United States Deputy Secretary of Defense
|Deputy Secretary of Defense of the United States of America|
Seal of the Department of Defense
Flag of the Deputy Secretary of Defense
|U.S. Department of Defense
Office of the Secretary of Defense
|Style||Mister Deputy Secretary
(formal address in writing)
|Reports to||Secretary of Defense|
|Seat||The Pentagon, Arlington County, Virginia, U.S.|
with the advice and consent of the Senate
|Term length||No fixed term|
|Constituting instrument||10 U.S.C. § 132|
|Inaugural holder||Stephen Early|
see article for further dates
|Succession||1st in SecDef succession|
|Salary||Executive Schedule, Level II|
The Deputy Secretary is the principal civilian deputy to the Secretary of Defense, and is appointed by the President, with the advice and consent of the Senate. The Deputy Secretary, by statute, is designated as the DoD Chief Management Officer and must be a civilian, at least seven years removed from service as a commissioned officer on active-duty at the date of appointment.
Public Law 81-36, April 2, 1949, originally established this position as the Under Secretary of Defense, however Public Law 81-2 16, August 10, 1949, a.k.a. the 1949 Amendments to the National Security Act of 1947, changed the title to Deputy Secretary of Defense. Former Assistant to President Franklin D. Roosevelt, Stephen Early, became the first officer holder when he was sworn-in on May 2, 1949.
Public Law 92-596, October 27, 1972, established a Second Deputy Secretary of Defense position, with both deputies performing duties as prescribed by the Secretary of Defense. The second deputy position was not filled until December 1975. Robert F. Ellsworth, serving from December 23, 1975, until January 10, 1977, was the only one to ever hold that office. Public Law 95-140, October 21, 1977, established two Under Secretaries of Defense and abolished the second deputy position.
By delegation, the Deputy Secretary of Defense has full power and authority to act for the Secretary of Defense and to exercise the powers of the Secretary of Defense on any and all matters for which the Secretary is authorized to act pursuant to statute or executive order. The Deputy Secretary is first in the line of succession to the office of Secretary of Defense.
The typical role of the Deputy Secretary of Defense is to oversee the day-to-day business and lead the internal management processes of the $500-billion-plus Department of Defense budget, that is as its chief operating officer and chief management officer; while the Secretary of Defense as the chief executive officer focuses on the big issues of the day, ongoing military operations, high-profile congressional hearings, attending meetings of the National Security Council, and directly advising the President on defense issues.
The Deputy Secretary, among the office's many responsibilities, chairs the Senior Level Review Group (SLRG), before 2005 known as Defense Resources Board (DRB), which provides department-wide budgetary allocation recommendations to the Secretary and the President. Traditionally, the Deputy Secretary has been the civilian official guiding the process of the Quadrennial Defense Review (QDR).
The Deputy Secretary of Defense chairs the Special Access Program Oversight Committee (SAPOC), which has oversight responsibilities and provides recommendations with respect to changes in status of the Department's Special Access Programs, for either the Deputy Secretary Defense or the Secretary of Defense to make.
List of Deputy Secretaries of Defense
|No.||Image||Name||Term of Office||Secretaries of Defense serving under:||President appointed by:|
|Began||Ended||Days of Service|
|1||Stephen Early||May 2, 1949
August 10, 1949
|August 9, 1949[a]
September 30, 1950[b]
|516||Louis A. Johnson
|Harry S. Truman|
|2||Robert A. Lovett||October 4, 1950||September 16, 1951||316||George Marshall|
|3||William Chapman Foster||September 24, 1951||January 20, 1953||484||Robert A. Lovett|
|4||Roger M. Kyes||February 2, 1953||May 1, 1954||453||Charles E. Wilson||Dwight D. Eisenhower|
|5||Robert B. Anderson||May 3, 1954||August 4, 1955||458|
|6||Reuben B. Robertson Jr.||August 5, 1955||April 25, 1957||629|
|7||Donald A. Quarles||May 1, 1957||May 8, 1959||737||Charles E. Wilson
Neil H. McElroy
|8||Thomas S. Gates||June 8, 1959||December 1, 1959||176||Neil H. McElroy|
|9||James H. Douglas Jr.||December 11, 1959||January 24, 1961||410||Thomas S. Gates
|10||Roswell Gilpatric||January 24, 1961||January 20, 1964||1091||Robert McNamara||John F. Kennedy|
|11||Cyrus Vance||January 28, 1964||June 30, 1967||1249||Lyndon B. Johnson|
|12||Paul Nitze||July 1, 1967||January 20, 1969||569||Robert McNamara
|13||David Packard||January 24, 1969||December 13, 1971||1053||Melvin R. Laird||Richard Nixon|
|14||Kenneth Rush||February 23, 1972||January 29, 1973||341|
|15||Bill Clements||January 30, 1973||January 20, 1977||1451||Elliot Richardson
James R. Schlesinger
|16||Charles Duncan Jr.||January 31, 1977||July 26, 1979||906||Harold Brown||Jimmy Carter|
|17||W. Graham Claytor Jr.||August 24, 1979||January 16, 1981||511|
|18||Frank Carlucci||February 4, 1981||December 31, 1982||695||Caspar Weinberger||Ronald Reagan|
|19||W. Paul Thayer||January 12, 1983||January 4, 1984||357|
|20||William Howard Taft IV||February 3, 1984||April 22, 1989||1905||Caspar Weinberger
|21||Donald J. Atwood Jr.||April 24, 1989||January 20, 1993||1367||Dick Cheney||George H. W. Bush|
|22||William J. Perry||March 5, 1993||February 3, 1994||335||Les Aspin||Bill Clinton|
|23||John M. Deutch||March 11, 1994||May 10, 1995||425||William J. Perry|
|24||John P. White||June 22, 1995||July 15, 1997||754||William J. Perry
|25||John J. Hamre||July 29, 1997||March 31, 2000||976||William Cohen|
|26||Rudy de Leon||March 31, 2000||March 1, 2001||335||William Cohen
|27||Paul Wolfowitz||March 2, 2001||May 13, 2005||1533||Donald Rumsfeld||George W. Bush|
|28||Gordon R. England||May 13, 2005
January 4, 2006
|January 3, 2006[c]
February 11, 2009
|29||William J. Lynn III||February 12, 2009||October 5, 2011||965||Robert Gates
|30||Ash Carter||October 6, 2011||December 4, 2013||789||Leon Panetta
|Acting||Christine Fox||December 5, 2013||May 1, 2014||149||Chuck Hagel|
|31||Robert O. Work||May 1, 2014||July 14, 2017||1170||Chuck Hagel
|32||Patrick M. Shanahan||July 19, 2017||140||James Mattis||Donald Trump|
- Defense Acquisition Board
- Defense Policy Board Advisory Committee
- Deputy's Advisory Working Group, a panel chaired by the Deputy Secretary of Defense
- Packard Commission
- As "Under Secretary of Defense"
- As "Deputy Secretary of Defense"
- Served as Acting Deputy Secretary of Defense
- Department of Defense Directive 5100.1: Functions of the Department of Defense and Its Major Components (PDF). Department of Defense Directive. Washington, D.C.: U.S. Department of Defense. 2010-12-21.
- Department of Defense Key Officials 1947–2015 (PDF). Washington DC: Office of the Secretary of Defense, Historical Office. 2015.
- Deputy Secretary of Defense position profile at Prunes Online