United States Senate elections, 1870 and 1871

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United States Senate elections, 1870 and 1871
United States
← 1868 / 1869 Dates vary by state
(And other dates for special elections)
1872 / 1873 →

25 of the 70 (4 vacant)/74 seats in the United States Senate (with special elections)
36 seats needed for a majority
  Majority party Minority party
 
Party Republican Democratic
Last election 57 seats 9 seats
Seats before 63 11
Seats won 17 7
Seats after 58 14
Seat change Decrease 4 Increase 3
Seats up 21 4

Majority Party before election

Republican Party

Elected Majority Party

Republican Party

In the United States Senate elections of 1870 and 1871, the Republican Party lost five seats in the United States Senate, though it still retained an overwhelming majority. In advance of these elections, the last four seceded states were readmitted to the Senate.

As these elections were prior to ratification of the seventeenth amendment, Senators were chosen by State legislatures.

Reconstruction[edit]

That election marked the first time that, with Mississippian Hiram Rhodes Revels, an African American was elected as a US senator and became a member of Congress.[1]

In Georgia, Foster Blodgett was elected and presented his credentials as Senator-elect, but the Senate declared him not elected.

In Virginia, Republican John F. Lewis and Democrat John W. Johnston were elected on January 26, 1870 to fill seats that had been vacant since 1864 and 1865.

Results summary[edit]

Senate Party Division, 42nd Congress (1871–1873)

  • Majority Party: Republican (55)
  • Minority Party: Democratic (14)
  • Other Parties: Liberal Republican (1)
  • Vacant: (4)
  • Total Seats: 74

Change in Senate composition[edit]

By March 30, 1870[edit]

After the readmission of Virginia, Texas, and Mississippi, and the special elections in Iowa and Maine.

D6 D5 D4 D3 D2 D1 V1
D7 D8 D9 D10
Gain
Readmitted
R62
Gain
Readmitted
R61
Gain
Readmitted
R60
Gain
Special
R59
Gain
Readmitted
R58
Gain
Readmitted
R57
Gain
Readmitted
R47 R48 R49 R50 R51 R52 R53 R54 R55 R56
Appointee elected
R46 R45 R44 R43 R42 R41 R40 R39 R38 R37
Majority → R36
R27 R28 R29 R30 R31 R32 R33 R34 R35
R26 R25 R24 R23 R22 R21 R20 R19 R18 R17
R7 R8 R9 R10 R11 R12 R13 R14 R15 R16
R6 R5 R4 R3 R2 R1 V2

Before the elections[edit]

Including the February 1871 readmission of Georgia.

D7 D6 D5 D4 D3 D2 D1
D8
Ran
D9
Ran
D10
Unknown
D11
Unknown
R63
Retired
R62
Retired
R61
Retired
R60
Retired
R59
Retired
R58
Unknown
R48
Ran
R49
Ran
R50
Ran
R51
Ran
R52
Ran
R53
Ran
R54
Ran
R55
Unknown
R56
Unknown
R57
Unknown
R47
Ran
R46
Ran
R45
Ran
R44
Ran
R43
Ran
R42 R41 R40 R39 R38
Majority → R37
R28 R29 R30 R31 R32 R33 R34 R35 R36
R27 R26 R25 R24 R23 R22 R21 R20 R19 R18
R8 R9 R10 R11 R12 R13 R14 R15 R16 R17
R7 R6 R5 R4 R3 R2 R1

Result of the elections[edit]

D7 D6 D5 D4 D3 D2 D1
D8
Hold
D9
Hold
D10
Hold
D11
Gain
D12
Gain
D13
Gain
D14
Gain
V1
D Loss
V2
R Loss
R58
Hold
R48
Re-elected
R49
Hold
R50
Hold
R51
Hold
R52
Hold
R53
Hold
R54
Hold
R55
Hold
R56
Hold
R57
Hold
R47
Re-elected
R46
Re-elected
R45
Re-elected
R44
Re-elected
R43
Re-elected
R42 R41 R40 R39 R38
Majority → R37
R28 R29 R30 R31 R32 R33 R34 R35 R36
R27 R26 R25 R24 R23 R22 R21 R20 R19 R18
R8 R9 R10 R11 R12 R13 R14 R15 R16 R17
R7 R6 R5 R4 R3 R2 R1

Beginning of the next Congress[edit]

D7 D6 D5 D4 D3 D2 D1
D8 D9 D10 D11 D12 D13 D14
Gain
V1
D Loss
V2 V3
R48 R49 R50 R51 R52 R53 R54 R55 LR1
Change
V4
R Loss
R47 R46 R45 R44 R43 R42 R41 R40 R39 R38
Majority → R37
R28 R29 R30 R31 R32 R33 R34 R35 R36
R27 R26 R25 R24 R23 R22 R21 R20 R19 R18
R8 R9 R10 R11 R12 R13 R14 R15 R16 R17
R7 R6 R5 R4 R3 R2 R1
Key:
D# Democratic
LR# Liberal Republican
R# Republican
V# Vacant

Race summaries[edit]

Special elections during the 41st Congress[edit]

In these elections, the winners were seated during 1870 or in 1871 before March 4; ordered by election date.

State Incumbent Results Candidates
Senator Party Electoral history
Iowa
(Class 2)
James W. Grimes Republican 1858
1864
Incumbent resigned December 6, 1869 due to ill health.
State readmitted to the Union.
Winner elected January 18, 1870.[2]
Winner did not seek election to the next term.
James B. Howell (Republican)
John T. Stoneman
Maine
(Class 2)
Lot M. Morrill Republican 1861 (Special)
1863
1869 (Lost)
1869 (Appointed)
Interim appointee elected January 19, 1870 to finish the term.
Winner was also elected to the next term, see below.
Lot M. Morrill (Republican)
[Data unknown/missing. You can help!]
Virginia
(Class 1)
Vacant since January 2, 1864 when Joseph Segar (U) was not seated.[3] State readmitted to the Union.
Winner elected January 26, 1870.
Republican gain.
John F. Lewis (Republican)
[Data unknown/missing. You can help!]
Virginia
(Class 2)
Vacant since March 4, 1865 when John Curtiss Underwood (U) was not seated.[4] State readmitted to the Union.
Winner elected January 26, 1870.
Democratic gain.
Winner was also elected late to the next term, see below.
John W. Johnston (Democratic)
[Data unknown/missing. You can help!]
Texas
(Class 2)
Vacant since July 11, 1861 when John Hemphill (D) was expelled. State readmitted to the Union.
Winner elected February 22, 1870.[5]
Allowed to take office when state readmitted on March 30, 1870.
Republican gain.
Winner was also elected to the next term, see below.
Morgan C. Hamilton (Republican)
[Data unknown/missing. You can help!]
Mississippi
(Class 1)
Vacant since January 21, 1861 when Jefferson Davis (D) resigned State readmitted to the Union.
Winner elected February 23, 1870.
Republican gain.
Adelbert Ames (Republican)
[Data unknown/missing. You can help!]
Mississippi
(Class 2)
Vacant since January 12, 1861 when Albert G. Brown (D) withdrew. State readmitted to the Union.
Winner elected February 23, 1870.
Republican gain.
Unknown if winner ran for the next term or retired, see below.
Hiram Rhodes Revels (Republican)
[Data unknown/missing. You can help!]
Texas
(Class 1)
Vacant since March 23, 1861 when Louis Wigfall (D) withdrew. State readmitted to the Union.
Winner elected March 30, 1870.
Republican gain.
James W. Flanagan (Republican)
[Data unknown/missing. You can help!]
Missouri
(Class 3)
Daniel T. Jewett Republican 1870 (Appointed) Interim appointee elected January 20, 1871 to finish the term.
Democratic gain.
Francis Preston Blair, Jr. (Democratic)
[Data unknown/missing. You can help!]
Minnesota
(Class 2)
William Windom Republican 1865 Interim appointee was not elected to finish the term.
Winner elected January 22, 1871 to finish the term.
Republican hold.
Winner was not elected to the next term, see below.
Instead, interim appointee was elected to the next term, see below.
Ozora P. Stearns (Republican)
[Data unknown/missing. You can help!]
Georgia
(Class 3)
Vacant since January 28, 1861 when Alfred Iverson, Sr. (D) withdrew. State readmitted to the Union.
Winner had been elected in 1867, but not seated until readmission.
Winner finally seated February 1, 1871.
Republican gain.
Joshua Hill (Republican)
[Data unknown/missing. You can help!]
Georgia
(Class 2)
Vacant since February 4, 1861 when Robert Toombs (D) withdrew. State readmitted to the Union.
Winner elected February 24, 1871.
Democratic gain.
Unknown if winner ran for the next term or retired, see below.
Homer V.M. Miller (Democratic)
[Data unknown/missing. You can help!]

Races leading to the 42nd Congress[edit]

In these general elections, the winners were elected for the term beginning March 4, 1871; ordered by state.

All of the elections involved the Class 2 seats.

State Incumbent Results Candidates
Senator Party Electoral
history
Alabama Willard Warner Republican 1868 (Special) Incumbent lost re-election.
Winner elected in 1870.
Democratic gain.
George Goldthwaite (Democratic)
Willard Warner (Republican)
[Data unknown/missing. You can help!]
Arkansas Alexander McDonald Republican 1868 (Special) Incumbent lost re-election.
Winner elected in 1870.
Republican hold.
Powell Clayton (Republican)
Alexander McDonald (Republican)
[Data unknown/missing. You can help!]
Delaware Willard Saulsbury, Sr. Democratic 1858
1864
Incumbent lost re-election to his holder brother.
Winner elected in 1870.
Democratic hold.
Eli M. Saulsbury (Democratic)
Willard Saulsbury, Sr. (Democratic)
[Data unknown/missing. You can help!]
Georgia Homer V. M. Miller Democratic 1871 (Special) Unknown if incumbent ran for re-election.
Winner elected in 1876 or 1877.
Democratic hold.
Senate later refused to seat Senator-elect Foster Blodgett.
Foster Blodgett
[Data unknown/missing. You can help!]
Illinois Richard Yates Republican 1864 or 1865 Incumbent retired.
Winner elected in 1870 or 1871.
Republican hold.
John A. Logan (Republican)
[Data unknown/missing. You can help!]
Iowa James B. Howell Republican 1870 (Special) Incumbent retired.
Winner elected January 18, 1870.[2]
Republican hold.
George G. Wright (Republican)
Thomas W. Claggett (Democratic)
Kansas Edmund G. Ross Republican 1866 (Appointed)
1867 (Special)
Incumbent lost re-election.
Winner elected in 1871.
Republican hold.
Alexander Caldwell (Republican)
Edmund G. Ross (Republican)
[Data unknown/missing. You can help!]
Kentucky Thomas C. McCreery Democratic 1868 (Special) Incumbent lost re-election.
Winner elected in 1871.
Democratic hold.
John W. Stevenson (Democratic)
Thomas C. McCreery (Democratic)
[Data unknown/missing. You can help!]
Louisiana John S. Harris Republican 1868 (Special) Unknown if incumbent ran for re-election.
Winner elected in 1870 or 1871.
Republican hold.
Joseph R. West (Republican)
[Data unknown/missing. You can help!]
Maine Lot M. Morrill Republican 1861 (Special)
1863
1869 (Lost)
1869 (Appointed)
1870 (Special)
Incumbent re-elected in 1870 or 1871. Lot M. Morrill (Republican)
[Data unknown/missing. You can help!]
Massachusetts Henry Wilson Republican 1855 (Special)
1859
1865
Incumbent re-elected in 1871. Henry Wilson (Republican)
[Data unknown/missing. You can help!]
Michigan Jacob M. Howard Republican 1862 (Special)
1865
Unknown if incumbent ran for re-election.
Winner elected January 18, 1871.
Republican hold.
Thomas W. Ferry (Republican)
[Data unknown/missing. You can help!]
Minnesota Ozora P. Stearns Republican 1871 (Special) Incumbent retired.
Winner elected in January 1871.
Republican hold.
William Windom (Republican)
[Data unknown/missing. You can help!]
Mississippi Hiram Rhodes Revels Republican 1870 (Special) Unknown if incumbent ran for re-election.
Winner elected January 18, 1870.
Republican hold.
James L. Alcorn (Republican)
[Data unknown/missing. You can help!]
Nebraska John M. Thayer Republican 1867 Incumbent lost re-election.
Winner elected in 1870.
Republican hold.
Phineas Hitchcock (Republican)
John M. Thayer (Republican)
[Data unknown/missing. You can help!]
New Hampshire Aaron H. Cragin Republican 1864 Incumbent re-elected in 1870. Aaron H. Cragin (Republican)
[Data unknown/missing. You can help!]
New Jersey Alexander G. Cattell Republican 1866 (Special) Incumbent retired.
Winner elected in 1870 or 1871.
Republican hold.
Frederick T. Frelinghuysen (Republican)
[Data unknown/missing. You can help!]
North Carolina Joseph Abbott Republican 1868 (Special) Incumbent lost renomination.
Legislature failed to elect.
Republican loss.
Seat remained vacant until January 30, 1872.
[Data unknown/missing. You can help!]
Oregon George H. Williams Republican 1864 Incumbent lost re-election.
Winner elected in 1870.
Democratic gain.
James K. Kelly (Democratic)
George H. Williams (Republican)
[Data unknown/missing. You can help!]
Rhode Island Henry B. Anthony Republican 1858
1864
Incumbent re-elected in 1870. Henry B. Anthony (Republican)
[Data unknown/missing. You can help!]
South Carolina Thomas J. Robertson Republican 1868 (Special) Incumbent re-elected in 1870. Thomas J. Robertson (Republican)
[Data unknown/missing. You can help!]
Tennessee Joseph S. Fowler Republican 1866 (Special) Incumbent retired.
Winner elected in 1870 or 1871.
Democratic gain.
Henry Cooper (Democratic)
[Data unknown/missing. You can help!]
Texas Morgan C. Hamilton Republican 1870 (Special) Incumbent re-elected in 1870. Morgan C. Hamilton (Republican)
[Data unknown/missing. You can help!]
Virginia John W. Johnston Democratic 1870 (Special) Unknown if incumbent ran for re-election.
Legislature failed to elect.
Democratic loss.
Seat remained vacant until March 15, 1871.
[Data unknown/missing. You can help!]
West Virginia Waitman T. Willey Republican 1863
1865
Unknown if incumbent ran for re-election.
Winner elected in 1871.
Democratic gain.
Henry G. Davis (Democratic)
[Data unknown/missing. You can help!]

Elections during the 42nd Congress[edit]

In this election, the winner was elected in 1871 after March 4.

State Incumbent Results Candidates
Senator Party Electoral history
Virginia
(Class 2)
Vacant Legislature had failed to elect.
Previous incumbent re-elected March 15, 1871.
Democratic gain.
John W. Johnston (Democratic)
[Data unknown/missing. You can help!]
Georgia
(Class 2)
Vacant Foster Blodgett had presented credentials as Senator-elect, but the Senate declared him not elected.
Winner elected November 14, 1871.
Democratic gain.
Thomas M. Norwood (Democratic)
[Data unknown/missing. You can help!]

See also[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ "Facts & Milestones". United States Senate. 
  2. ^ a b Clark, Dan Elbert (1913). "History of Senatorial Elections in Iowa". Iowa. pp. 150–151. 
  3. ^ Segar was not seated on the premise that the Union-friendly legislature was illegitimate despite having seated his predecessor based credentials from the same legislature. In reality, the Senate refused because it did not want to set a precedent for easing reentry of Confederate states. See "Musical Chairs (1861–1869)". United States Senate. Retrieved March 20, 2009. 
  4. ^ "Musical Chairs (1861–1869)". United States Senate. Retrieved March 20, 2009. 
  5. ^ http://bioguide.congress.gov/scripts/biodisplay.pl?index=H000115

External links[edit]