Tupari languages

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Tuparí
Geographic
distribution
Brazil
Linguistic classificationTupian
  • Tuparí
Glottologtupa1251[1]

The Tuparí languages of Brazil form a branch of the Tupian language family.

Internal classification[edit]

The Tupari languages are:[2][3]

None are spoken by more than a few hundred people.

Varieties[edit]

Below is a list of Tupari language varieties listed by Loukotka (1968), including names of unattested varieties.[4]

Macuráp group
Kepkeriwát group

Proto-language[edit]

Proto-Tupari
Reconstruction ofTupari languages
Reconstructed
ancestor

Proto-Tuparí reconstructions by Moore and Vilacy Galucio (1994):[5]

gloss Proto-Tuparí
sweet potato *gwagwo
tapir *ɨkwaay
macaw *pet+'a
‘one’ *kiẽt
‘small’ *Dĩĩt
‘fish’ *pot
‘fowl’ *õkɨra
‘seed’ *kit
‘neck’ *gwotkɨp
‘heart’ *ãnõã
‘to know’ *toã
‘to give’ *ñũã
‘to speak’ *mãYã
‘sun, year’ *ŋgiahkop
‘stone’ *ŋwa+'i
‘earth’ *kɨy
‘fire; firewood’ *agopkap
‘mountain’ *(n)dzo
‘person’ *aotse
‘mother’ *ñä
‘husband’ *mẽt
‘hammock’ *ẽ/*ĩnĩ
‘seat’ *ãβõ-pe
‘seat’ *ñãp-pe
‘hair’ *Dap
‘tooth’ *ñããy
‘hand’ *mbo
‘nail’ *mbo-ape
‘skin’ *pe
‘liver’ *pia
‘foot’ *mbi
‘breast’ *ŋẽp
‘blood (n)’ *a
‘blood (n)’ *eYɨ
‘tobacco’ *pitoa
‘maize’ *atsitsi
‘axe’ *gwi
‘knife’ *ŋgɨtpe
timbo *ŋĩk
‘mortar’ *ẽndzɨ
‘salt’ *ŋgɨɨt
‘meat’ *ñẽt+'ã
‘water (n)’ *ɨgɨ
‘basin’ *βãẽkɨt
‘dust’ *ñõ'õ
‘path’ *pee
‘night’ *ŋĩndak
‘leaf’ *Dep/*deep
Brazil nut tree’ *kãnã
Brazil nut tree’ *arao
assai (palm)’ *gwit+'i
‘banana’ *ehpiip
‘cotton’ *ororo
genipap *tsigaap
‘peanut’ *araɨgwi
‘pepper’ *kõỹ
armadillo *ndayto
‘tail’ *okway
‘snake’ *Dat/*daat
‘lizard’ *Dako
‘turtle’ *mbok+'a
‘caiman’ *gwaYto
‘crab’ *kera
achiote *ŋgop
‘horn’ *apikɨp
‘paca’ *gwãnãmbiro
‘deer’ *ɨtsɨɨ
‘dog’ *ãŋwẽko
ocelot *ãŋwẽko Dĩĩt
agouti *ŋwãkɨ̃ỹã
‘bat’ *ŋwari+'a
coati *pi'it
capuchin monkey *sahkɨrap
spider monkey *ãrĩmẽ
honey marten’ (kinkajou?) *ãmãnã
peccary *Daotse
collared peccary *Daotsey
‘louse’ *ãŋgɨp
‘flea’ *ñõk
‘wasp’ *ŋgap
‘termite’ *ŋgub+i
‘big ant’ *Dat+'a
‘cockroach’ *a
‘cockroach’ *eβape
‘cicada’ *ŋõtŋõna
‘scorpion’ *kɨtnĩŋã
‘snail’ *ɨ̃ỹã
piranha *ipñãỹ
surubim *ãnõrẽ
‘mandi’ *mõkoa
‘toucan’ *yo
‘toucan’ *ñõkãt
‘duck’ *ɨpek
‘vulture’ *ɨβe
‘vulture’ *ako
‘hawk’ *kẽỹ+'ã
‘hummingbird’ *mĩnĩt
‘owl’ *popoβa
partridge *kwãŋwã
‘basket, big’ *ãŋgerek
‘canoe’ *kɨp-pe
‘clothing’ *pe
‘to drink’ *ka
‘to take’ *ara
‘to blow’ *ɨβa
‘to vomit’ *ẽkẽt
‘to push’ *mõrã
‘to swim’ *tĩptĩpnã
‘to see’ *to'a
‘to see’ *-tso-
‘hot’ *ahkop
‘good’ *poat
‘new’ *pahgop
‘old’ *poot
‘name’ *Det
‘sour’ *kãỹ
‘other’ *nõõ
‘smooth’ *atsik
‘rotten’ *ãnde
‘rotten’ *ãkwĩ
‘straight’ *kɨɨt
‘distant’ *gwetsok
‘2nd person’ *ẽt

Syntax[edit]

In all Tuparian languages, the main clauses follow the cross-linguistically rare nominative–absolutive pattern. Person prefixes on the verb are absolutive, i.e., they index the sole argument of an intransitive verb (S) and the patient argument ('direct object') of a transitive verb (P). Person pronouns, which follow the verb (either cliticizing to it or not) are nominative: they may encode the sole argument of an intransitive verb (S) or the agent argument of a transitive verb (A), but not the patient of a transitive verb (P). The example below is from Wayoró.[6]:99

 Eamõjãn (en).
 s-V			(S)
 /e-amõc-a-t		(ẽt)/
 2-dance-TH-NFUT	(2.NOM)
 ‘You danced.’
 Etopkwap nã on.
 p-V			A
 /e-top-kʷ-a-p	nã	õt/
 2-see-PL-TH-p	FUT	1.NOM
 ‘I’ll see you every day.’

References[edit]

  1. ^ Hammarström, Harald; Forkel, Robert; Haspelmath, Martin, eds. (2017). "Tuparic". Glottolog 3.0. Jena, Germany: Max Planck Institute for the Science of Human History.
  2. ^ Nikulin, Andrey; Fernando O. de Carvalho. 2019. Estudos diacrônicos de línguas indígenas brasileiras: um panorama. Macabéa – Revista Eletrônica do Netlli, v. 8, n. 2 (2019), p. 255-305. (PDF)
  3. ^ Andrade, Rafael (to appear). As consoantes alvéolo-dentais do Proto-Tuparí: revisão e reconstrução fonológica. In: OLIVEIRA, Christiane Cunha de (ed.). Memórias do II Encontro dos Americanistas no Cerrado. Goiânia: Universidade Federal de Goiás.
  4. ^ Loukotka, Čestmír (1968). Classification of South American Indian languages. Los Angeles: UCLA Latin American Center.
  5. ^ Moore, D. & Vilacy Galucio, A. (1994). Reconstruction of Proto-Tupari consonants and vowels. In Langdon, M. (eds.), Survey of California and Other Indian Languages, Report 8. 119-30, Columbus: Ohio State University. Accessed from DiACL, 9 February 2020.
  6. ^ Galucio, Ana Vilacy; de Souza Nogueira, Antônia Fernanda (20 July 2018). "From object nominalization to object focus: The innovative A-alignment in the Tuparian languages (Tupian family)". Journal of Historical Linguistics. 8 (1): 95–127. doi:10.1075/jhl.16025.gal.