.[124]

By October 2019, bulldozing had begun within the Organ Pipe Cactus National Monument. The Corps of Engineers said it would relocate displaced cacti, although this appears to have not occurred in some cases.[125] The monument also includes 22 archaeological sites which host "unexcavated remnants of ancient Sonoran Desert peoples", some of which possibly date to 16,000 years ago. The Tohono O'odham Nation has protested any new wall construction, as they have "historically lived in this area from time immemorial". No construction in those areas is immediately planned, and border patrol construction workers have been coordinating with park officials to avoid causing damage.[126] However, a 2019 survey by the Center of Biological Diversity found the construction of the wall to be having a devastating impact on the ecosystem, with construction coming perilously close to the San Bernardino National Wildlife Refuge and an active migration corridor for the North American jaguar, as well as already damaging habitats in sites such as Slaughter Ranch. The survey also found unrestricted pumping of groundwater from local aquifers in order to produce concrete for the wall, which will have a destructive effect on subterranean ecosystems as well as surface ones that are sustained by groundwater.[127]

Opinions and responses

Domestic responses

Executive Order 13767 drew "furious condemnation" from some civil rights organizations and immigrant advocacy groups, who described the order as "meanspirited, counterproductive and costly and said the new policies would raise constitutional concerns while undermining the American tradition of welcoming people from around the world".[128] Some religious personalities were also largely critical of the border-wall proposal.[128][129] Hundreds of citizens gathered at Washington Square Park in New York City to protest the executive order.[130]

In Congress, some Republicans praised Trump's executive order, such as U.S. Representative Lamar S. Smith of San Antonio, Texas, who said that "he appreciated Trump 'honoring his commitment' on immigration",[131] and Republican U.S. Senator Ron Johnson of Wisconsin, who said the wall would stop illegal immigration and compared it to the Israel–Egypt barrier.[c] Other members of Congress from districts near the border were critical, such as Texans Will Hurd (Republican, San Antonio), Henry Cuellar (Democrat, Laredo), and Joaquin Castro (Democrat, San Antonio). Hurd criticized the order as "the most expensive and least effective way to secure the border" while Castro considered the wall "a lazy and ineffective strategy".[131] Then-Senator Claire McCaskill (D-MO) said during a hearing that while she believed Americans want a secure border, she has "not met anyone [who] says the most effective way is to build a wall across the entirety of our southern border. The only one who keeps talking about that is President Trump."[135]

Most members of the Southwest Border Sheriffs' Coalition, a group of sheriffs across the four states on the U.S.–Mexico border, are strongly opposed to the construction of a wall, citing its massive cost and logistical difficulties, and saying the wall would not be effective.[136] Tony Estrada, a member of the Coalition and the longtime sheriff of the border county of Santa Cruz County, Arizona, has emerged as an outspoken critic of Trump's border wall proposal, saying the wall will not stymie drug cartel violence fueled by demand for drugs in the U.S.[136][137] On the other hand, several Southwestern sheriffs praised and welcomed the proposal, and also activated a crowdfunding to support the construction.[138] Well-known sheriff Joe Arpaio of Maricopa County, Arizona, who emerged as an outspoken supporter of Trump's border wall proposal, said the barrier is necessary to stop "having the terrorists coming across and criminals",[139] asking also "what is wrong with a wall".[140]

Build the Wall

A Build The Wall rally in The Villages, Florida, January 2019

"Build the Wall" is a political slogan that emerged from Trump's presidential campaign.

The concept was first developed by campaign advisers Sam Nunberg and Roger Stone in summer 2014 as a memorable talking point Trump could use to tie his business experience as a builder and developer to his anti-immigration policy proposals.[141] The wall was first positively received by conservative activists in January 2015 at the Iowa Freedom Summit hosted by Citizens United and Steve King, as well as two days later on conservative morning show Fox & Friends.[142][143] The idea was repeated at his June 2015 announcement speech, along with a claim that Mexico would pay for it, and has been further repeated many times since.[144]

The idea of the wall became popular enough among Trump's supporters that chants of "Build the Wall" became common at Trump rallies.[145] After Trump won the 2016 election, reports emerged that the chant was being used by some children to bully their Latino classmates, and that the locations of these incidents were at least correlated with areas in which Trump received more votes.[146][147]

Variant slogans include "Build a Wall" or "Build that Wall". It has inspired a number of counter-slogans among protesters of Trump policies, as well as parodies in popular culture, including memes.[citation needed] The slogan was not his official campaign slogan, which was Make America Great Again.

Opinion surveys

A February 2017 study conducted by the Pew Research Center found that "[a]s was the case throughout the presidential campaign, more Americans continue to oppose (62%) than favor (35%) building a wall along the entire U.S. border with Mexico".[148][149] 43% of respondents thought a border wall would have little to no effect on illegal immigration. 70% of Americans thought the U.S. would ultimately pay for the wall; 16% believed Mexico would pay for it. Public opinion was polarized by party: "About three-quarters (74%) of Republicans and Republican-leaning independents support a border wall, while an even greater share of Democrats and Democratic leaners express opposition to building a wall across the entire U.S.–Mexico border (89%)." Younger Americans and Americans with college degrees were more likely to oppose a wall than older Americans and those without college degrees.[148]

In a separate January 2017 study conducted by the Pew Research Center, 39% of Americans identified construction of a U.S.–Mexico border wall as an "important goal for U.S. immigration policy". By contrast, Americans found other policies to be important, such as cracking down on visa overstays (77% identified as important); allowing those who came to the U.S. illegally as children to remain in the country (72% identified as important); and increasing deportations of immigrants currently in the U.S. illegally (58% identified as important). The survey found that while there Americans were divided by party on many different immigration policies, "the widest [partisan split] by far is over building a southern border wall. Two-thirds of Republicans and Republican-leaning independents (67%) say construction of a wall on the U.S.–Mexico border is an important goal for immigration policy, compared with just 16% of Democrats and Democratic leaners."[150]

A March 2017 nationally representative survey of Americans conducted by the Associated Press and NORC Center for Public Affairs Research at the University of Chicago showed 58% of Americans oppose new spending for a border wall with Mexico, while 28% support such new spending. Opposition to spending on a border wall was highest among Democrats (86% oppose) and independents (57% oppose); Republicans were substantially more supportive.[151][152]

A survey conducted by the National Border Patrol Council found that 89% of border patrol agents said a "wall system in strategic locations is necessary to securing the border." 7% of agents disagreed.[153]

Impact on Mexico–U.S. relations

The executive order soured relations between the U.S. and Mexico. Mexican President Enrique Peña Nieto addressed Mexican citizens via a recorded message, in which he condemned Trump's executive order and again said Mexico would not pay for the wall's construction. Following a Twitter feud between the two men in which Trump threatened to cancel a planned meeting with Nieto in Washington, Nieto decided to cancel the meeting himself.[154]

Addressing supporters, Mexican opposition politician Andrés Manuel López Obrador condemned the wall order as an insult to Mexico, and demanded the Mexican government to pursue claims against the American government in the United Nations.[155]

In March 2017, Mexican congressman Braulio Guerra of Querétaro illegally climbed, and partially crossed, an existing 30-foot (10 m) border fence on American soil dividing San Diego and Tijuana, saying that more walls would be ineffective.[d][156][157]

The Roman Catholic Archbishop of Mexico opposed the border wall, and wrote that any Mexican company that participates in construction of the wall or supplies materials for construction would be committing "treason against the homeland".[158][159]

Other international reactions

At the annual summit of the Community of Latin American and Caribbean States in January 2017, representatives from Latin American and Caribbean countries condemned the wall proposal.[160]

Benjamin Netanyahu, the prime minister of Israel, applauded the plan, endorsing it as a "Great success. Great idea." Netanyahu declared "Trump is right" and likened the proposal to the Israeli West Bank barrier.[161][162] After Mexican protests, the Prime Minister's office issued a statement saying that "[he] was addressing Israel's unique circumstances and the important experience we have and which we are willing to share with other nations. There was no attempt to voice an opinion regarding U.S.–Mexico ties."[161][163]

Pope Francis has been critical of the project, stating in a March 2019 interview that "If you raise a wall between people, you end up a prisoner of that wall that you raised."[164] He has made several references in speeches, and in a tweet, to building "bridges, not walls."[165][166][167]

International reactions include artistic and intercultural facilitation devices. Projects have included exhibitions, signs, and demonstrations as well as physical adaptations promoting socialization such as a bright pink see-saw built through the wall that is accessible to people on both sides to enjoy together.[168]

Associations' response

Many people "have voiced doubts about whether a wall would actually stem illegal immigration, or if it is worth the billions it is expected to cost".[169] Critics have noted that the number of illegal immigrants in the U.S. had declined for several years before the order was signed, in part because of the Great Recession.[169]

Gil Kerlikowske, the former Commissioner of the Customs and Border Protection, said the rugged terrain in the Arizona desert is one of many natural obstacles in the construction of the wall. Kerlikowske also said the border currently has 700 miles (1,125 km) of fencing, and that the border is patrolled by various means, including by agents on motorcycles or ATVs and by drones. He said the current method was preferable to a wall.[170]

After the executive order was signed, Jason Marczak of the Atlantic Council wrote: "Today's events are dangerous for the immediate and long-term security and economy of the United States. U.S.–Mexico cooperation is far-reaching: from intelligence sharing for the capture of drug traffickers to the flow of commercial goods that support the livelihoods of nearly 5 million American workers."[154]

Legal aspects

On September 12, 2017, the United States Department of Homeland Security issued a notice that Acting Secretary of Homeland Security Elaine Duke would be waiving "certain laws, regulations and other legal requirements" to begin construction of the new wall near Calexico, California.[171] The waiver allows the Department of Homeland Security to bypass the National Environmental Policy Act, the Endangered Species Act, the Clean Water Act, the Clean Air Act, the National Historic Preservation Act, the Migratory Bird Treaty Act, the Migratory Bird Conservation Act, the Archaeological Resources Protection Act, the Safe Drinking Water Act, the Noise Control Act, the Solid Waste Disposal Act, the Antiquities Act, the Federal Land Policy and Management Act, the Administrative Procedure Act, the Native American Graves Protection and Repatriation Act, and the American Indian Religious Freedom Act.[172]

Trump v. Sierra Club

Following Trump's executive order to proceed with the wall's construction in February 2019, two separate cases were filed in the United States District Court of the Northern District of California alleging that the Trump administration had overstepped its boundaries by authorizing funds to use to build the border wall without Congressional approval, citing the Congressional restrictions they had passed earlier in the month. One was filed by the state of California and 19 other states, while the other was filed by the American Civil Liberties Union for the Sierra Club and the Southern Border Communities Coalition. Both cases were heard together by Judge Haywood Gilliam.[173]

On May 17, 2019, the Trump Justice Department argued in court that because Congress had not explicitly stated in an appropriations bill that "no money shall be obligated" for construction of the wall, the administration was free to spend funds that were not expressly appropriated for border security. Douglas Letter, the general counsel for the House of Representatives, responded, "That just cannot be right. No money may be spent unless Congress actually appropriates it."[174] On the following week, Gilliam granted a preliminary injunction preventing the Trump administration from redirecting funds under the national emergency declaration issued earlier in the year to fund a planned wall along the border with Mexico. Gilliam ruled that "Congress's 'absolute' control over federal expenditures—even when that control may frustrate the desires of the Executive Branch regarding initiatives it views as important—is not a bug in our constitutional system. It is a feature of that system, and an essential one."[175] The injunction applied specifically to some of the money the administration intended to allocate from other agencies, and limited wall construction projects in El Paso, Texas and Yuma, Arizona.[176] Gilliam's decision was temporarily upheld on appeal to the Ninth Circuit Court on July 3, 2019.[177]

The White House petitioned to the Supreme Court, and on July 26, 2019, the Supreme Court, in a 5–4 decision, issued a stay to Gilliam's ruling, allowing wall and related construction to proceed while litigation continues. The summary ruling from the majority indicated the groups suing the government may not have standing to challenge the executive order.[173] However, the plaintiffs will return to the Ninth Circuit Appeals Court.[89][109]

Environmental legal challenge

In April 2017, the Center for Biological Diversity, an environmental group, and U.S. Representative Raúl Grijalva from Arizona, the ranking Democratic member on the House Committee on Natural Resources filed a lawsuit in federal court in Tucson. In their complaint, Grijalva and the Center argue that the government's wall construction plans fail to comply with the National Environmental Policy Act, and seek to compel the government to carry out an environmental impact study and produce an environmental impact statement (EIS) before building the wall.[178][179] The lawsuit specifically seeks "to stop any work until the government agrees to analyze the impact of construction, noise, light and other changes to the landscape on rivers, plants and endangered species—including jaguars, Sonoran pronghorns and ocelots—and also on border residents".[180] Two separate cases, also arguing about the government's failure to complete an EIS, were later filed, one by the groups the Sierra Club, Defenders of Wildlife and the Animal Legal Defense Fund, and the second by California's Attorney General Xavier Becerra.[181]

The three lawsuits were consolidated into a single case within the United States District Court for the Southern District of California by Judge Gonzalo P. Curiel.[181] Oral arguments were heard in February 2018, and Curiel ruled by the end of the month in favor of the government, citing that the Department of Homeland Security has several waivers in its authorization to expedite construction of border walls, which includes bypassing the EIS statement. Curiel had written his opinion without consideration of the other political issues regarding the border wall, ruling only on the environment impact aspect.[182] The ruling was challenged to the U.S. Supreme Court by the Sierra Club, Defenders of Wildlife, and the Animal Legal Defense Fund, but the Court denied their petition for writ of certiorari by December 2018, allowing Curiel's decision to stand.[183]

Eminent domain

About two-thirds of the U.S.–Mexico border runs along private or state-owned lands, and the federal government would need to acquire such land through purchase or seizure (eminent domain) to build any border wall. The "process is likely to cost the government millions and could take years of complex litigation," as was the case for preexisting border walls.[184] In his budget request to Congress, Trump requested that the appropriation of funds for 20 U.S. Department of Justice lawyers "to pursue federal efforts to obtain the land and holdings necessary to secure the Southwest border."[185] In 2017, the Trump administration also revived condemnation litigation against landowners that had been previously dormant for years.[184]

Religious freedom

The Roman Catholic Diocese of Brownsville has challenged the government's right to build part of the wall on the grounds of a historic chapel, La Lomita Chapel in Mission, Texas. At a hearing in McAllen, Texas, on February 6, 2019, U.S. District Judge Randy Crane said the diocese must allow surveyors onto the grounds. The diocese is hoping that once the survey is completed, the government will reconsider its plan to seize the land. If not, the diocese plans to assert its rights under the Religious Freedom Restoration Act, a federal law which prohibits the government from placing a "substantial burden" on the practice of religion.[186] According to Mary McCord, a Georgetown University ICAP attorney representing the diocese, "a physical barrier that cuts off access to the chapel, and not only to Father Roy and his parish but those who seek to worship there, is clearly a substantial burden on the exercise of religious freedom."[187]

See also


  1. ^ Of this, $224 million will be taken from the Blended Retirement System, $604 million from Afghan security forces, $251 million from the disposal of U.S. chemical weapons, and about $343 million from reduced or canceled Air Force weapons programs.[89]
  2. ^ Included in the defunding of 127 projects are nine schools for military children on bases in the U.S. and abroad, a daycare center at Joint Base Andrews, Hurricane Maria recovery projects at military installations in Puerto Rico and the U.S. Virgin Islands, construction projects in Europe designed to help allies deter Russian aggression,[110] and $17 million to build a fire-rescue station for Tyndall Air Force Base after damage from 2018's Hurricane Michael.[111]
  3. ^ Johnson issued a report arguing that border walls were shown to be effective in curbing illegal immigration, citing a "99 percent" reduction in illegal immigration after Israeli built a 143-mile (230 km) wall on the country's border with Egypt at a cost of $2.9 million per mile ($1.81 million/km).[132][133][134] Illegal immigration from Africa to Israel did significantly decrease after construction of the Israel-Egyptian wall, but caution has been made "against generalizing that the fence is the sole reason for the drop", noting that the U.S.–Mexico border (almost 2,000 miles or 3,200 km) is much longer than 150 miles (240 km); that the terrain along the U.S.–Mexico border is much more mountainous and remote; and that a 2012 Israeli law (unrelated to a wall) had also affected illegal migration.[134]
  4. ^ In a video he can be heard to say: "I was able to scale it, climb it, and sit myself right here. It would be simple for me to jump into the United States, which shows that it is unnecessary and totally absurd to build a wall. It's easy, and it shows how unnecessary this project, this political rhetoric from Donald Trump, is".


  1. ^ Rodgers, Lucy; Bailey, Dominic (March 6, 2019). "Trump wall—all you need to know about US border in seven charts". BBC News. Retrieved May 21, 2019.
  2. ^ "Trump orders wall to be built on Mexico border". BBC News. January 26, 2017. Retrieved May 21, 2019.
  3. ^ a b "How realistic is Donald Trump's Mexico wall?". BBC News. January 26, 2016. Retrieved January 26, 2016.
  4. ^ Beltrán del Río, Pascal (March 7, 2016). "Quien se mueve sí sale en la foto: EPN; el desempeño definirá a aspirantes en 2018, dice". Excelsior (in Spanish). Retrieved May 21, 2019.
  5. ^ a b Davis, Julie Hirschfeld (January 25, 2017). "Trump Orders Mexican Border Wall to Be Built and Is Expected to Block Syrian Refugees". The New York Times. ISSN 0362-4331. Retrieved January 26, 2017.
  6. ^ a b "Government Shutdown 2018: Latest Updates & Reaction". Politico. December 27, 2018. Retrieved December 28, 2018.
  7. ^ Galvan, Astrid (September 15, 2019). "450 miles of border wall by next year? In Arizona, it starts". USA TODAY. Retrieved November 26, 2019.
  8. ^ Morris, Rachel. "Trump Got His Wall, After All". HuffPost Highline. Retrieved November 25, 2019.
  9. ^ Kwong, Jessica (November 15, 2019). "Border protection commissioner admits no miles of new border wall have been built". Newsweek. Retrieved November 26, 2019.
  10. ^ Shaw, Adam, "New acting DHS Chief Chad Wolf tours new border wall as construction ramps up, calls it 'common sense'", Fox News, 23 November 2019
  11. ^ Garcia, Michael John (November 18, 2016). Barriers Along the U.S. Borders: Key Authorities and Requirements (PDF). Washington, DC: Congressional Research Service. Retrieved December 9, 2016.
  12. ^ "The Border Fence". NOW on PBS.
  13. ^ Archibold, Randal C. (January 7, 2009). "U.S. Plans Border 'Surge' Against Any Drug Wars". New York Times. Retrieved May 29, 2019.
  14. ^ "Trump: Design of Proposed Wall Along US–Mexican Border Underway". Voice of America. February 8, 2017.
  15. ^ "U.S. agency seeks ideas for Trump's proposed border wall". Reuters. February 24, 2017.
  16. ^ Gonzales, Richard (March 6, 2017). "Rush Begins For Contractors Who Want In On Border Wall Construction". Morning Edition. NPR.
  17. ^ Solon, Olivia (June 8, 2017). "Trump's pitch for making the Mexico border wall 'beautiful': add solar panels". The Guardian.
  18. ^ "Donald Trump talks up solar panel plan for Mexico wall". BBC NEWS. June 22, 2017. Retrieved June 7, 2019.
  19. ^ Garfield, Leanna (July 13, 2017). "Trump says he wants a solar border wall—here's how many homes it could power". Business Insider. Retrieved April 5, 2019.
  20. ^ Bump, Philip (July 14, 2017). "Good news for border residents: No one is throwing 60-pound bags of drugs over a 50-foot wall". The Washington Post.
  21. ^ Barrett, Brian (July 13, 2017). "Let's Talk About Trump, Border Walls, and Flying Heroin". Wired.
  22. ^ a b Dwyer, Colin (April 5, 2017). "Photos: The Many Possible Shapes Of Trump's Border Wall". The Two-Way. NPR. Retrieved April 5, 2019.
  23. ^ "Border wall bids include tourist attraction, solar panels". AP News. April 4, 2017. Retrieved April 5, 2019.
  24. ^ Carranza, Rafael (October 18, 2017). "A first look at 8 possible versions of President Donald Trump's border wall". The Arizona Republic. Retrieved October 19, 2017.
  25. ^ "US–Mexico border wall prototype construction starts". BBC. September 27, 2017. Retrieved September 28, 2017.
  26. ^ Zwirz, Elizabeth (June 1, 2018). "Construction on San Diego section of US border wall begins, CBP says". Fox News. Retrieved April 5, 2019.
  27. ^ Timm, Jane C. (October 26, 2018). "DHS chief marks first section of Trump's border wall. (But it kinda looks like a fence.)". NBC News. Retrieved October 28, 2018.
  28. ^ Rivlin-Nadler, Max (April 4, 2019). "As Trump Visits Calexico, Calif., Residents Worry About Rising Border Wall Tension". NPR. Retrieved April 5, 2019.
  29. ^ St. Anthony, Neal (May 14, 2018). "Thanks to big contract, John Norris takes his tower business to new heights". Star Tribune. Retrieved December 18, 2018.
  30. ^ a b c d e f Loiaconi, Stephen (August 18, 2015). "Experts: Trump's border wall could be costly, ineffective". Sinclair Broadcast Group.
  31. ^ Ainsley, Julia Edwards (January 26, 2017). "President Trump moves ahead with wall, puts stamp on U.S. immigration, security policy". Reuters. Retrieved January 26, 2017.
  32. ^ Isidore, Chris; Sahadi, Jeanne (January 26, 2017). "Here's how much Trump's border wall will cost". CNN. Retrieved January 31, 2017.
  33. ^ PBS NewsHour Weekend full episode March 18, 2017 on YouTube at 4:18 of 22:29
  34. ^ Ainsley, Julia Edwards (February 9, 2017). "Trump border 'wall' to cost $21.6 billion, take 3.5 years to build: internal report". Reuters.
  35. ^ "Evidence from Many Nations Confirms That Border Walls Stem the Tide of Illegal Immigration". The Tennessee Star. July 15, 2018.
  36. ^ "The measures introduced in the interests of protecting the border continue to be necessary". Government of Hungary. September 15, 2017.
  37. ^ a b "Trump's border wall will not work 'no matter how high', scientists warn". The Independent. February 17, 2019. Retrieved February 18, 2019.
  38. ^ "Visa overstays far exceed illegal border crossings in U.S.—and a wall won't change that, study says". Newsweek. January 18, 2019. Retrieved February 28, 2019.
  39. ^ "A Wall Alone Can't Secure the Border, No Matter Who Pays for It". WIRED. Retrieved February 9, 2018.
  40. ^ "Sky Views: Donald Trump's wall, and the myths that sustain it". Sky News. Retrieved February 22, 2019.
  41. ^ Newman, Lily Hay (February 14, 2019). "Trump's Wall Won't Solve a National Emergency. It Is One". Wired. Retrieved February 22, 2019 – via
  42. ^ "Border Patrol Makes Its Case For An Expanded 'Border Barrier'". NPR. January 11, 2019. Retrieved April 8, 2019.
  43. ^ "Border patrol chief: Wall will 'most certainly' help secure southern border". The Hill. August 9, 2019. Retrieved April 8, 2019.
  44. ^ Shear, Michael D.; Davis, Julie Hirschfeld (October 1, 2019). "Shoot Them in the Legs, Trump Suggested: Inside His Border War". The New York Times. Retrieved October 1, 2019.
  45. ^ Cummings, William (January 10, 2019). "Fact check: Trump says he 'obviously' never said Mexico would pay directly for the wall. But he did". USA Today. Retrieved July 25, 2019.
  46. ^ a b Cummings, William (January 8, 2019). "'A WALL is a WALL!' Trump declares. But his definition has shifted a lot over time". USA Today. Retrieved July 25, 2019.
  47. ^ a b "Trump signs order for border wall and insists Mexico will reimburse the cost". Kansas City Star. Associated Press. January 25, 2017. Retrieved August 27, 2018.
  48. ^ a b Schoen, John W. (April 5, 2016). "Would Trump's Plan to Stop Remittances to Mexico Work?". CNBC.
  49. ^ Diamond, Jeremy (January 27, 2017). "Trump floats 20% tax on Mexican imports to pay for wall, but considering other options". CNN.
  50. ^ a b c d Kim, Susanna (April 5, 2016). "The Economic Ramifications of Trump's Border Wall Proposal". ABC News.
  51. ^ Holland, Steve; Gutierrez, Miguel (January 26, 2017). "U.S.–Mexico crisis deepens as Trump aide floats border tax idea". Reuters. Retrieved January 26, 2017.
  52. ^ "Mexico: We will not pay for Trump border wall". BBC News. January 26, 2017. Retrieved January 26, 2017.
  53. ^ Diaz, Daniella (January 27, 2018). "Mexican president cancels meeting with Trump". CNN. Retrieved April 1, 2019.
  54. ^ a b "U.S. Homeland Security secretary has 'elbow room' on building border wall". Homeland Preparedness News. April 5, 2017. Retrieved April 21, 2017.
  55. ^ "Republicans skeptical about paying for wall as Trump releases budget". The Washington Post. March 16, 2017.
  56. ^ Lambrecht, Bill; Buch, Jason; Nelsen, Aaron (January 26, 2017). "Trump orders 'immediate' construction of border wall". San Antonio Express-News.
  57. ^ a b LoBianco, Tom; Raju, Manu; Barrett, Ted (January 25, 2017). "Republicans eyeing special budget bill for Trump border wall". CNN. Retrieved April 1, 2019.
  58. ^ Raju, Manu; Mattingly, Phil (January 27, 2017). "Senate Democrats may block Trump's plan to fund border wall". CNN. Retrieved April 1, 2019.
  59. ^ Raju, Manu (February 6, 2017). "Hill Republicans revolt over Trump's plans to build border wall". CNN.
  60. ^ Kasperowitz, Pete (August 23, 2017). "Trump threatens government shutdown over border wall funding". Washington Examiner. Retrieved August 25, 2017.
  61. ^ "Trump says he is willing to 'close government' to build Mexico wall". BBC News. August 23, 2017. Retrieved August 23, 2017.
  62. ^ Schwartz, Brian (December 11, 2018). "Nancy Pelosi, Chuck Schumer let Trump take responsibility for shutdown". CNBC. Retrieved January 7, 2019.
  63. ^ Johnson, Eliana; Everett, Burgess (December 20, 2018). "Pressure from base pushed a flustered Trump into shutdown reversal". Politico. Retrieved April 1, 2019.
  64. ^ Ainsley, Julia (January 5, 2018). "Trump administration requests $18 billion for border wall". NBC News. Retrieved May 21, 2019.
  65. ^ James, Mike (January 5, 2018). "Trump seeks $18 billion to extend border wall over 10 years". USA Today. Retrieved May 20, 2019.
  66. ^ Diamond, Jeremy (February 9, 2016). "Trump: Border wall will cost $8 billion". CNN. Retrieved May 21, 2019.
  67. ^ Sperry, Paul (March 10, 2018). "Cutting welfare to illegal aliens would pay for Trump's wall". Opinion. New York Post. Retrieved May 21, 2019.
  68. ^ Boehm, Eric (March 13, 2018). "Trump Says the Border Wall Will Pay for Itself. It Won't". Reason. Retrieved April 14, 2018.
  69. ^ Kessler, Glenn (March 16, 2018). "Does President Trump's border wall pay for itself?". The Washington Post. Retrieved April 14, 2018.
  70. ^ Aguilar, Julián (March 23, 2018). "How Donald Trump's border wall fared in the $1.3 trillion spending bill he just signed". The Texas Tribune. Retrieved May 21, 2019.
  71. ^ Pramuk, Jacob (March 23, 2018). "Trump signs $1.3 trillion spending bill into law despite being 'unhappy' about it". CNBC. Retrieved August 13, 2018.
  72. ^ Kaplan, Thomas (March 22, 2018). "Congress Approves $1.3 Trillion Spending Bill, Averting a Shutdown". The New York Times. Retrieved August 13, 2018.
  73. ^ Pettersson, Edvard (May 21, 2019). "So Far, $1.57 Billion for Wall Yields 1.7 Miles of Fence". Bloomberg. Retrieved June 7, 2019.
  74. ^ Baker, Peter (January 7, 2019). "Trump Says Predecessors Confessed Support for Wall. Not True, They Say". The New York Times. Retrieved January 8, 2019.
  75. ^ "Most imported heroin comes through legal points of entry". The Washington Post. Retrieved January 11, 2019.
  76. ^ Woodward, Calvin; Long, Colleen (January 9, 2019). "AP Fact Check: Trump and the disputed border crisis". AP News. Retrieved May 21, 2019.
  77. ^ Klein, Betsy (January 10, 2019). "Trump claims 'obviously' Mexico isn't going to write a check for a border wall". CNN. Retrieved January 29, 2019.
  78. ^ Pappas, Alex (January 10, 2019). "Trump highlights human trafficking as he calls for 'strong barrier' during visit to US–Mexico border". Fox News. Retrieved January 11, 2019.
  79. ^ Valverde, Miriam (January 4, 2019). "No, Mexico isn't paying for wall through Trump's trade deal". Politifact. Retrieved May 21, 2019.
  80. ^ Layne, Rachel (January 9, 2019). "Would Mexico 'indirectly' pay for the wall?". CBS News. Retrieved May 21, 2019.
  81. ^ Lobosco, Katie (January 8, 2019). "Trump's new trade deal". CNN. Retrieved February 6, 2019.
  82. ^ Kessler, Glenn (January 8, 2019). "President Trump's nonsensical claim that Mexico is paying for the wall". The Washington Post. Retrieved February 6, 2019.
  83. ^ Kheel, Rebecca (January 25, 2019). "Overnight Defense: Trump agrees to reopen government without wall funding | Senate approves stopgap spending measure | Dems ask Armed Services chair to block military funding for wall". TheHill. Retrieved January 25, 2019.
  84. ^ Bryan, Bob (January 25, 2019). "The government shutdown is in day 35 and has shattered the record for the longest shutdown in history". Business Insider. Retrieved May 21, 2019.
  85. ^ "Butterfly Center, Chapel Spared in Bill Funding New Border Barrier in Rio Grande Valley". Rivard Report. February 14, 2019.
  86. ^ "CONFERENCE REPORT [To accompany H.J. Res. 31]" (PDF). U.S. House of Representatives.
  87. ^ "Documents: Border wall could impact 15 percent of Rio Grande refuge". Herald-Mail Media. April 1, 2019.
  88. ^ Haberman, Maggie; Baker, Peter; Cochrane, Emily (January 14, 2019). "As Congress Passes Spending Bill, Trump Plans National Emergency to Build Border Wall". The New York Times. Retrieved February 17, 2019.
  89. ^ a b Einbinder, Nicole (August 2, 2019). "Money from a retirement program for the US military is set to be diverted to pay for Trump's border wall". Business Insider. Retrieved August 2, 2019.
  90. ^ Taylor, Jessica; Naylor, Brian (February 15, 2019). "As Trump Declares National Emergency to Fund Border Wall, Democrats Promise a Fight". NPR. Retrieved March 27, 2019.
  91. ^ Donnelly, John M. (February 21, 2019). "Congress could block big chunk of Trump's emergency wall money". Roll Call. Retrieved February 22, 2019. That includes $3.6 billion from unspent military construction money, $2.5 billion in unspent Pentagon counterdrug funds and $600 million from a Treasury Department asset forfeiture account. But the Defense Department has told lawmakers that only $85 million remains unspent in the counterdrug account, a House Appropriations spokesman said Thursday.
  92. ^ Embury-Dennis, Tom (February 22, 2019). "Third of money Trump plans to use to build wall has already been spent". The Independent. Retrieved February 22, 2019.
  93. ^ "The Latest: House blocks Trump's emergency declaration". Washington Post. February 27, 2019. Archived from the original on February 27, 2019. Retrieved February 27, 2019.
  94. ^ Kelly, Caroline; Mattingly, Phil (March 14, 2019). "These 12 GOP senators voted against Trump's national emergency declaration". CNN. Retrieved March 15, 2019.
  95. ^ Diamond, Jeremy; Jarrett, Laura (March 15, 2019). "Trump issues first veto of his presidency". CNN. Retrieved March 15, 2019.
  96. ^ Itkowitz, Colby; Werner, Erica (September 27, 2019). "House votes to overturn Trump's national emergency to fund border wall—but falls short of veto-proof majority". The Washington Post. Retrieved October 1, 2019.
  97. ^ Samuels, Brett (October 15, 2019). "Trump again vetoes resolution blocking national emergency for border wall". TheHill. Retrieved October 16, 2019.
  98. ^ Alvarez, Priscilla (October 11, 2019). "Federal judge says Trump's use of emergency funds to build wall is unlawful". CNN. Retrieved October 12, 2019.
  99. ^ Graves, Brad (March 19, 2019). "Some Military Construction May Wait for Border Wall". San Diego Business Journal. Retrieved March 20, 2019.
  100. ^ Wagner, John; Werner, Erica (March 26, 2019). "Pentagon announces $1-billion transfer for border barriers, as Democrats object". Los Angeles Times. Retrieved March 27, 2019.
  101. ^ Williams, Pete; Madani, Doha (July 27, 2019). "Supreme Court allows Trump to tap $2.5B in Pentagon funds for border wall". NBC News. Retrieved September 9, 2019.
  102. ^ Giaritelli, Anna (July 20, 2019). "Trump has not built a single mile of new border fence after 30 months in office". Washington Examiner. Retrieved July 22, 2019.
  103. ^ Norman, Greg (August 26, 2019). "Border Patrol releases drone footage showing miles of 'new wall system' being built". Fox News. Retrieved September 2, 2019.
  104. ^ Valverde, Miriam (August 30, 2019). "Border wall under way? It's replacement fencing". PolitiFact. Retrieved September 2, 2019.
  105. ^ Fox News (September 15, 2019). "CBP reports 65 miles of new border wall constructed". YouTube. Retrieved September 16, 2019.
  106. ^ Choi, Matthew (September 16, 2019). "Pentagon puts brakes on 3 border barrier projects because of cost". Politico. Retrieved September 17, 2019.
  107. ^ Miroff, Nick; Dawsey, Josh (September 19, 2019). "Trump officials considering plan to divert billions of dollars in additional funds for border barrier". The Washington Post. Retrieved September 22, 2019.
  108. ^ "READ: Letter announcing decision to divert military funds for Trump's border wall". CNN. September 3, 2019. Retrieved September 3, 2019.
  109. ^ a b c Cohen, Zachary; Browne, Ryan (September 3, 2019). "Pentagon diverts $3.6 billion in military construction funds to build Trump's border wall". CNN. Retrieved September 3, 2019.
  110. ^ Sonne, Paul; Kim, Seung Min (September 4, 2019). "Pentagon takes money from Puerto Rico, European projects to fund Trump's wall". Washington Post. Retrieved September 7, 2019.
  111. ^ Daugherty, Alex (September 5, 2019). "Trump cuts $17 million project at Florida Air Force base to pay for border wall". Retrieved September 8, 2019.
  112. ^ Cochrane, Emily; Cooper, Helene (September 4, 2019). "Pentagon Lists Projects That Will Be Delayed to Fund Border Wall". New York Times.
  113. ^ Pietsch, Bryan (September 4, 2019). "Pentagon pulls funds for military schools, daycare to pay for Trump's border wall". Reuters. Retrieved September 7, 2019.
  114. ^ McLevy, Alex (November 14, 2017). "Cards Against Humanity buys land along the U.S.-Mexico border in order to block Trump's wall". The A.V. Club. Retrieved September 3, 2019.
  115. ^ a b Stracqualursi, Veronica (November 2, 2019). "Washington Post: Smugglers in Mexico are cutting through parts of Trump's border wall". CNN. Retrieved November 2, 2019.
  116. ^ Vasquez, Christian (November 2, 2019). "Trump defends border wall design after report smugglers are sawing through it". Politico. Retrieved November 4, 2019.
  117. ^ Shoichet, Catherine E.; Santiago, Leyla; Sayers, Devon M.; Diamond, Jeremy; Flores, Rosa (May 28, 2019). "A private group says it's started building its own border wall using millions donated in GoFundMe campaign". CNN.
  118. ^ Camacho, Marian, "Construction on private border wall continues", KOB, May 30, 2019
  119. ^ Armus, Teo (December 4, 2019). "Right-wing group must stop building private border wall in South Texas, judge says in temporary order". Washington Post. Retrieved December 4, 2019.
  120. ^ Root, Tik (November 1, 2016). "Border walls are bad for wildlife". Washington Post. Retrieved June 7, 2019.
  121. ^ Bolstad, Erika (January 26, 2017). "Trump's Wall Could Cause Serious Environmental Damage". E&E News. Retrieved June 7, 2019 – via Scientific American.
  122. ^ Silva, Danielle; Gamboa, Suzanne (April 22, 2017). "Trump's Border Wall 'Catastrophic' for Environment, Endangered Species: Activists". NBC News. Retrieved June 7, 2019.
  123. ^ Flesch, Aaron D.; Epps, Clinton W.; Cain Iii, James W.; Clark, Matt; Krausman, Paul R.; Morgart, John R. (February 1, 2010). "Potential Effects of the United States–Mexico Border Fence on Wildlife". Conservation Biology. 24 (1): 171–81. doi:10.1111/j.1523-1739.2009.01277.x. ISSN 1523-1739. PMID 19558522.
  124. ^ "Judge dismisses wall lawsuit brought by butterfly conservationists, who vow to keep fighting". WTVR. CNN Wire. February 17, 2019. Retrieved June 7, 2019.
  125. ^ Da Silva, Chantal (October 7, 2019). "Donald Trump's border wall construction crew just bulldozed through the iconic cacti this national park was created to protect". Newsweek. Retrieved October 12, 2019.
  126. ^ Eilperin, Juliet; Miroff, Nick (September 18, 2019). "Border fence construction could destroy archaeological sites, National Park Service finds". The Washington Post. Retrieved September 18, 2019.
  127. ^ "Trump Bulldozes New Wall Through Wildlife Refuge, Jaguar Country". Center for Biological Diversity. Retrieved November 2, 2019.
  128. ^ a b Davis, Julie Hirschfeld (January 25, 2017). "Trump Orders Mexican Border Wall to Be Built and Plans to Block Syrian Refugees". The New York Times. ISSN 0362-4331. Retrieved April 5, 2017.
  129. ^ "Refugee ban, border wall: Religious leaders respond". Religion News Service. Retrieved April 5, 2017.
  130. ^ Marino, Joe; Perez, Chris (January 26, 2017). "Hundreds gather for 'emergency' anti-Trump protest". New York Post. Retrieved April 5, 2017.
  131. ^ a b Buch, Jason; Nelsen, Aaron (January 26, 2017). "Trump orders 'immediate' construction of border wall". San Antonio Express-News. Retrieved April 2, 2019.
  132. ^ "Transcript". New Day. CNN. February 3, 2017.
  133. ^ Steves, Rick (November 18, 2013). "The Security Fence, the Anti-Terrorism Barrier, the Wall". HuffPost. Retrieved April 7, 2017.
  134. ^ a b Valverde, Miriam (February 13, 2017). "GOP senator says Israel border fence cut illegal immigration". PolitiFact.
  135. ^ "In debate over how to protect Southwest border, no one size fits all solution". Homeland Preparedness News. April 4, 2017. Retrieved April 21, 2017.
  136. ^ a b Johnson, Kevin (March 5, 2017). "The Arizona lawman challenging President Trump's border wall". USA Today.
  137. ^ Woodruff, Betsy (April 13, 2017). "Border Sheriff: Trump Wall No Match for Drug Demand". Daily Beast.
  138. ^ Marusak, Joe (September 19, 2018). "U.S. sheriffs crowdfunding for border wall. 'We will not sit idly by,' one in NC says". The Charlotte Observer.
  139. ^ Bunker, Theodore (December 11, 2018). "Joe Arpaio to Newsmax TV: '100 Percent' Backs Trump on Border". Newsmax.
  140. ^ Lewis, Paul (March 22, 2016). "Joe Arpaio on Trump's border plan: 'What's wrong with a wall?'—video". The Guardian.
  141. ^ Davis, Julie Hirschfeld; Baker, Peter (January 5, 2019). "The Border Wall: How a Potent Symbol Is Now Boxing Trump In". The New York Times. ISSN 0362-4331. Retrieved January 6, 2019.
  142. ^ Anderson, Stuart. "Where The Idea For Donald Trump's Wall Came From". Retrieved January 6, 2019.
  143. ^ Fitzgerald, Sandy (January 26, 2015). "President Donald Trump Would Build a 'Real Wall' at Border". Newsmax. Retrieved January 6, 2019.
  144. ^ Bump, Philip (January 10, 2019). "Trump claims he never said Mexico would cut a check for the wall. Let's go to the tape". The Washington Post.
  145. ^ Johnson, Jenna (February 12, 2016). "'Build that wall' has taken on a life of its own at Donald Trump's rallies—but he's still serious". The Washington Post.
  146. ^ Larimer, Sarah (November 10, 2016). "Middle schoolers chant 'build the wall' during lunch in aftermath of Trump win". The Washington Post.
  147. ^ Goldberg, Michelle (January 11, 2019). "Is the president making middle school worse?". Opinion. The New York Times.
  148. ^ a b "Most Americans continue to oppose U.S. border wall, doubt Mexico would pay for it". Pew Research Center. February 24, 2017.
  149. ^ "Methodology" (PDF). Pew Research Center. February 24, 2017.
  150. ^ "Less than half the public views border wall as an important goal for U.S. immigration policy". Pew Research Center. January 6, 2017.
  151. ^ Taylor, Andrew; Swanson, Emily (April 6, 2017). "AP-NORC Poll: Most Americans oppose funding border wall". AP News. Retrieved April 2, 2019.
  152. ^ "Issue Brief: Taxes and the Budget" (PDF). Associated Press/NORC at the University of Chicago. April 2017.
  153. ^ Dinan, Stephen (April 2, 2018). "Border Patrol agents overwhelmingly support Trump's wall in new survey". The Washington Times. Retrieved April 2, 2019.
  154. ^ a b
  155. ^ "Calls for Trump to face UN lawsuit over Mexico border wall". Euronews. January 27, 2017. Retrieved April 2, 2019.
  156. ^ Caplan, David (March 3, 2017). "Mexican congressman climbs U.S. border fence to illustrate that Trump's wall is 'totally absurd'". ABC News. Retrieved April 2, 2019.
  157. ^ Johnson, Kevin (March 6, 2017). "The Arizona lawman challenging President Trump's border wall". USA Today. Retrieved April 7, 2017.
  158. ^ Hamblin, Abby (March 28, 2017). "Mexican archdiocese: Build that wall, commit treason". San Diego Union-Tribune. Retrieved April 2, 2019.
  159. ^ "Mexico's Catholic Church: Work on Trump wall is treason". AP News. March 26, 2017. Retrieved April 2, 2019.
  160. ^ Newman, Lucia (January 26, 2017). "Latin America leaders condemn Trump's Mexico wall at CELAC summit". Al Jazeera. Retrieved April 2, 2019.
  161. ^ a b Booth, William (January 29, 2017). "Israel's Netanyahu applauds Trump's plan for wall; Mexico not pleased". The Washington Post.
  162. ^ Jones, Rory (January 29, 2017). "Israel PM Netanyahu Praises Trump's Plan for Mexico Border Wall". The Wall Street Journal. ISSN 0099-9660.
  163. ^ "Facing Mexico's fury, Israel backtracks on Trump border wall praise". The Times of Israel. January 29, 2017. Retrieved October 27, 2019.
  164. ^ San Martín, Inés (March 31, 2019). "Trump's border wall will make US a 'prisoner' of isolation, pope says". Crux. Retrieved October 27, 2019.
  165. ^ Winfield, Nicole; Zamorano, Juan (January 24, 2019). "Pope in Panama blasts corruption, walls, prays for Venezuela". AP News. Retrieved September 7, 2019.
  166. ^ "Pope repeats 'bridges not walls' after Trump travel ban". AP News. February 8, 2017. Retrieved October 27, 2019.
  167. ^ Pope Francis [@pontifex] (March 18, 2017). "I invite you not to build walls but bridges, to conquer evil with good, offence with forgiveness, to live in peace with everyone" (Tweet) – via Twitter.
  168. ^ Bakare, Lanre (July 30, 2019). "Pink seesaws reach across the divide at US–Mexico border". The Guardian. Retrieved October 27, 2019.
  169. ^ a b "Trump just signed an executive order to start building a wall at the border". The World. January 25, 2017. Retrieved April 2, 2019.
  170. ^ Glover, Scott (January 25, 2017). "The many challenges facing Trump's wall". CNN. Retrieved February 3, 2017.
  171. ^ "Determination Pursuant to Section 102 of the Illegal Immigration Reform and Immigrant Responsibility Act of 1996, as Amended". Federal Register. September 12, 2017. Retrieved September 13, 2017.
  172. ^ Hand, Mark (September 12, 2017). "Homeland Security waives environmental review for California border project". Think Progress. Retrieved September 13, 2017.
  173. ^ a b Liptak, Adam (July 26, 2019). "Supreme Court Lets Trump Proceed on Wall Plans Amid Legal Fight". New York Times.
  174. ^ Barbash, Fred (May 17, 2019). "Trump administration tells judge Congress did not deny border wall funds when it declined to appropriate money for it". Washington Post. Retrieved November 11, 2019.
  175. ^ Kendall, Brent; Radnofsky, Louise (May 25, 2019). "Federal Judge Blocks Trump's Border-Wall Plans". Wall Street Journal.
  176. ^ Del Real, Jose A. (May 24, 2019). "Federal Judge Blocks Part of Trump's Plan to Build Border Wall". The New York Times. Retrieved May 25, 2019.
  177. ^ Re, Gregg (July 3, 2019). "9th Circuit blocks emergency funding for border wall, as White House vows appeal". Fox News. Retrieved July 4, 2019.
  178. ^ Rafael Carranza. "Donald Trump's border wall faces first lawsuit". Arizona Republic (April 12, 2017).
  179. ^ "Lawsuit Targets Trump's Border Wall, Enforcement Program" (press release), Center for Biological Diversity (April 12, 2017).
  180. ^ Santos, Fernanda (April 13, 2017). "No Environmental Impact Study? No Border Wall, Lawsuit Says". New York Times.
  181. ^ a b Spagat, Eliot (February 8, 2018). "Judge Delays Ruling on Environmental Lawsuit Against Border Wall Until Next Week". KNSD–NBC San Diego. Retrieved December 3, 2018.
  182. ^ Kopan, Tal (February 28, 2018). "Judge Curiel, once attacked by Trump, rules border wall can proceed". CNN. Retrieved December 3, 2018.
  183. ^ Chung, Andrew (December 3, 2018). "U.S. top court snubs environmental challenge to Trump's border wall". Reuters. Retrieved December 3, 2018.
  184. ^ a b Kopan, Tal (November 13, 2017). "Trump admin taking quiet steps on seizing border land, report says". CNN.
  185. ^ Alvarez, Priscilla (April 6, 2017). "Trump's Border Barrier Hits a Wall". The Atlantic.
  186. ^ Knowles, David (February 12, 2019). "A tiny chapel—and a law beloved by evangelicals—might stand in the way of Trump's wall". Yahoo News.
  187. ^ Hendricks, Dave (February 6, 2019). "Judge says Catholic Church must allow access to La Lomita Chapel property for border wall survey". Progress Times.