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According to Janusz Bugajski, "in its most extreme or developed forms, ultra-nationalism resembles fascism, marked by a xenophobic disdain of other nations, support for authoritarian political arrangements verging on totalitarianism, and a mythical emphasis on the 'organic unity' between a charismatic leader, an organizationally amorphous movement-type party, and the nation".
Roger Griffin asserts that ultranationalism is essentially xenophobic and is known to legitimise itself "through deeply mythicized narratives of past cultural or political periods of historical greatness or of old scores to settle against alleged enemies". It can also draw on "vulgarized forms of physical anthropology, genetics, and eugenics to rationalize ideas of national superiority and destiny, of degeneracy and subhumanness".
Ultranationalist political parties
Currently represented in national legislatures
The following political parties have been characterised as ultranationalist.
- Bulgaria: Attack
- Cyprus: ELAM
- Germany: Alternative for Germany
- Greece: Greek Solution
- India: Shiv Sena
- Israel: National Union-Tkuma
- Italy: Brothers of Italy
- Japan: Liberal Democratic Party (faction)
- Poland: National Movement
- Russia: Liberal Democratic Party of Russia, Rodina
- Serbia: Serbian Radical Party
- Slovakia: Kotleba – People's Party Our Slovakia
- Spain: Vox
- Switzerland: Swiss People's Party
- Turkey: Nationalist Movement Party, Great Union Party
- Ukraine: Freedom
- Eternal return
- Far-right politics
- Palingenetic ultranationalism
- Nippon Kaigi
- Right-wing populism
- National conservatism
- Right-wing authoritarianism
- Ultranationalism. Oxford English Dictionary. Retrieved 29 June 2017.
- Ultranationalism. Collins English Dictionary. Retrieved 29 June 2017.
- Roger Griffin, "Nationalism" in Cyprian Blamires, ed., World Fascism: A Historical Encyclopedia, vol. 2 (Santa Barbara, California: ABC-CLIO, 2006), pp. 451–53.
- The Politics of National Minority Participation in Post-communist Europe. EastWest Institute. p.65. Section author - Janusz Bugajski. Book edited by Johnathan P.Stein. Published by M.E. Sharpe. Published in New York in 2000. Retrieved via Google Books.
- World fascism: a historical encyclopedia. 2006. p. 452.
- Katsikas, Stefanos (2011). "Negotiating Diplomacy in the New Europe: Foreign Policy in Post-Communist Bulgaria". I.B. Tauris: 64. Cite journal requires
- Cyprus and the roadmap for peace - A critical interrogation of the conflict. p.87. Edited by Michalis S. Michael and Yucel Vural. Chapter authors - Yucel Vural, Sertac Sonan and Michalis S. Michael. Published by Edward Elgar Publishing in Cheltenham, UK. Published in 2018.
- "The 1619 Project and the far-right fear of history". Washington Post. 20 August 2019.
A leader of Germany's ultranationalist AfD party in 2017 bemoaned how the country's focus on atoning ...
- "Frankenstein pact puts AfD in coalition". The Times. 23 July 2019.
A married couple have run into trouble for forging the first local pact between Angela Merkel’s party and the ultranationalist Alternative for Germany (AfD) in defiance of the chancellor.
- "Greek elections: landslide victory for centre-right New Democracy party". The Guardian. 7 July 2019.
Smaller parties, such as the ultra-nationalist Greek Solution and leftist MeRA25, headed by Yanis Varoufakis, the former finance minister, were targeting younger Greeks.
- Mark Magnier (8 March 2012). "In India, battle continues over Hindu temple's riches - latimes". Los Angeles Times. Articles.latimes.com. Retrieved 2015-12-02.
- "Election Polls: 6-14 Seats for Bennett and Shaked's New Right-wing Party, Labor Party Crashes". Times of Israel. 30 December 2018.
- "Can a left-wing alliance stop Salvini from forming a far-right government in Italy?". France 24. 2019-08-15. Retrieved 2020-03-15.
- "Beautiful Harmony: Political Project Behind Japan's New Era Name – Analysis". eurasia review. 16 July 2019.
The shifting dynamics around the new era name (gengō 元号) offers an opportunity to understand how the domestic politics of the LDP’s project of ultranationalism is shaping a new Japan and a new form of nationalism.
- "Polish Interior Minister Issues Last-Minute Ban on Neo-Fascist Show of Force Outside Israeli Embassy in Warsaw". The Algemeiner. 31 January 2018.
- "Ultranationalists Move to Slap Fines on Use of Foreign Words". 21 February 2013.
- Van Herpen, Marcel H. (2015). Putin's Propaganda Machine: Soft Power and Russian Foreign Policy. Rowman & Littlefield. p. 34.
- Ford, Peter (2018). "Serbian Radical Party surge may complicate reform". Christian Science Monitor. Retrieved 17 December 2018.
- "Not Even a Prosperous Slovakia Is Immune to Doubts About the E.U." New York Times. 17 December 2016.
- Acha, Beatriz (6 January 2019). "No, no es un partido (neo)fascista". Agenda Pública.
- Antón-Mellón, Joan (29 April 2019). "Vox. Del nacional-catolicismo al ultranacionalismo neoliberal". Agenda Pública.
- "Danger on the Swiss Stock Exchange". ING Group. 5 December 2018.
The ultra-nationalist Swiss People's Party (SVP or UDC) - the most powerful political movement in the country - is campaigning against European agreements.
- Arman, Murat Necip (2007). "The Sources Of Banality In Transforming Turkish Nationalism". CEU Political Science Journal (2): 133–151.
- Eissenstat, Howard. (November 2002). Anatolianism: The History of a Failed Metaphor of Turkish Nationalism. Middle East Studies Association Conference. Washington, D.C.
- Gocek, Fatma Muge (2014). Denial of Violence. Oxford University Press. p. 402.
- "Svoboda: The rise of Ukraine's ultra-nationalists". BBC. 25 December 2012. Retrieved 1 March 2015.
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