Ukrainians in Russia
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| 1,927,988 identified as ethnic Ukrainians in the 2010 Russian census.
2.03% of the population of Russia
|Russian (99.8%, 2002), Ukrainian|
|Predominantly Christians (55%).|
|Related ethnic groups|
|Kuban Cossacks, Ukrainian diaspora, other Slavic peoples (especially East Slavs)|
Ukrainians in Russia make up the largest single diaspora group of the Ukrainian people. As of 2010, 1.9 million Ukrainians live in Russia, representing over 1.4% of the total population of the Russian Federation and comprising the third-largest ethnic group after ethnic Russians and Tatars. An estimated 340,000 people born in Ukraine, mostly young people, permanently settle legally in Russia each year. In February 2014, there were 1.6 million Ukrainian citizens in the territory of Russia, two-thirds of the labour migrants. However, after the Russian annexation of Crimea and the start of the war in the Donbass, the number had risen to 2.5 million as of December 2014[update]. Over 420,000 asylum-seekers from Ukraine had registered in Russia as of November 2017[update].
Grand Prince of Kyiv Vladimir II Monomakh founded the principality of Vladimir-Suzdal, and his son Yuri Dolgoruki founded the city of Moscow in 1147. However, by the end of the 12th century, the prominence of Rus' people began to decline as Kyiv's central role became disputed by the surrounding principalities, which were increasingly more powerful and independent. Dolgoruki's son Andrei I Bogolyubsky plundered Kyiv in 1169, an event that allowed the Principality of Vladimir-Suzdal to take a leading role as the predecessor of the modern Russian state.
The sacking of Kyiv itself in December 1240 during the Mongol Invasion led to the ultimate collapse of the Rus' state. For many of its residents, the brutality of the Mongol attacks confirmed the decision for those choosing to find a safe haven in the North East. In 1299, the Kyivan Metropolitan Chair was moved to Vladimir by Metropolitan Maximus, keeping the title of Kyiv. As Vladimir-Suzdal, and later the Grand Duchy of Moscow, continued to grow unhindered, the Orthodox religious link between them and Kyiv remained strong. Envoys continued to be sent to Moscow from the Kyiv Pechersk Lavra. Professional artisans, builders, craftsmen, and lay-people also travelled to Moscow, where they could more easily earn a living.
The Southern Ruthenians found themselves within a new state of the Grand Duchy of Lithuania. After the union of Jogaila and the Kingdom of Poland in 1386, this state became officially Catholic in leadership. This isolated its majority Orthodox population, and soon many notable Ruthenian leaders began to leave for Moscow. In 1408, a group of nobles led by Švitrigaila, along with the Chernihiv bishop and a significant group of soldiers, defected to Moscow.
The frequent Russo-Lithuanian Wars meant that in 1448, Moscow Metropolitan Jonah achieved full Autocephaly for the Russian Orthodox Church. The title of Kyiv remained with the Kyivan Metropolia, which was under the jurisdiction of the Patriarch of Constantinople.
The emigration to the Tsardom of Russia continued to grow in the 16th century. Prominent examples include Michael Glinski, who staged a powerful rebellion against Lithuanian rule in February 1508, who would receive a boyar title along with villages and lands around Medyn for settlement. In the mid-16th century, the Ukrainian Hetman Dmytro Vyshnevetsky visited Moscow, where he served in the court of Tsar Ivan IV and received in return the city of Belyov, along with a number of surrounding villages and homesteads, as rewards. Trade also grew considerably in this period, and many Ukrainian Slobodas were founded in Russian cities.
Many Ukrainian settlers settled in areas that lay between the old Zasechnaya cherta and the new defence line that would guard Russia from the frequent raids by the Nogais and the Crimean Tatars. This became known as Sloboda Ukraine, and initial forts, such as Kursk, Voronezh and Kharkiv were founded and settled by Ukrainian peasants that served the garrisons stationed there. According to the writings of the English trader D. Fletcher in 1588, these garrison towns had 4300 soldiers, of which 4000 had come from Ukraine. The number of Ukrainian settlers in the southern borders of Russia increased after the unsuccessful revolts against the Poles. As a result, the bulk of the population became mixed.
17th and 18th centuries
After the Treaty of Pereyaslav of 1654, migration to Russia from Ukraine increased. Initially, this was to Sloboda Ukraine, but also to the Don lands and the area of the Volga river. There was also a significant migration to Moscow, particularly by church activists, priests and monks, scholars and teachers, artists, translators, singers, and merchants. In 1652, twelve singers under the direction of Ternopolsky moved to Moscow, and thirteen graduates of the Kyiv-Mohyla Collegium moved to teach the Moscovite gentry. Many priests and church administrators migrated from Ukraine; in particular, the established Andreyevsky Monastery was made up of Ukrainian clergy. This had a great effect on the Russian Orthodox Church, in particular the policies of Patriarch Nikon which led to the Old Believer Raskol (schism). The influence of Ukrainian clergy continued to grow, especially after 1686, when the Metropolia of Kyiv was transferred from the Patriarch of Constantinople to the Patriarch of Moscow.
Soon after, the abolishment of the Patriarch's chair by Peter I, the Ukrainian Stephen Yavorsky became Metropolitan of Moscow, followed by Feofan Prokopovich. Demetrius of Rostov became of Tobol and Siberia, and from 1704 Rostov and Yaroslavl. In all, over 70 positions in the Orthodox hierarchy were taken by recent emigres from Kyiv. Students of the Kyiv-Mohyla Collegium started up schools and seminaries in many Russian eparchies. By 1750, over 125 such institutions were opened. As a result, these graduates practically controlled the Russian church, obtaining key posts there and holding them to almost the end of the 18th century. Under Prokopovich, the Russian Academy of Sciences was opened in 1724, which was chaired from 1746 by Ukrainian Kirill Razumovsky.
The Moscow court had a choir established in 1713 with 21 singers from Ukraine. The conductor for a period of time was A. Vedel. In 1741, 44 men, 33 women, and 55 girls were moved to St. Petersburg from Ukraine to sing and entertain. Composer Maksym Berezovsky also worked in St. Petersburg at the time. A significant Ukrainian presence was also seen in the Academy of Arts.
The Ukrainian presence in the Russian Army also grew significantly. The greatest influx happened after the Battle of Poltava in 1709. Large numbers of Ukrainians settled around St Petersburg and were employed in the building of the city.
A separate category of emigrants were those deported to Moscow by the Russian government for demonstrating anti-Russian sentiment. The deported were brought to Moscow initially for investigation, then exiled to Siberia, Arkhangelsk or the Solovetsky Islands. Among the deported were Ukrainian cossack luminaries such as D. Mhohohrishny, Ivan Samoylovych, and Petro Doroshenko. Others include all the family of hetman Ivan Mazepa, A. Vojnarovsky, and those in Mazepa's Cossack forces that returned to Russia. Some were imprisoned in exile for the rest of their lives, such as hetmanPavlo Polubotok, Pavlo Holovaty, P. Hloba and Petro Kalnyshevsky.
Beginning in the 19th century, there was a continuous migration from Belarus, Ukraine and Northern Russia to settle the distant areas of the Russian Empire. The promise of free fertile land was an important factor for many peasants, who until 1861 lived under serfdom. In the colonization of the new lands, a significant contribution was made by ethnic Ukrainians. Initially Ukrainians colonised border territories in the Caucasus. Most of these settlers came from Left-bank Ukraine and Slobozhanshchyna and mainly settled in the Stavropol and Terek areas. Some compact areas of the Don, Volga, and Urals were also settled.
The Ukrainians created large settlements within Russia, becoming the majority in certain centres. They continued fostering their traditions, their language, and their architecture. Their village structure and administration differed somewhat from the Russian population that surrounded them. Where populations were mixed, Russification often took place. The size and geographical area of the Ukrainian settlements were first seen in the course of the Russian Empire Census of 1897. This census noted only language, not ethnicity. Nonetheless, a total of 22,380,551 Ukrainian speakers were recorded, with 1,020,000 Ukrainians in European Russia and 209,000 in Asian Russia.[note 1]
Formation of Ukrainian borders
The first Russian Empire Census, conducted in 1897, gave statistics regarding language use in the Russian Empire according to the administrative borders. Extensive use of Little Russian (and in some cases dominance) was noted in the nine south-western Governorates and the Kuban Oblast. When the future borders of the Ukrainian state were marked, the results of the census were taken into consideration. As a result, the ethnographic borders of Ukraine in the 20th century were twice as large as the Cossack Hetmanate that was incorporated into the Russian Empire in the 17th.
Certain regions had mixed populations made up of both Ukrainian and Russian ethnicities, as well as other minorities. These included the territory of Sloboda and the Donbass. These territories were between Ukraine and Russia. This left a large community of ethnic Ukrainians on the Russian side of the border. The borders of the short-lived Ukrainian People's Republic were largely preserved by the Ukrainian SSR.
In the course of the mid-1920s administrative reforms, some territory initially under the Ukrainian SSR was ceded to the Russian SFSR, such as the Taganrog and Shakhty cities in the eastern Donbass. At the same time, the Ukrainian SSR gained several territories that were amalgamated into the Sumy Oblast in Sloboda region.
The Soviet Union was officially a multicultural country with no official national language. On paper, all languages and cultures were guaranteed state protection Union-wide. In reality, Ukrainians were granted the opportunity to meaningfully develop their culture only within the administrative borders of the Ukrainian Republic, where Ukrainians had the privileged status of being the titular nation. As many Ukrainians migrated to other parts of the USSR, the cultural separation often led to their assimilation, particularly within Russia, which received the highest percentage of the Ukrainian migration. In Siberia, 82% of Ukrainians entered mixed marriages, primarily with Russians. This meant that outside the Ukrainian SSR, there was little or no provision for continuing a diaspora function. As a result, Ukrainian literature was soon found only in large cities such as Moscow. According to a Soviet sociologist, 27% of the Ukrainians in Siberia read printed material in Ukrainian and 38% used the Ukrainian language. From time to time, Ukrainian groups would visit Siberia. Nonetheless, most of the Ukrainians there did assimilate.
Due to the fact Ukrainians were prominent in the Gulags of Norilsk and Vorkuta, Ukrainians have continued to be the majority ethnicity in these cities. Around 80% of the population in Norilsk in 1989 had least one Ukrainian ancestor.
According to Volodymyr Kubiyovych and Aleksandr Zhukovsky, the area of Ukrainian ethnic territory outside of the borders of the Ukrainian SSR (1970) where an ethnic Ukrainian majority lived was estimated to be 146,500 square kilometres, and the area of nationally mixed territories made up approximately 747,600 square kilometres.
Ukrainian life in post-Soviet Russia
The Ukrainian cultural renaissance in Russia began at the end of the 1980s, with the formation of the Slavutych Society in Moscow and the Ukrainian Cultural Centre named after T. Shevchenko in Leningrad (now Saint Petersburg).
In 1991, the Ukraina Society organized a conference in Kyiv with delegates from the various new Ukrainian Community organizations of the Eastern Diaspora. By 1991, over 20 such organizations were in existence. By 1992, 600 organizations were registered in Russia alone. The Congress helped to consolidate the efforts of these organizations. From 1992, regional congresses began to take place, organized by the Ukrainian organizations of Prymoria, Tyumen Oblast, Siberia and the Far East. In March 1992, the Union of Ukrainian organizations in Moscow was founded. The Union of Ukrainians in Russia was founded in May 1992.
The term "Eastern Diaspora" has been used since 1992 to describe Ukrainians living in the former USSR, as opposed to the Western Ukrainian Diaspora which was used until then to describe all Ukrainian diaspora outside the Union. The Eastern Diaspora is estimated to number approximately 6.8 million, while the Western Diaspora is estimated to number approximately 5 million.
In February 2009, about 3.5 million Ukrainian citizens were estimated to be working in the Russian Federation, particularly in Moscow and in the construction industry. According to Volodymyr Yelchenko, the Ambassador of Ukraine to the Russian Federation, there were no state schools in Russia with a program for teaching school subjects in the Ukrainian language as of August 2010; he considered "the correction of this situation" as one of his top priority tasks.
As of 2007, the number of Ukrainian illegal immigrants in Russia has been estimated as being between 3–11 million. As many Ukrainians entered illegally, the true number of Russian Ukrainians is unknown. Many Ukrainians have been viewed as illegal immigrants and criminals, and many complain of racism. Some have compared this to how Mexicans are viewed in the United States.
In a 2011 poll, 49% of Ukrainians said they had relatives living in Russia.
Events since 2014
During and after the 2014 annexation of Crimea by Russia and the Russian military intervention in Ukraine, Ukrainians living in Russia complained of being labelled a "Banderite" (follower of Stepan Bandera), even when they are from parts of Ukraine where Stephan Bandera has no considerable support.
Starting from 2014, a number of Ukrainian activists and organisations were prosecuted in Russia based on political grounds. Some notable examples include the case of Oleg Sentsov, which was described by Amnesty International as a "Stalinist era trial", the closure of a Ukrainian library in Moscow and prosecution against the staff of the library, and a ban of Ukrainian organisations in Russia, such as Ukrainian World Congress.
As of September 2015[update], there were 2.6 million Ukrainians living in Russia, more than half of them "guest workers". A million more had arrived in the past eighteen months. (although critics have accused the FMS and media of circulating exaggerated figures). About 400,000 had applied for refugee status and almost 300,000 had asked for temporary residence status, with another 600,000 considered to be in breach of migration rules. By November 2017, there were 427,240 applicant asylum-seekers and refugees from Ukraine registered in Russia, over 185,000 of them having received temporary asylum, and fewer than 590 with refugee status. The refugees were from the territories of Donetsk and Luhansk People's Republics taken over by pro-Russian rebels since the War in Donbass. Most refugees have headed to rural areas in central Russia. Major destinations for Ukrainian migrants have included Karelia, Vorkuta, Magadan Oblast; oblasts such as Magadan and Yakutia are destinations of a government relocation program since the vast majority avoid big cities.
Ukrainians in the Russian Federation represent the third largest ethnic group after Russians and Tatars. In spite of their relatively high numbers, some Ukrainians in Russia complain[when?] of the unfair treatment and the prevailing anti-Ukrainian sentiment in the Russian Federation. In November 2010, the High Court of Russia cancelled registration of one of the biggest civic communities of the Ukrainian minority, the "Federal nation-cultural autonomy of the Ukrainians in Russia" (FNCAUR).
The vast majority of Ukrainians in Russia are adherents of the Russian Orthodox Church. The Ukrainian clergy had a very influential role on Russian Orthodoxy in the 17th and 18th centuries.
Recently,[when?] the growing economic migrant population from Galicia have had success in establishing a few Ukrainian Catholic churches, and there are several churches belonging to the Ukrainian Orthodox Church (Kyiv Patriarchate), where Patriarch Filaret agreed to accept breakaway groups that had been excommunicated by the Russian Orthodox Church for breaches of canon law. Some asserted in 2002, that Russian bureaucracy regarding religion has hampered the expansion of the two groups above. According to the Ukrainian Greek Catholic Church, their denomination has only one church building in all of Russia.
Compact Ukrainian population centres in Russia
The original Black Sea Cossacks colonised the Kuban region from 1792. Following the Caucasus War and the subsequent colonisation of the Circaucasus, the Black Sea Cossacks intermixed with other ethnic groups, including the indigenous Cirsassian population.
According to the 1897 census, 47.3% of the Kuban population (including extensive latter 19th-century non-Cossack migrants from both Ukraine and Russia) referred to their native language as Little Russian (the official term for the Ukrainian language), while 42.6% referred to their native language as Great Russian. Most of the cultural production in Kuban from the 1890s until the outbreak of World War I in 1914, such as plays, stories and music were written in the Ukrainian language, and one of the first political parties in Kuban was the Ukrainian Revolutionary Party. During the Russian Civil War with the Kuban Cossack Rada desperate for survival, turned to the Ukrainian People's Republic and formed a military alliance, as well as declaring Ukrainian to be the official language of the Kuban National Republic. This decision was not supported uniformly by the Cossacks themselves, and soon the Rada itself was dissolved by the Russian White Denikin's Volunteer Army.
In the 1920s, a policy of Decossackization was pursued. At the same time, the Bolshevik authorities supported policies that promoted the Ukrainian language and self-identity, opening 700 Ukrainian-language schools and a Ukrainian department in the local university. Russian historians claim that Cossacks were in this way forcibly Ukrainized, while Ukrainian historians claim that Ukrainization in Kuban merely paralleled Ukrainization in Ukraine itself, where people were being taught in their native language. According to the 1926 census, there were nearly a million Ukrainians registered in the Kuban Okrug alone (or 62% of the total population) During this period many Soviet repressions were tested on the Cossack lands, particularly the Black Boards that led to the Soviet famine of 1932-1934 in the Kuban. Yet by the mid-1930s there was an abrupt policy change of Soviet attitude towards Ukrainians in Russia. In the Kuban, the Ukrainization policy was halted and reversed. In 1936 the Kuban Cossack Chorus was however re-formed as were individual Cossack regiments in the Red Army. By the end of the 1930s many Cossacks' descendants chose to identify themselves as Russians. From that moment onwards, almost all of the self-identified Ukrainians in the Kuban, date to non-Cossacks, the Soviet Census of 1989 showed that a total of 251,198 people in Krasnodar Kray (including Adyghe Autonomous Oblast) who were born in the Ukrainian SSR, and moved there by time of census. In the 2002 census, the number of people who identified themselves as Ukrainians in the Kuban was recorded to be 151,788. Despite the fact that most of the Kuban Cossacks descendants do not think of themselves as being nationally Ukrainians, and identify themselves as Russian nationals., many elements of their unique culture originates from Ukraine, such as the Kuban Bandurist music, and the dialect called Balachka which they speak.
Moscow has had a significant Ukrainian presence since the 17th century. The original Ukrainian settlement bordered Kitai-gorod. No longer having a Ukrainian character, it is today is known as Maroseyka (a corruption of Malorusseyka, or Little Russian). During Soviet times the main street, Maroseyka, was named after the Ukrainian Cossack hetman Bohdan Khmelnytsky. After Moscow State University was founded in 1755, many students from Ukraine studied there. Many of these students had commenced their studies at the Kyiv-Mohyla Academy.
In the first years after the revolution of 1905, Moscow was one of the major centres of the Ukrainian movement for self-awareness. The magazine Zoria was edited by A. Krymsky, and from 1912-17 the Ukrainian cultural and literary magazine "Ukrainskaya zhizn'" was also published there edited by Symon Petliura. Books in the Ukrainian language were published in Moscow from 1912 and Ukrainian theatrical troops of M. Kropovnytsky and M. Sadovsky were constantly performing there.
According to the 2001 census, there are 253,644 Ukrainians living in the city of Moscow, making them the third largest ethnic group in that city after Russians and Tatars. A further 147,808 Ukrainians live in the Moscow region. The Ukrainian community in Moscow operates a cultural centre on Arbat Street, whose head is appointed by the Ukrainian government. It publishes two Ukrainian-language newspapers and has organized Ukrainian-language Saturday and Sunday schools.
When Saint Petersburg was the capital during the Russian Empire era, many people from all nations including Ukrainians moved there. The Ukrainian poets Taras Shevchenko and Dmytro Bortniansky spent most of their lives in Saint Petersburg. Ivan Mazepa, carrying out the orders of Peter I, was responsible for sending many Ukrainians to help build St Petersburg, where they died on a massive scale.
According to the latest census, there are 87,119 Ukrainians living in the city of St Petersburg, where they constitute the largest non-Russian ethnic group. The former Mayor, Valentina Matviyenko (née Tyutina) was born in Khmelnytskyi Oblast of western Ukraine and is of Ukrainian ethnicity.[verification needed]
Zeleny Klyn is often referred to as Zelena Ukraina. This is an area of land settled by Ukrainians which is a part of Far Eastern Siberia, located on the Amur River and the Pacific Ocean. It was named by the Ukrainian settlers. The territory consists of over 1,000,000 square kilometres and had a population of 3.1 million in 1958. The Ukrainian population in 1926 made up 26% of the population. In the last Russian census, 94,058 people in Primorsky Krai claimed Ukrainian ethnicity, making Ukrainians the second largest ethnic group and largest ethnic minority.
The Ukrainian settlement of Siry Klyn, literally the "grey wedge", developed around the city of Omsk in western Siberia. M. Bondarenko, an emigrant from Poltava province, wrote before World War I: "The city of Omsk looks like a typical Moscovite city, but the bazaar and markets speak Ukrainian". All around the city of Omsk stood Ukrainian villages. The settlement of people beyond the Ural mountains began in the 1860s. There were attempts to form an autonomous Ukrainian region in 1917-1920. Altogether before 1914 1,604,873 emigrants from Ukraine settled the area. According to the 2010 Russian census, 77,884 people of the Omsk region identified themselves as Ukrainians, making Ukrainians the third-largest ethnic group there after Russians and Kazakhs.
The settlement of Zholty Klyn (the Yellow Wedge) was founded soon after the Treaty of Pereyaslav of 1659 as the eastern border of the second Zasechnaya Cherta. Named after the yellow steppes on the middle and lower Volga, the colony co-existed with the Volga Cossacks, and colonists primarily settled around the city of Saratov. In addition to Ukrainians, Volga Germans and Mordovians migrated to Zholty Klyn in numbers. As of 2014[update] most of the population is integrated throughout the region, though a few "pure" Ukrainian villages remain.
Norilsk was founded as a series of Gulag camps that mostly included Ukrainian collaborators with Nazi Germany who were from western Ukraine. Norilsk is the only inhabited locality in Russia (excluding villages) with a Ukrainian majority, with Ukrainians making up 59 to 80 percent of its population. Many of their descendants keep their Ukrainian identity. Norilsk, notably, has accepted refugees from Ukraine due to family ties there.
Statistics and scholarship
Statistical information about Ukrainians in the Eastern diaspora from census materials of the Russian Empire, the Soviet Union and the Russian Federation was collected in 1897, 1920, 1923, 1926, 1937, 1939, 1959, 1970, 1979, 1989, 2002 and 2010. Of which, only the 1937 census has been discarded and a semi-fixed 1939 census was carried out.
In the aftermath of the breakup of the Soviet Union in 1991, attention has been focused on the Eastern Ukrainian diaspora by the Society for relations with Ukrainians outside of Ukraine. Numerous attempts have been made to unite them. The journal "Zoloti Vorota" began to be published by the Society for relations with Ukrainians outside of Ukraine and also the magazine "Ukrainian Diaspora" in 1991.
|N||Census year||Number||Percentage (%)|
During the 1990s, the Ukrainian population in Russia noticeably decreased. This was caused by a number of factors. The most important one was the general population decline in Russia. At the same time, a lot of Economic migrants from Ukraine moved to Russia for better paid jobs and careers. It is estimated that there are as many as 300 000 legally registered migrants. In wake of negative sentiments to the bulk of worker migrants from the Caucasus and Central Asians, Ukrainians are thus often more trusted by the Russian population. Assimilation is also an important factor in the falling number of Ukrainians. Due to their dispersal and cultural similarity to Russians, Ukrainians often end up marrying Russians and their children are counted as Russian on the census. Otherwise, the Ukrainian population has mostly remained stable due to high amounts of immigration from Ukraine.
Notable Ukrainians in Russia
- Eduard Limonov (Savenko) - writer and publicist, founder of National Bolshevik Party
- Vasily Lanovoy, actor who worked in the Vakhtangov Theatre, was also known as the President of Artek Festival of Films for Children
- Pavel Sudoplatov, NKVD officer, lieutenant general of the MVD,who became involved in several famous episodes, including the assassination of Leon Trotsky in 1940, the Soviet espionage program which obtained information about the atomic bomb from the Manhattan Project, and Operation Scherhorn in 1944
- Bogdan Stashinsky, a former KGB officer and spy who assassinated the Ukrainian nationalist leaders Lev Rebet and Stepan Bandera in the late 1950s
- Roman Rudenko - Procurator General of the Soviet Union (1953-1981). He is well known internationally for acting as chief prosecutor for the USSR at the 1946 trial of the major Nazi war criminals in Nuremberg.
- Oleksiy Alchevsky - entrepreneur, philanthropist, and industrialist of the Russian Empire. He was a pioneer in establishing the first finance group in Russia.
- Yelena Bondarchuk(half Ukrainian), Soviet actress
- Victor Kostetskiy - Russian and Soviet actor.
- Aleksandr Tsekalo - musician, actor, radio and TV host. Founder of production company Sreda.
- Sergey Makovetsky - film and stage actor
- Nikita Dzhigurda - movie actor, singer, and cult media icon
- Viktor Petrik - businessman, claims to have made a number of scientific breakthroughs which he markets through his company
- Anatoly Savenko - Russian nationalist, social and political activist, lawyer, writer, essayist and journalist.
- Kirill Vyshinsky - journalist
- Vitaly Zakharchenko - Former Minister of Internal Affairs of Ukraine
- Alexander Klimenko - former Ukrainian entrepreneur and politician, former Minister of Revenue and Duties of Ukraine
- Viktor Yanukovych, the fourth President of Ukraine
- Lyudmyla Nastenko-Yanukovych, former First Lady of Ukraine
- Viktor Yanukovych Jr, a Ukrainian politician and Member of Parliament
- Yury Dud - sports journalist and YouTuber, was editor-in-chief of Sports.ru from 2011-2018 and since 2018, has been Deputy Director-General
- Pyotr Ilyich Tchaikovsky (quarter Ukrainian) - composer
- Nikolai Gogol – writer
- Nikolai Ostrovsky - socialist realist writer
- Sergei Bondarchuk – film director
- Natalya Bondarchuk(half Ukrainian) – film director
- Fyodor Bondarchuk (half Ukrainian) – film director
- Alexander Dovzhenko - film director
- Leonid Gaidai – film director
- Anna Politkovskaya - journalist, writer, and human rights activist
- Taras Shevchenko - poet
- Grigory Chukhray – Soviet film director
- Pavel Chukhray - Soviet film director
- Pavel Morozenko — Soviet theatre and film actor
- David Burliuk - poet and painter, often described as "the father of Russian Futurism"
- Wladimir Burliuk - avant-garde artist, Cubo-futurist
- Dmitry Levitsky - painter
- Rufin Sudkovsky - painter
- Vladimir Orlovsky - painter
- Nikolai Pimonenco - painter
- Nikolay Samokish - painter
- Yevgeny Grebyonka - romantic prose writer, poet, and philanthropist
- Igor Markevitch - avant-garde composer and conductor
- Ilia Lagutenko - musician
- Ivan Kozlovsky - lyric tenor, long-time teacher at the Moscow Conservatory
- Maxim Berezovsky - composer
- Hryhory Alchevsky - composer
- Ruslan Gorobets - music composer, singer and arranger.
- Yury Koval - author, artist, and screenplay writer
- Valentin Pikul- Soviet historical novelist
- Anatoly Polyanski - architect
- Aleksandr Shevchenko modernist painter and sculptor
- Alexandra Strelchenko - actress and singer, performer of Russian folk songs, Russian romances and pop songs, People's Artist of the RSFSR
- Anastasia Stotskaya - singer
- Sogdiana Fedorinskaya - singer and actress
- Natasha Korolyova (Porivay) - singer
- Vera Brezhneva (Halushka) - singer
- Anastasia Prikhodko - singer, represented Russia in the Eurovision Song Contest 2009 in Moscow
- Alexander Archipenko - avant-garde artist, sculptor, and graphic artist
- Vladimir Korolenko - writer
- Mikhail Zoshchenko - writer
- Vladimir Nemirovich-Danchenko - playwright and theatre administrator, one of the two founders of the Moscow Art Theatre
- Vasily Nemirovich-Danchenko - writer and a journalist
- Pyotr Leshchenko - singer, universally considered to be "the King of Russian Tango"
- Olga Peretyatko - operatic soprano
- Vladimir Bortko – film director
- Roman Viktyuk - theatre director, actor, and screenwriter
- Vladimir Kramnik - chess grandmaster, the Classical World Chess Champion from 2000 to 2006, and the undisputed World Chess Champion from 2006 to 2007. He has won three team gold medals and three individual medals at Chess Olympiads.
- Lyudmila Rudenko - Soviet chess player and the second women's world chess champion, from 1950 until 1953; was awarded the FIDE titles of International Master (IM) and Woman International Master (WIM) in 1950, and Woman Grandmaster (WGM) in 1976. She was the first woman awarded the International Master title.
- Ekaterina Lagno - Russian (since 2014) chess grandmaster, Women's Vice World Champion in 2018, Women's World Rapid Champion in 2014 and Women's World Blitz Champion in 2010, 2018 and 2019.
- Nikolay Davydenko - tennis player
- Fedor Emelianenko - Russian heavyweight mixed martial artist of Ukrainian origin, born in Ukraine
- Aleksander Emelianenko - mixed martial arts fighter (Ukrainian father, Russian mother)
- Vladislav Tretiak - ice hockey goaltender; 3 time Olympic gold medallist; 10 time world champion; considered one of the greatest of all time.
- Alexei Zhitnik - ice hockey defenceman; has played more games in the National Hockey League (NHL) (1,085) than any other Soviet-born defenceman.
- Daniil Sobchenko - ice hockey player; was the member of the Russian national team that competed in the IIHF World Championship's under 18 and under 20 levels; winning gold for the country in 2011.
- Vitaly Anikeyenko - ice hockey player
- Oleg Tverdovsky - ice hockey defenceman
- Vitaly Vishnevskiy - former professional ice hockey defenceman. He previously played in the National Hockey League for the Mighty Ducks of Anaheim, Atlanta Thrashers, Nashville Predators, and New Jersey Devils, as well as for Lokomotiv Yaroslavl, SKA St. Petersburg and Severstal Cherepovets in the KHL.
- Alexander Komaristy - ice hockey centre who plays for HC Dinamo Saint Petersburg in the Supreme Hockey League (VHL)
- Andrei Nikolishin - ice hockey player; Olympic Bronze medal winner
- Anton Babchuk - ice hockey defenceman
- Kostiantyn Kasianchuk - ice hockey player
- Vladimir Kuts - Soviet long-distance runner, who won the 5000 and 10000 m races at the 1956 Olympics, setting Olympic records in both events
- Olga Dvirna - female middle distance runner who represented the Soviet Union in the late 1970s and early 1980s
- Roman Pavlyuchenko - Kuban Ukrainian soccer player for the Russian national football team
- Oleg Salenko - soccer player
- Artem Dzyuba - Ukrainian-born Russian soccer player, whose father is Ukrainian.
- Aleksei Miranchuk and Anton Miranchuk - twin Russian soccer players of Ukrainian origin from Kuban.
- Yaroslav Rakitskyi - footballer currently playing as a defender for Russian club Zenit Saint Petersburg.
- Alexey Oleynik - mixed martial artist and combat sambo fighter currently signed with the Ultimate Fighting Championship, competing in their heavyweight division.
- Olga Sherbak - handball player who plays for HC Lada
- Valentin Moldavsky - Russian (since 2014) combat sambo and mixed martial arts practitioner, World and European Champion in +100 kg.
- Dmitry Pashytsky - volleyball player, member of the Russian club Zenit Saint Petersburg, Estonian Champion (2011), Russian Champion (2019).
- Irina Zhuk - ice dancing coach and a former competitor for the Soviet Union
- Tetyana Kozyrenko - footballer, who plays for Lokomotiv Moscow in the Women's Football League
- Igor Gamula - professional football coach and a former player. He works as a scout for FC Rostov. He made his debut in the Soviet Top League in 1978 for FC Zaria Voroshilovgrad.
- Dmitry Muserskiy - volleyball player, member of the Russia men's national volleyball team, 2012 Olympic Champion, 2013 European Champion, gold medallist of the 2011 World Cup and multiple World League medallist.
- Semyon Poltavskiy - volleyball player, who was a member of the men's national team that won the silver medal in both the 2005 and 2007 European Championships, was named Most Valuable Player in the latter tournament.
- Viktor Miroshnichenko - boxer, represented the USSR at the 1980 Summer Olympics in Moscow, Soviet Union.
- Dmitri Shkidchenko - figure skating coach and former pair skater who competed internationally for the Soviet Union.
- Olena Zubko - rower who competed for the Soviet Union in the 1976 Summer Olympics. In 1976 she was a crew member of the Soviet boat which won the silver medal in the eights event
- Konstantin Bakun - Ukrainian volleyball player of Russian citizenship (since 2011), member of the Russia men's national volleyball team, Russian Champion (2020).
- Maksim Oberemko - Russian (since 2015) windsurfer
- Pavel Moroz - volleyball player, a member of Russia men's national volleyball team and Russian club Fakel Novy Urengoy.
- Taras Khtey - volleyball player, a member of Russia men's national volleyball team.
- Aleksandr Bondar - Russian (since 2014) diver
- Nicholas Miklouho-Maclay- explorer, ethnologist, anthropologist and biologist
- Gleb Lozino-Lozinskiy- lead developer of the Soviet Spiral and Shuttle Buran programme.
- Vladimir Vernadsky- mineralogist and geochemist
- George Vernadsky - historian
- Trofim Lysenko- agronomist and biologist
- Theodosius Dobzhansky - geneticist and evolutionary biologist
- Mikhail Ostrogradsky - mathematician
- Igor Shafarevich - mathematician who contributed to algebraic number theory and algebraic geometry
- Boris Paton - Soviet mechanical scientist and engineer, famous for his works in electric welding
- Stephen Timoshenko - engineer and academician, considered to be the father of modern engineering mechanics
- Viktor Bunyakovsky - mathematician
- George Kistiakowsky - physical chemistry professor
- Alexander Kistiakowsky - ornithologist and a specialist on bird lice
- Bogdan Kistyakovski - philosopher and social scientist
- Mikhail Kravchuk - mathematician
- Valery Glivenko -mathematician
- Pyotr Zinchenko - developmental psychologist
- Dmitri Ivanenko - theoretical physicist
- Pyotr Yefimenko - ethnographer and historian
- Antonina Prikhot'ko - experimental physicist
- Alexander Bogomolets - pathophysiologist.
- Boris Grabovsky - one of the pioneers of television, invented the first fully electronic TV set (video transmitting tube and video receiver), which was demonstrated in 1928
- Lev Pisarzhevsky - chemist
- Yuri Linnik - Soviet mathematician active in number theory, probability theory and mathematical statistics
- Vladimir Lipsky - botanist
- Daniil Zabolotny - epidemiologist and the founder of the world's first research department of epidemiology
- Oleksandr Harmash - Soviet scientist in the field of production line methods in construction (construction engineering)
- Fedir Vovk, anthropologist-archaeologist, the curator of the Alexander III Museum in St. Petersburg
- Evgeny Paton - Soviet mechanical scientist and engineer, famous for his works in electric welding
- Vladimir Betz - anatomist and histologist, famous for the discovery of giant pyramidal neurons of primary motor cortex
- Alexander Gorban - physicist and biologist
- Aleksandr Markevich - zoologist, prolific helminthologist and copepodologist
- Mikhail Maksimovich - professor in plant biology
- Vladimir Pravdich-Neminsky - physiologist who published the first EEG and the evoked potential of the mammalian brain
- Mikhail Tugan-Baranovsky - economist
- Osip Bodyansky - Slavist
- Pavel Chubinsky - ethnographer and geographer
- Mikhail Grushevsky- historian
- Mikhail Rodzianko – chamberlain of the Imperial family, Chairman of the State Duma and one of the leaders of the February Revolution of 1917
- Vladimir Antonov-Ovseyenko – Bolshevik leader and diplomat, one of the leaders of the October revolution
- Pavel Dybenko – Bolshevik revolutionary, one of the leaders of the October revolution
- Alexandra Kollontai - revolutionary, politician, diplomat and Marxist theoretician. Serving as the People's Commissar for Welfare in 1917–1918, she was the first woman in history to become an official member of a governing cabinet.
- Stepan Petrichenko - anarcho-syndicalist politician, de facto leader of the Kronstadt Commune, and the leader of the revolutionary committee which led the Kronstadt rebellion of 1921.
- Gleb Bokii - Bolshevik revolutionary, headed the "special department" of the Soviet secret police apparatus, believed to have been in charge of the Soviet Union's concentration camp system.
- Boris Shcherbina, a Soviet politician who served as a vice-chairman of the Council of Ministers from 1984 to 1989.Superviser of Soviet crisis management during 1986 Chernobyl disaster and the 1988 Armenian earthquake.
- Grigory Petrovsky- Old Bolshevik, participated in signing the Treaty on the Creation of the USSR, one of the officials responsible for implementing Stalin's policies such as collectivization.
- Nikolai Podgorny, Chairman of the Presidium of the Supreme Soviet of the USSR (1965–1977)
- Zinovie Serdiuk, Deputy of the Supreme Soviet of the USSR, First Secretary of the Moldavian Communist Party
- Pyotr Shelest, Deputy Chairman of the Council of Ministers of the Soviet Union, Full member of the 22nd, 23rd, 24th Politburo.
- Alexei Kirichenko - Second Secretary of the Communist Party of the Soviet Union (17 December 1957 – 5 April 1960)
- Vladimir Ivashko - Soviet politician, briefly acting as General Secretary of the Communist Party of the Soviet Union. Deputy General Secretary of the Communist Party of the Soviet Union (1990-1991)
- Nikolai Demchenko - the first deputy commissar of agriculture of the USSR, People's Commissar of Grain and Livestock Farms of the USSR
- Grigory Grinko – finance minister of the Soviet Union (1930-1937)
- Vlas Chubar – finance minister of the Soviet Union (1937-1938)
- Ivan Kazanets - the minister of ferrous metallurgy of the Soviet Union
- Vsevolod Murakhovsky - First Deputy Premier of the Soviet Union during the Gorbachev Era
- Vitaly Fedorchuk – KGB officer and Minister of Interior Affairs of the Soviet Union
- Nikolai Golushko – KGB officer and the director of the Federal Service of Counter-intelligence of the Russian Federation
- Vladimir Chub - the governor of Rostov Oblast in Russia from 1991 until 2010.
- Sergey Kiriyenko (half Ukrainian) – Prime Minister of Russia
- Dmitry Kozak, the Deputy Prime Minister of Russia from 2008 to 2020, Deputy Kremlin Chief of Staff
- Sergey Kislyak – Russia's Ambassador to the United States (2008–2017)
- Vladimir Medinsky – Russia's Minister of Culture (2012–present)
- Alexei Navalny (half Ukrainian) – Russia's main opposition leader
- Valentina Matviyenko – Chairman of the Federation Council (2011–present)
Minister of Health of Soviet Union
- Nikolai Semashko – Russian politician, organizer of the health system
- Alexander Lebed – late Lieutenant General of Russia, 1996 Presidential candidate (Ukrainian origin)
- Vasily Zavoyko - an admiral in the Russian Imperial navy. In 1854, during the Crimean War, he led the successful defence against the Siege of Petropavlovsk by the allied British-French troops.
- Ivan Kozhedub - Soviet World War II fighter ace, considered to be the highest-scoring Soviet and Allied fighter pilot of World War II.
- Alexei Berest - Soviet political officer and one of the three Red Army soldiers who hoisted the Victory Banner.
- Fedor Zinchenko - Soviet officer who commanded the 150th Rifle Division's 756th Regiment during the Storming of the Reichstag.
- Alexander Marinesko – Soviet naval officer and, during World War II, the captain of the submarine S-13 which sank the German military transport ship Wilhelm Gustloff. The most successful Soviet submarine commander in terms of gross register tonnage (GRT) sunk.
- Dmitry Lelyushenko, Soviet military commander, his final actions in 1945 involved directing forces during the Red Army's attacks on both Berlin and Prague.
- Kuzma Derevyanko - general of the Red Army. He was the representative of the Soviet Union at the ceremonial signing of the written agreement that established the armistice ending the Pacific War, and with it World War II
- Semyon Timoshenko – Marshal of the Soviet Union
- Panteleimon Ponomarenko - a Soviet statesman and politician and one of the leaders of Soviet partisan resistance during WW2
- Fedir Dyachenko - Soviet sniper during World War II, credited with as many as 425 kills.
- Dmitry Glinka (aviator) - Soviet flying ace during World War II who was twice awarded the title Hero of the Soviet Union for his achievements, having scored 50 individual aerial victories by the end of the war.
- Boris Glinka - Soviet flying ace during World War II with over 20 solo shootdowns.
- Vasily Mykhlik - Ilyushin Il-2 pilot and squadron commander in the 566th Assault Aviation Regiment of the Soviet Air Forces during the Second World War who was twice awarded the title Hero of the Soviet Union.
- Leonid Beda - ground-attack squadron commander in the Soviet Air Forces during the Second World War who went on to become a Lieutenant-General of Aviation.
- Nikolai Simoniak - General in the Soviet Army during World War II
- Ivan Naumovich Dubovoy - Soviet army commander. He fought for the Imperial Russian Army in World War I before going over to the Bolsheviks in the subsequent Civil War.
- Ivan Fedko - Soviet Komandarm 1st rank and army commander. He fought in the Imperial Russian Army during World War I before joining the Bolsheviks. During the Russian Civil War, he fought against the White movement army of Abram Dragomirov in Kiev.
- Maria Nikiforova - anarchist partisan leader during Russian Civil War
- Grigory Vakulenchuk - Sailor, organizer, and leader of the uprising on the Russian battleship Potemkin in 1905
- Afanasi Matushenko - Sailor, revolutionary socialist, and ringleader of the mutiny on the Russian battleship Potemkin
- Leonid Petrovsky - Soviet lieutenant general.
- Ivan Dubovoy - Soviet Army major general of tank forces
- Aleksey Mazurenko - commander of the 7th Guards Assault Aviation Regiment in the Black Sea Fleet during World War II.
- Andrey Vitruk - Soviet military officer, a Major General of the Soviet Air Forces
- Yevdokiya Pasko - Squadron navigator in the Soviet all-female 46th Taman Guards Night Bomber Aviation Regiment during WW2,
- Vasily Senko - Soviet Air Force colonel and the only navigator who was twice awarded the title Hero of the Soviet Union.
- Sergei Kramarenko - Soviet Air Force officer. He achieved several high command positions in the USSR and was also an Air Force advisor in Iraq and Algeria in the 1970s. He was the last living Soviet flying ace of Korean War.
- Konstantin Kobets - Russian army general. In early 1991 he was serving as Deputy Chief of the Soviet General Staff for communications.
- Fyodor Zozulya - admiral of the Soviet Navy
- Gordey Levchenko - Soviet naval commander and admiral from 1944.
- Aleksandr Golovko - Russian colonel general in the Russian military and commander of the Russian Space Forces since 1 August 2015.
Minister of Defence of Soviet Union
Head of State of the USSR
- Asian Russia statistics are excluding the Caucasus.
- Всероссийская перепись населения 2010 г.: Национальный состав населения Российской Федерации [Russian Population Census 2010: National composition of the population of the Russian Federation]. Russian Federal Service of State Statistics (in Russian). Demoscope.ru. 21 March 2013. Archived from the original on 30 May 2012. Retrieved 3 June 2016.
- Arena - Atlas of Religions and Nationalities in Russia. Sreda.org
- "Арена в PDF : Некоммерческая Исследовательская Служба "Среда"". Sreda.org. Retrieved 20 April 2014.
- "MPC Migration Profile: Ukraine" (PDF). European University institute, Migration Policy Centre. June 2013. Retrieved 27 September 2016.
- Mukomel, Vladimir (4 May 2017). "Migration of Ukrainians to Russia in 2014–2015". E-International Relations. Retrieved 14 April 2020.
- "Ukraine: UNHCR Operational Update, 01 - 30 November 2017". ReliefWeb. Retrieved 1 February 2018.
- Kagramanov, Yuri (2006). Война языков на Украине [The War of Languages in Ukraine]. Novy Mir. magazines.russ.ru (8). Retrieved 27 September 2016.
- Kubiyovych (ed) Entsyklopedia Ukrainoznavstva Vol.7, p.2597
- 1897 Census on Demoscope.ru Retrieved Archived 28 May 2012 at the Wayback Machine on 20 May 2007.
- Kulchitskyi, Stanislav (26 January 2006). Імперія та ми [The Empire and We]. Den (in Ukrainian). day.kyiv.ua (9). Retrieved 19 March 2007.
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- Yelchenko wants Ukrainian secondary school to operate in Moscow, Kyiv Post (19 August 2010)
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- Russia's Ukrainian minority under pressure, Al Jazeera English (25 April 2014)
A ghost of World War II history haunts Ukraine’s standoff with Russia, Washington Post (25 March 2014)
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- Открытое письмо Комиссару национальных меньшинств ОБСЕ господину Максу Ван дер Стулу [Open letter to the Commissioner for National Minorities for the OSCE, Mr. Max van der Stoel] (in Russian). Ukrainians of Russia - Kobza. 30 September 2000. Archived from the original on 27 September 2007. Retrieved 20 November 2007: Open letter to the OSCE from the Union of Ukrainians in the Urals.CS1 maint: postscript (link)
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- Lozynskyj, Askold S. (30 January 2002). "The Ukrainian World Congress regarding the census in Russia". Ukrainians of Russia – Kobza. Archived from the original on 2 December 2007.
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- Demoscope.ru, 1897 census results for the Kuban Oblast Archived 28 May 2012 at the Wayback Machine
- The politics of identity in a Russian borderland province: the Kuban neo-Cossack movement, 1989-1996, by Georgi M. Derluguian and Serge Cipko; Europe-Asia Studies; December 1997 URL
- Ukraine and Ukrainians Throughout the World, edited by A.L. Pawliczko, University of Toronto Press, 1994. ISBN 0-8020-0595-0
- Shambarov, Valery (2007). Kazachestvo Istoriya Volnoy Rusi. Algoritm Expo, Moscow. ISBN 978-5-699-20121-1.
- Kuban Okrug from the 1926 census demoscope.ru
- Zakharchenko, Viktor (1997). Народные песни Кубани [Folk songs of the Kuban]. geocities.com (in Russian). Archived from the original on 11 February 2002. Retrieved 7 November 2007.
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- Demoscope.ru Soviet Census of 1989, population distribution in region by region of birth.Retrieved 13 November 2007
- "Russian census 2002". Retrieved 22 April 2007.
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- Kraliuk, Petro (7 July 2009). "Mazepa's many faces: constructive, tragic, tragicomic". The Day. Retrieved 27 September 2016.
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- Всероссийская перепись населения 2002 года - Приморский край [National Population Census 2002 - Primorsky Krai] (in Russian). Demoscope.ru. 19 September 2016. Retrieved 27 September 2016.
- Всероссийская перепись населения 2002 года: Приморский край [Russian Population Census 2002: Primorsky Krai] (in Russian). Demoscope.ru. 2002. Retrieved 3 June 2016.
- Zhelty Klin website
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- Национальный состав населения Российской Федерации 2010 г. [National composition of the population of the Russian Federation in 2010]. Russian Federation - Federal State Statistics Service (in Russian). Retrieved 3 June 2016.
- Украинцы в России: еще братья, но уже гости - О "средне-потолочной" гипотезе про 4 миллиона "заробітчан" в РФ и бесславном конце "Родной Украины" [Ukrainians in Russia: still brothers, but now guests - On the "medium ceiling" hypothesis on 4 million "(Ukrainian) workers" in the RF and the inglorious end of "Mother Ukraine"] (in Russian). Ukrainians of Russia – Kobza. 18 June 2006. Archived from the original on 10 November 2007.
- Kubiyovych, Volodymyr. Entsykolpedia Ukrainoznavstva Vol. 7.
- Українське козацтво - Енциклопедія - Kyiv, 2006
- Zaremba, S. (1993). From the national-cultural life of Ukrainians in the Kuban (1920 and 1930s). Kyivska starovyna. pp. 94–104.
- Lanovyk, B.; et al. (1999). Ukrainian Emigration: from the past to the present. Ternopil.
- Petrenko, Y. (1993). Ukrainian cossackdom. Kyivska starovyna. pp. 114–119.
- Польовий Р. Кубанська Україна К. Дiокор 2003.
- Ratuliak, V. (1996). Notes from the history of Kuban from historic times until 1920. Krasnodar.
- Сергійчук В. Українізація Росії К. 2000
- Internet site for Ukrainians in Russia
- Зав'ялов А. В. Соціальна адаптація українських іммігрантів : монографія / А. В. Зав'ялов. — Київ : Саміт-книга, 2020. — 180 с.
- Завьялов А. В. Социальная адаптация украинских иммигрантов : монография / А. В. Завьялов. – Иркутск : Изд-во ИГУ, 2017. – 179 с.
- Races of Europe 1942-1943 (in English)
- Hammond's Racial map of Europe 1923 (in English)
- Peoples of Europe / Die Voelker Europas 1914 (in German)
- Ethnographic map of Europe 1914 (in English)
- Ukrainians of Russia by number, sex and share in the population structure, 1926-2010 censuses (in Russian)
- Ukrainian language knowledge in Russia by ethnic groups (in Russian)
- Ukrainians of Russia by their native language, 2010 (in Russian)
- Ukrainians of Russia by languages knowledge, 2002, 2010 (in Russian)
- Distribution of the Ukrainian population of Russia by age and sex, 2010 (in Russian)
- Завьялов А. В. Социальная адаптация украинских иммигрантов : монография / А. В. Завьялов. – Иркутск : Изд-во ИГУ, 2017. – 179 с. (tables The Ukrainian language knowledge by Russian regions, 2010 и Ukrainians in the population structure of Russian regions, 1897-2010) (in Russian)