United States Senate elections, 1930 and 1931

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
Jump to: navigation, search
United States Senate elections, 1930 and 1931
United States
← 1928 November 4, 1930[1] 1932 / 1933 →

32 of the 96 seats in the United States Senate
49 seats needed for a majority
  Majority party Minority party
  James Eli Watson.jpg Joseph t robinson.jpg
Leader James Watson Joseph Robinson
Party Republican Democratic
Leader's seat Indiana Arkansas
Seats before 56 39
Seats after 50 45
Seat change Decrease 6 Increase 6
Seats up 19 13
Races won 13 19

  Third party
 
Party Farmer–Labor
Last election 1 seat
Seats before 1
Seats won 1
Seat change Steady
Seats up 0
Races won 0

US 1930 senate election map.svg
Results including special elections
     Democratic gain      Republican gain
     Democratic hold      Republican hold

Majority Leader before election

James Watson
Republican

Elected Majority Leader

James Watson
Republican

The United States Senate elections of 1930 and 1931[1] occurred in the middle of Republican President Herbert Hoover's term. With the Great Depression beginning to take hold, Republican incumbents became unpopular,[2] and Democrats picked up a net of eight seats, erasing the Republican gains from the previous election cycle. Republicans retained control of the chamber since Vice President Charles Curtis cast the tie-breaking vote.

This was the first of four consecutive Senate elections in the Depression in which Democrats made enormous gains, achieving a cumulative pick-up of 34 seats.

In Louisiana, Democratic Senator-elect Huey Long chose not to take his Senate seat until January 25, 1932 so he could remain as Governor of Louisiana. The Republicans therefore retained the plurality of seats at the beginning of the next Congress. With Vice President Charles Curtis (R) able to cast tie-breaking votes, the Republicans would have majority control with their 48 of the 96 seats. That slim control was further weakened in the last months of the next Congress with several mid-term seat changes.

In Minnesota, Henrik Shipstead was not up for election in 1930. He was a former Republican who became a Farmer–Laborite in 1922. Although the Farmer–Laborites would later merge with the Minnesota Democratic–Farmer–Labor Party (in 1944), Shipstead and his contemporaries were not aligned with either major party.[citation needed] He would later rejoin the party in 1940.

Gains and losses[edit]

The Republicans only gained one seat by defeating incumbent Daniel F. Steck (D-IA). The Democrats took open seats in Colorado, Illinois, Massachusetts, and West Virginia, and defeated five incumbents:

Change in Senate composition[edit]

Before the elections[edit]

At the beginning of 1930.

  D1 D2 D3 D4 D5 D6 D7 D8
D18 D17 D16 D15 D14 D13 D12 D11 D10 D9
D19 D20 D21 D22 D23 D24 D25 D26 D27
Ran
D28
Ran
D38
Ran
D37
Ran
D36
Ran
D35
Ran
D34
Ran
D33
Ran
D32
Ran
D31
Ran
D30
Ran
D29
Ran
D39
Retired
FL1 R56
Retired
R55
Retired
R54
Retired
R53
Retired
R52
Retired
R51
Retired
R50
Ran
R49
Ran
Majority →
R39
Ran
R40
Ran
R41
Ran
R42
Ran
R43
Ran
R44
Ran
R45
Ran
R46
Ran
R47
Ran
R48
Ran
R38
Ran
R37 R36 R35 R34 R33 R32 R31 R30 R29
R19 R20 R21 R22 R23 R24 R25 R26 R27 R28
R18 R17 R16 R15 R14 R13 R12 R11 R10 R9
R1 R2 R3 R4 R5 R6 R7 R8

After the general elections[edit]

  D1 D2 D3 D4 D5 D6 D7 D8
D18 D17 D16 D15 D14 D13 D12 D11 D10 D9
D19 D20 D21 D22 D23 D24 D25 D26 D27
Re-elected
D28
Re-elected
D38
Hold
D37
Hold
D36
Hold
D35
Hold
D34
Hold
D33
Re-elected
D32
Re-elected
D31
Re-elected
D30
Re-elected
D29
Re-elected
D39
Gain
D40
Gain
D41
Gain
D42
Gain
D43
Gain
D44
Gain
D45
Gain
FL1 R50
Gain
R49
Hold
Majority →
R39
Re-elected
R40
Re-elected
R41
Re-elected
R42
Re-elected
R43
Re-elected
R44
Re-elected
R45
Re-elected
R46
Re-elected
R47
Hold
R48
Hold
R38
Re-elected
R37 R36 R35 R34 R33 R32 R31 R30 R29
R19 R20 R21 R22 R23 R24 R25 R26 R27 R28
R18 R17 R16 R15 R14 R13 R12 R11 R10 R9
R1 R2 R3 R4 R5 R6 R7 R8

After the special elections[edit]

  D1 D2 D3 D4 D5 D6 D7 D8
D18 D17 D16 D15 D14 D13 D12 D11 D10 D9
D19 D20 D21 D22 D23 D24 D25 D26 D27 D28
D38 D37 D36 D35 D34 D33 D32 D31 D30 D29
D39 D40 D41 D42 D43 D44 D45
Gain, same as general
D46
Gain
D47
Gain
FL1
Plurality ↓
R39 R40 R41 R42 R43 R44 R45
Appointee elected
R46
Hold, same as general
R47
Hold
R48
Hold
R38 R37 R36 R35 R34 R33 R32 R31 R30 R29
R19 R20 R21 R22 R23 R24 R25 R26 R27 R28
R18 R17 R16 R15 R14 R13 R12 R11 R10 R9
R1 R2 R3 R4 R5 R6 R7 R8
Key:
D# Democratic
FL# Farmer–Labor
R# Republican

Race summary[edit]

Special elections during the 71st Congress[edit]

In these special elections, the winner were seated during 1930; ordered by election date (then by state).

State Incumbent Results Candidates
Senator Party Electoral history
Kansas
(Class 3)
Henry J. Allen Republican 1929 (Appointed) Interim appointee lost election.
New senator elected November 4, 1930.
Democratic gain.
George McGill (Democratic) 50.0%
Henry J. Allen (Republican) 48.0%
Kentucky
(Class 2)
John M. Robsion Republican 1930 (Appointed) Interim appointee lost election.
New senator elected November 4, 1930.
Democratic gain.
Winner was not elected to the next term, see below.
Ben M. Williamson (Democratic) 52.3%
John M. Robsion (Republican) 47.7%[3]
New Jersey
(Class 2)
David Baird Jr. Republican 1929 (Appointed) Interim appointee retired.
New senator elected November 4, 1930.
Republican hold.
Winner also elected to the next term, see below.
Dwight W. Morrow (Republican) 59.1%
Alexander Simpson (Democratic) 38.6%[4]
Ohio
(Class 3)
Roscoe C. McCulloch Republican 1929 (Appointed) Interim appointee lost election.
New senator elected November 4, 1930.
Democratic gain.
Robert J. Bulkley (Democratic) 54.8%
Roscoe C. McCulloch (Republican) 45.2%
Pennsylvania
(Class 3)
Joseph R. Grundy Republican 1929 (Appointed) Interim appointee lost nomination.
New senator elected November 4, 1930.
Republican hold.
James J. Davis (Republican) 71.5%
Sedgwick Kistler (Democratic) 25.6%
Tennessee
(Class 2)
William E. Brock Democratic 1929 (Appointed) Interim appointee elected November 4, 1930.
Winner was not elected to the next term, see below.
William E. Brock (Democratic) 74.4%
F. Todd Meacham (Republican) 25.63%[5]
Wyoming
(Class 2)
Patrick J. Sullivan Republican 1929 (Appointed) Interim appointee retired.
New senator elected November 4, 1930.
Republican hold.
Winner also elected to the next term, see below.
Robert D. Carey (Republican) 58.8%
Henry H. Schwartz (Democratic) 41.2%[6]

Elections leading to the 72nd Congress[edit]

In these general elections, the winners were elected for the term beginning March 4, 1931; ordered by state.

All of the elections involved the Class 2 seats.

State Incumbent Results Candidates
Senator Party Electoral history
Alabama James T. Heflin Democratic 1920 (Special)
1924
Incumbent disqualified from nomination for supporting Herbert Hoover.
Incumbent lost general election as an independent.
New senator elected.
Democratic hold.
John H. Bankhead II (Democratic) 59.7%
James T. Heflin (Independent) 40.3%
Arkansas Joseph T. Robinson Democratic 1913
1918
1924
Incumbent re-elected. Joseph T. Robinson (Democratic)
Unopposed
Colorado Lawrence C. Phipps Republican 1918
1924
Incumbent retired.
New senator elected.
Democratic gain.
Edward P. Costigan (Democratic) 55.9%
George H. Shaw (Republican) 42.7%
Delaware Daniel O. Hastings Republican 1928 (Appointed) Interim appointee elected. Daniel O. Hastings (Republican) 54.5%
Thomas F. Bayard, Jr. (Democratic) 45.4%
Georgia William J. Harris Democratic 1918
1924
Incumbent re-elected. William J. Harris (Democratic)
Unopposed
Idaho William Borah Republican 1907
1913
1918
1924
Incumbent re-elected. William Borah (Republican)72.4%
Joseph M. Tyler (Democratic) 27.6%
Illinois Charles S. Deneen Republican 1924
1925 (Appointed)[7]
Incumbent lost renomination.
New senator elected.
Democratic gain.
James H. Lewis (Democratic) 64.0%
Ruth H. McCormick (Republican) 30.7%
Iowa Daniel F. Steck Democratic 1926 (Challenge) Incumbent lost re-election.
New senator elected.
Republican gain.
Lester J. Dickinson (Republican) 56.3%
Daniel F. Steck (Democratic) 43.0%
Kansas Arthur Capper Republican 1918
1924
Incumbent re-elected. Arthur Capper (Republican)61.1%
Jonathan M. Davis (Democratic) 38.9%
Kentucky John M. Robsion Republican 1930 (Appointed) Interim appointee lost election.
New senator elected.
Democratic gain.
M. M. Logan (Democratic) 52.1%
John M. Robsion (Republican) 47.9%[3]
Louisiana Joseph E. Ransdell Democratic 1912
1918
1924
Incumbent lost renomination.
New senator elected.
Democratic hold.
Huey Long (Democratic)
Unopposed
Maine Arthur J. Gould Republican 1926 (Appointed) Incumbent retired.
New senator elected.
Republican hold.
Wallace H. White, Jr. (Republican) 60.9%
Frank W. Haskell (Democratic) 39.1%
Massachusetts Frederick H. Gillett Republican 1924 Incumbent retired.
New senator elected.
Democratic gain.
Marcus A. Coolidge (Democratic) 54.0%
William M. Butler (Republican) 44.7%
Michigan James Couzens Republican 1922 (Appointed)
1924 (Special)
1924
Incumbent re-elected. James Couzens (Republican) 78.2%
Thomas A. E. Weadock (Democratic) 20.9%
Minnesota Thomas D. Schall Republican 1924 Incumbent re-elected. Thomas D. Schall (Republican) 37.6%
Einar Hoidale (Democratic) 36.1%
Ernest Lundeen (Farmer–Labor) 22.9%
Mississippi Pat Harrison Democratic 1918
1924
Incumbent re-elected. Pat Harrison (Democratic)
Unopposed
Montana Thomas J. Walsh Democratic 1913
1918
1924
Incumbent re-elected. Thomas J. Walsh (Democratic) 60.3%
Albert J. Galen (Republican) 37.9%
Nebraska George W. Norris Republican 1913
1918
1924
Incumbent re-elected. George W. Norris (Republican) 56.8%
Gilbert M. Hitchcock (Democratic) 39.7%
New Hampshire Henry W. Keyes Republican 1918
1924
Incumbent re-elected. Henry W. Keyes (Republican) 57.9%
Albert W. Noone (Democratic) 41.9%
New Jersey David Baird Jr. Republican 1929 (Appointed) Interim appointee retired.
New senator elected.
Republican hold.
Winner also elected to finish the term, see above.
Dwight W. Morrow (Republican) 58.5%
Alexander Simpson (Democratic) 39.0%[4]
New Mexico Sam G. Bratton Democratic 1924 Incumbent re-elected. Sam G. Bratton (Democratic) 58.6%
Herbert B. Holt (Republican) 41.2%
North Carolina Furnifold McLendel Simmons Democratic 1901
1907
1913
1918
1924
Incumbent lost renomination.
New senator elected.
Democratic hold.
Josiah W. Bailey (Democratic) 60.6%
George M. Pritchard (Republican) 39.4%
Oklahoma William B. Pine Republican 1924 Incumbent lost re-election.
New senator elected.
Democratic gain.
Thomas P. Gore (Democratic) 52.3%
William B. Pine (Republican) 47.5%
Oregon Charles L. McNary Republican 1917 (Appointed)
1918 (Not elected)
1918 (Appointed)
1918
1924
Incumbent re-elected. Charles L. McNary (Republican) 58.1%
Elton Watkins (Democratic) 27.9%
L. A. Banks (Independent) 7.4%
Rhode Island Jesse H. Metcalf Republican 1924 (Special)
1924
Incumbent re-elected. Jesse H. Metcalf (Republican) 50.3%
Peter G. Gerry (Democratic) 49.2%
South Carolina Coleman L. Blease Democratic 1924 Incumbent lost renomination.
New senator elected.
Democratic hold.
James F. Byrnes (Democratic)
Unopposed
South Dakota William H. McMaster Republican 1924 Incumbent lost re-election.
New senator elected.
Democratic gain.
William J. Bulow (Democratic) 51.6%
William H. McMaster (Republican) 48.4%
Tennessee William E. Brock Democratic 1929 (Appointed) Incumbent retired.
New senator elected.
Democratic hold.
Cordell Hull (Democratic) 71.3%
Paul E. Divine (Republican) 27.1%
Texas Morris Sheppard Democratic 1913 (Special)
1913
1918
1924
Incumbent re-elected. Morris Sheppard (Democratic) 86.9%
D. J. Haesly (Republican) 12.7%
Virginia Carter Glass Democratic 1920 (Appointed)
1920 (Special)
1924
Incumbent re-elected. Carter Glass (Democratic) 76.7%
J. Cloyd Byars (Independent) 17.9%
Joe C. Morgan (Socialist) 5.4%
West Virginia Guy D. Goff Republican 1924 Incumbent retired.
New senator elected.
Democratic gain.
Matthew M. Neely (Democratic) 61.9%
James E. Jones (Republican) 37.9%
Wyoming Patrick J. Sullivan Republican 1929 (Appointed) Interim appointee retired.
New senator elected.
Republican hold.
Winner was also elected to finish the tern, see above.
Robert D. Carey (Republican) 59.1%
Henry H. Schwartz (Democratic) 41.0%[6]

Elections during the 72nd Congress[edit]

In these special elections, the winners were seated after March 4, 1931.

State Incumbent Results Candidates
Senator Party Electoral history
Vermont
(Class 1)
Frank C. Partridge Republican 1930 (Appointed) Frank L. Greene (R) had died December 17, 1930, and Partrdige was appointed December 23, 1930 to continue the term.
Interim appointee lost nomination.
New senator elected March 31, 1931.
Republican hold.
Warren Austin (Republican) 64.0%
Stephen M. Driscoll (Democratic) 35.6%[8]

Massachusetts[edit]

General election [9]
Party Candidate Votes % ±
Democratic Marcus A. Coolidge 651,939 54.01%
Republican William M. Butler 539,226 44.67%
Socialist Sylvester J. McBride 7,244 0.60%
Socialist Labor Oscar Kinsalas 4,640 0.38%
Communist Max Lerner 3,962 0.34%

Montana[edit]

United States Senate election in Montana, 1930[10]
Party Candidate Votes % ±
Democratic Thomas J. Walsh (inc.) 106,274 60.33% +7.52%
Republican Albert J. Galen 66,724 37.88% -4.52%
Farmer–Labor Charles E. Taylor 1,789 1.02% -3.32%
Socialist John F. McKay 1,006 0.57% +0.26%
Communist Willis L. Wright 368 0.21%
Majority 39,550 22.45% +12.04%
Turnout 176,161
Democratic hold Swing

Pennsylvania (Special)[edit]

United States Senate election in Montana, 1930[10]
Party Candidate Votes % ±
Democratic Thomas J. Walsh (inc.) 106,274 60.33% +7.52%
Republican Albert J. Galen 66,724 37.88% -4.52%
Farmer–Labor Charles E. Taylor 1,789 1.02% -3.32%
Socialist John F. McKay 1,006 0.57% +0.26%
Communist Willis L. Wright 368 0.21%
Majority 39,550 22.45% +12.04%
Turnout 176,161
Democratic hold Swing

South Carolina[edit]

South Carolina U.S. Senate Election, 1930
Party Candidate Votes % ±
Democratic James F. Byrnes 16,211 100.0 0.0
Majority 16,211 100.0 0.0
Turnout 16,211
Democratic hold

Virginia[edit]

United States Senate election in Virginia, 1930[10]
Party Candidate Votes % ±
Democratic Carter Glass (inc.) 112,002 76.67% +3.55%
Independent Democratic J. Cloyd Byars 26,091 17.86% +17.86%
Socialist Joe C. Morgan 7,944 5.44% +5.44%
Write-ins 49 0.03% +0.03%
Majority 85,911 58.81% +9.87%
Turnout 146,086
Democratic hold

See also[edit]

Notes[edit]

  1. ^ a b There was a general election September 8, 1930 in Maine, as well as special elections in November 1930 and March 1931.
  2. ^ "Republicans Lay Defeat to Slump". New York Times. November 6, 1930. 
  3. ^ a b Kentucky Class II, via OurCampaigns.com
  4. ^ a b New Jersey Class II, via OurCampaigns.com
  5. ^ Tennessee Class II, via OurCampaigns.com
  6. ^ a b Wyoming Class II, via OurCampaigns.com
  7. ^ James H. Lewis (D-Illinois) was appointed in February 1925, having already been elected in 1924 to begin the March term.
  8. ^ "General Election Results - U.S. Senator - 1914-2014" (PDF). Office of the Vermont Secretary of State. Retrieved 16 June 2015. 
  9. ^ Massachusetts Class II, via OurCampaigns.com
  10. ^ a b c "Statistics of the Congressional Election of November 4, 1930" (PDF). Clerk of the United States House of Representatives. Retrieved July 2, 2014.