Trzciniec culture

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
Jump to navigation Jump to search
Trzciniec culture
Trzciniec culture.jpg
Geographical rangePoland and western Ukraine
PeriodCopper Age
Datesca. 1600–1200 BC
Preceded byMierzanowice culture
Followed byLusatian culture

The Trzciniec culture is a Bronze-Age archaeological culture in Eastern Europe (c. 1600 – 1200 BC). It is sometimes associated with the Komariv neighbouring culture, as the Trzciniec-Komariv culture.

History[edit]

The Trzciniec culture developed from three Corded Ware-related cultures: Mierzanowice, Strzyżów and Iwno.

The areal of the Trzciniec culture corresponds to parts of today's Poland (including Kujawy, Małopolska, Mazowsze, South Podlasie) and western Ukraine.

The Trzciniec culture was succeeded by the Lusatian culture, which developed around Łódź.

Characteristics[edit]

The best known settlements of the Trzciniec culture were in Złota Pińczowskia, Więcławice Świętokrzyskie, Goszyce, and west Bondyrz, close to the kurgans of Guciow. Some of these sites include important treasures containing materials such as ornamental gold and silver like in Stawiszyce and Rawa Mazowiecka.

Inhumation and cremation in a flat grave were important features of Trzciniec culture. Cases of inhumation were discovered in Wolica Nowa, in the form of kurgans. Evidence of kurgan inhumation have been found at Łubna-Jakusy, whereas kurgan cremation has been found at Guciów.

Genetics[edit]

A genetic study published in Nature Communications in January 2018 examined the remains of seven possible Trzciniec individuals buried in Turlojiškė, Lithuania between 2,100 BC and 600 BC. The three samples of Y-DNA extracted belonged to haplogroup R1a1a1b (two samples) and CT, while the seven samples of mtDNA extracted belonged to haplogroup U5a2a1, T2b (three samples), H5, H4a1a1a3 and H.[1]

A genetic study published in the American Journal of Physical Anthropology in April 2020 examined the mtDNA of eighty individuals ascribed to the Trzciniec culture.[2][3] The individuals were determined to be closely related to peoples of the Corded Ware culture, Bell Beaker culture, Únětice culture and the Mierzanowice culture. They were notably genetically different from peoples of the neighboring Strzyżów culture, which displayed closer genetic relations to cultures further east.[4]

See also[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ Mittnik et al. 2018, Supplementary Data 1, Rows 94-100.
  2. ^ Juras et al. 2020, p. 3.
  3. ^ Juras et al. 2020, pp. 6-7, Table 1.
  4. ^ Juras et al. 2020, pp. 5-7.

Bibliography[edit]

  • Juras, Anna; et al. (April 15, 2020). "Mitochondrial genomes from Bronze Age Poland reveal genetic continuity from the Late Neolithic and additional genetic affinities with the steppe populations". American Journal of Physical Anthropology. American Association of Physical Anthropologists. 172 (2): 176–188. doi:10.1002/ajpa.24057. PMID 32297323.
  • Mittnik, Alisa; et al. (January 30, 2018). "The genetic prehistory of the Baltic Sea region". Nature Communications. Nature Research. 16 (1): 442. doi:10.1038/s41467-018-02825-9. PMC 5789860. PMID 29382937.
  • Prahistoria Ziem Polskich, tom IV pod redakcją W. Hensla Wydawnictwo PAN, Ossolineum, Wrocław, Warszawa, Kraków, Gdańsk, 1979.
  • Pradzieje ziem polskich, tom I cz. 2 Epoka Brązu i początki Epoki Żelaza pod redakcją Kmiecińskiego, wyd. PWN Warszawa-Łodź 1989
  • Wielka Historia Polski, tom I Najdawniejsze dzieje ziem polskich (do VII w.), Piotr Kaczanowski, Janusz K. Kozłowski, wyd. Fogra Kraków 1998
  • Od neolityzacji do początków epoki brązu przemiany kulturowe w międzyrzeczu Odry i Dniepru VI i II tys. przed Chr. – praca zbiorowa pod redakcja Janusza Czebreszuka, Mikoly Kryvalceviča, Przemysława Makarowicza, Uniwersytet im. Adama Mickiewicza w Poznaniu. Instytut Prahistorii. Poznań : Wydaw. Poznańskie, 2001
  • Encyklopedia historyczna świata tom I: Prehistoria, praca zbiorowe, opracowanie naukowe prof. Dr hab. Janusz K. Kozłowski, Agencja Publicystyczno-Wydawnicza Oppress, Kraków 1999
  • Kultura pradziejowa na ziemiach Polski zarys, Jerzy Gąssowski, PWN, Warszawa 1985