United States Deputy Secretary of Defense
|Deputy Secretary of Defense of the United States|
Seal of the Department of Defense
Flag of the Deputy Secretary of Defense
United States Department of Defense|
Office of the Secretary of Defense
Mr. Deputy Secretary|
(formal address in writing)
|Reports to||United States Secretary of Defense|
|Seat||The Pentagon, Arlington County, Virginia|
with Senate advice and consent
|Term length||No fixed term|
|Constituting instrument||10 U.S.C. § 132|
2 May 1949
|Succession||1st in SecDef succession|
|Salary||Executive Schedule, level II|
The deputy secretary is the principal civilian deputy to the Secretary of Defense, and is appointed by the President, with the advice and consent of the Senate. The deputy secretary, by statute, is designated as the DoD Chief Management Officer and must be a civilian, at least seven years removed from service as a commissioned officer on active-duty at the date of appointment.
Public Law 81-36, 2 April 1949, originally established this position as the Under Secretary of Defense, however Public Law 81-2 16, 10 August 1949, a.k.a. the 1949 Amendments to the National Security Act of 1947, changed the title to Deputy Secretary of Defense. Former assistant to President Franklin D. Roosevelt, Stephen Early, became the first officer holder when he was sworn-in on 2 May 1949.
Public Law 92-596, 27 October 1972, established a Second Deputy Secretary of Defense position, with both deputies performing duties as prescribed by the Secretary of Defense. The second deputy position was not filled until December 1975. Robert F. Ellsworth, serving from 23 December 1975, until 10 January 1977, was the only one to ever hold that office. Public Law 95-140, 21 October 1977, established two Under Secretaries of Defense and abolished the second deputy position.
By delegation, the Deputy Secretary of Defense has full power and authority to act for the Secretary of Defense and to exercise the powers of the Secretary of Defense on any and all matters for which the Secretary is authorized to act pursuant to statute or executive order. The deputy secretary is first in the line of succession to the office of Secretary of Defense.
The typical role of the Deputy Secretary of Defense is to oversee the day-to-day business and lead the internal management processes of the $500-billion-plus Department of Defense budget, that is as its chief operating officer; while the Secretary of Defense as the chief executive officer focuses on the big issues of the day, ongoing military operations, high-profile congressional hearings, attending meetings of the National Security Council, and directly advising the President on defense issues.
Prior to 1 February 2018, the Deputy Secretary of Defense also served as the department's chief management officer, to whom the deputy chief management officer reported, but those responsibilities were split into a new Chief Management Officer of the Department of Defense position.
The deputy secretary, among the office's many responsibilities, chairs the Senior Level Review Group (SLRG), before 2005 known as Defense Resources Board (DRB), which provides department-wide budgetary allocation recommendations to the Secretary and the President. Traditionally, the deputy secretary has been the civilian official guiding the process of the Quadrennial Defense Review (QDR).
The Deputy Secretary of Defense chairs the Special Access Program Oversight Committee (SAPOC), which has oversight responsibilities and provides recommendations with respect to changes in status of the Department's Special Access Programs, for either the Deputy Secretary Defense or the Secretary of Defense to make.
List of Deputy Secretaries of Defense
|No.||Image||Name||Term of Office||Secretaries of Defense serving under:||President appointed by:|
|Began||Ended||Days of Service|
|1||Stephen Early||2 May 1949
10 August 1949
|9 August 1949[a]
30 September 1950[b]
|516||Louis A. Johnson
|Harry S. Truman|
|2||Robert A. Lovett||4 October 1950||16 September 1951||316||George Marshall|
|3||William Chapman Foster||24 September 1951||20 January 1953||484||Robert A. Lovett|
|4||Roger M. Kyes||2 February 1953||1 May 1954||453||Charles E. Wilson||Dwight D. Eisenhower|
|5||Robert B. Anderson||3 May 1954||4 August 1955||458|
|6||Reuben B. Robertson Jr.||5 August 1955||25 April 1957||629|
|7||Donald A. Quarles||1 May 1957||8 May 1959||737||Charles E. Wilson|
Neil H. McElroy
|8||Thomas S. Gates||8 June 1959||1 December 1959||176||Neil H. McElroy|
|9||James H. Douglas Jr.||11 December 1959||24 January 1961||410||Thomas S. Gates|
|10||Roswell Gilpatric||24 January 1961||20 January 1964||1091||Robert McNamara||John F. Kennedy|
|11||Cyrus Vance||28 January 1964||30 June 1967||1249||Lyndon B. Johnson|
|12||Paul Nitze||1 July 1967||20 January 1969||569||Robert McNamara|
|13||David Packard||24 January 1969||13 December 1971||1053||Melvin R. Laird||Richard Nixon|
|14||Kenneth Rush||23 February 1972||29 January 1973||341|
|15||Bill Clements||30 January 1973||20 January 1977||1451||Elliot Richardson|
James R. Schlesinger
|16||Charles Duncan Jr.||31 January 1977||26 July 1979||906||Harold Brown||Jimmy Carter|
|17||W. Graham Claytor Jr.||24 August 1979||16 January 1981||511|
|18||Frank Carlucci||4 February 1981||31 December 1982||695||Caspar Weinberger||Ronald Reagan|
|19||W. Paul Thayer||12 January 1983||4 January 1984||357|
|20||William Howard Taft IV||3 February 1984||22 April 1989||1905||Caspar Weinberger|
|21||Donald J. Atwood Jr.||24 April 1989||20 January 1993||1367||Dick Cheney||George H. W. Bush|
|22||William J. Perry||5 March 1993||3 February 1994||335||Les Aspin||Bill Clinton|
|23||John M. Deutch||11 March 1994||10 May 1995||425||William J. Perry|
|24||John P. White||22 June 1995||15 July 1997||754||William J. Perry|
|25||John J. Hamre||29 July 1997||31 March 2000||976||William Cohen|
|26||Rudy de Leon||31 March 2000||1 March 2001||335||William Cohen|
|27||Paul Wolfowitz||2 March 2001||13 May 2005||1533||Donald Rumsfeld||George W. Bush|
|28||Gordon R. England||13 May 2005
4 January 2006
|3 January 2006[c]
11 February 2009
|29||William J. Lynn III||12 February 2009||5 October 2011||965||Robert Gates
|30||Ash Carter||6 October 2011||4 December 2013||789||Leon Panetta|
|Acting||Christine Fox||5 December 2013||1 May 2014||149||Chuck Hagel|
|31||Robert O. Work||1 May 2014||14 July 2017||1170||Chuck Hagel|
|32||Patrick M. Shanahan||19 July 2017||392||James Mattis||Donald Trump|
- Defense Acquisition Board
- Defense Policy Board Advisory Committee
- Deputy's Advisory Working Group, a panel chaired by the Deputy Secretary of Defense
- Packard Commission
- As "Under Secretary of Defense"
- As "Deputy Secretary of Defense"
- Served as Acting Deputy Secretary of Defense
- Department of Defense Key Officials 1947–2015: p. 15.
- 5 U.S.C. § 5313.
- 10 U.S.C. § 132.
- Biography of incumbent
- "Report to Congress: Restructuring the Department of Defense Acquisition, Technology and Logistics Organization and Chief Management Officer Organization" (PDF). 1 August 2017. Retrieved 22 February 2018.
- Department of Defense Key Officials 1947–2015: p. 17.
- Department of Defense Key Officials 1947–2015: p. 18.
- Department of Defense Directive 5100.1: Functions of the Department of Defense and Its Major Components (PDF). Department of Defense Directive. Washington, D.C.: U.S. Department of Defense. 21 December 2010.
- Department of Defense Key Officials 1947–2015 (PDF). Washington DC: Office of the Secretary of Defense, Historical Office. 2015.
- Deputy Secretary of Defense position profile at Prunes Online