United States Senate elections, 1892 and 1893

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United States Senate elections, 1892 and 1893
United States
← 1890 / 1891 Dates vary by state 1894 / 1895 →

29 of the 88 seats in the U.S. Senate
(as well as special elections)

45 seats needed for a majority
  Majority party Minority party
 
Party Democratic Republican
Seats before 39 47
Seats won 14 9
Seats after 42 38
Seat change Increase 3 Decrease 9
Seats up 11 18

  Third party Fourth party
 
Party Populist Silver Republican
Seats before 2 New Party
Seats won 1 1
Seats after 3 1
Seat change Increase 1 Increase 1
Seats up 0 Steady

Majority Party before election

Republican

Elected Majority Party

Democratic

The United States Senate elections of 1892 and 1893 were elections which, corresponding with former Democratic President Grover Cleveland's return to power, had the Republican Party lose nine seats in the United States Senate and lose its majority to the Democratic Party. The Democratic majority, however, was minimal and didn't last past the next Congress.

As these elections were prior to ratification of the Seventeenth Amendment, Senators were chosen by State legislatures.

Results summary[edit]

Senate Party Division, 53rd Congress (1893–1895)

  • Majority Party: Democratic (43)
  • Minority Party: Republican (38)
  • Other Parties: Populist (3); Silver (1)
  • Total Seats: 88
  • Vacant: 3

Change in Senate composition[edit]

Before the elections[edit]

D1 D2 D3 D4
D14 D13 D12 D11 D10 D9 D8 D7 D6 D5
D15 D16 D17 D18 D19 D20 D21 D22 D23 D24
D34
Ran
D33
Ran
D32
Ran
D31
Ran
D30
Ran
D29 D28 D27 D26 D25
D35
Ran
D36
Ran
D37
Ran
D38
Ran
D39
Unknown
D40
Retired
P1 P2 R46
Retired
R45
Retired
Majority → R44
Retired
R35
Ran
R36
Ran
R37
Ran
R38
Ran
R39
Ran
R40
Ran
R41
Unknown
R42
Unknown
R43
Retired
R34
Ran
R33
Ran
R32
Ran
R31
Ran
R30
Ran
R29
Ran
R28 R27 R26 R25
R15 R16 R17 R18 R19 R20 R21 R22 R23 R24
R14 R13 R12 R11 R10 R9 R8 R7 R6 R5
R1 R2 R3 R4

Result of the elections[edit]

D1 D2 D3 D4
D14 D13 D12 D11 D10 D9 D8 D7 D6 D5
D15 D16 D17 D18 D19 D20 D21 D22 D23 D24
D34
Re-elected
D33
Re-elected
D32
Re-elected
D31
Re-elected
D30
Re-elected
D29 D28 D27 D26 D25
D35
Re-elected
D36
Re-elected
D37
Re-elected
D38
Hold
D39
Hold
D30
Gain
D41
Gain
D42
Gain
V1
D loss
V2
R loss
Majority with vacancies → D43
Gain
V3
R loss
R35
Re-elected
R36
Re-elected
R37
Hold
SR1
Gain
P1 P2 P3
Gain
V4
R loss
R34
Re-elected
R33
Re-elected
R32
Re-elected
R31
Re-elected
R30
Re-elected
R29
Re-elected
R28 R27 R26 R25
R15 R16 R17 R18 R19 R20 R21 R22 R23 R24
R14 R13 R12 R11 R10 R9 R8 R7 R6 R5
R1 R2 R3 R4

Beginning of the next Congress[edit]

D1 D2 D3 D4
D14 D13 D12 D11 D10 D9 D8 D7 D6 D5
D15 D16 D17 D18 D19 D20 D21 D22 D23 D24
D34 D33 D32 D31 D30 D29 D28 D27 D26 D25
D35 D36 D37 D38 D39 D40 D41 D42 D43 V1
Majority with vacancies → V2
R35 R36 R37 SR1 P1 P2 P3 D44
Gain
V3
R34 R33 R32 R31 R30 R29 R28 R27 R26 R25
R15 R16 R17 R18 R19 R20 R21 R22 R23 R24
R14 R13 R12 R11 R10 R9 R8 R7 R6 R5
R1 R2 R3 R4
Key:
D# Democratic
P# Populist
R# Republican
SR# Silver Republican
V# Vacant

Race summaries[edit]

Elections during the 52nd Congress[edit]

In these elections the winners were seated during the 52nd Congress in 1892 or in 1893 before March 4; ordered by election date.

State Incumbent Results Candidates
Senator Party Electoral history
Maryland
(Class 3)
Charles Hopper Gibson Democratic 1891 (Appointed) Interim appointee elected January 21, 1892.[1] Charles Hopper Gibson (Democratic)
[Data unknown/missing. You can help!]
Texas
(Class 1)
Horace Chilton Democratic 1891 (Appointed) Interim appointee lost election to finish the term.
New senator elected March 22, 1892.
Democratic hold.
Roger Q. Mills (Democratic)
[Data unknown/missing. You can help!]
Vermont
(Class 1)
Redfield Proctor Republican 1891 (Appointed) Interim appointee elected October 19, 1892.[2] Redfield Proctor (Republican)
[Data unknown/missing. You can help!]
West Virginia
(Class 2)
John E. Kenna Democratic 1883
1889
Incumbent died January 11, 1893.
New senator elected January 25, 1893.
Democratic hold.
Johnson N. Camden (Democratic)
[Data unknown/missing. You can help!]
Kentucky
(Class 2)
John G. Carlisle Democratic 1890 (Special) Incumbent resigned February 4, 1893.
New senator elected February 15, 1893.[3][4]
Democratic hold.
William Lindsay (Democratic) 79 votes
Augustus E. Willson 17 votes[3]

In this election, the winner was seated in the 53rd Congress, starting March 4, 1893.

State Incumbent Results Candidates
Senator Party Electoral history
Kansas
(Class 2)
Bishop W. Perkins Republican 1892 (Appointed) Interim appointee retired.
New senator elected on January 25, 1893 but didn't qualify until the next Congress on March 4, 1893.
Democratic gain.
John Martin (Democratic)
[Data unknown/missing. You can help!]

In this election, the winner was seated in the 54th Congress, starting March 4, 1895.

State Incumbent Results Candidates
Senator Party Electoral history
Mississippi
(Class 2)
Edward C. Walthall Democratic 1885 (Appointed)
1886 (Special)
1889
Incumbent re-elected early on January 20, 1892 for the term beginning 1895.
Walthall, however, had already been re-elected to next term.[5]
Edward C. Walthall (Democratic)
[Data unknown/missing. You can help!]

Races leading to the 53rd Congress[edit]

In these general elections, the winners were elected for the term beginning March 4, 1893; ordered by state.

All of the elections involved the Class 1 seats.

State Incumbent Results Candidates
Senator Party Electoral history
California Charles N. Felton Republican 1891 (Special) Incumbent retired.
New senator elected in 1893.
Democratic gain.
Stephen M. White (Democratic)
[Data unknown/missing. You can help!]
Connecticut Joseph Roswell Hawley Republican 1881
1887
Incumbent re-elected in 1893. Joseph Roswell Hawley (Republican)
[Data unknown/missing. You can help!]
Delaware George Gray Democratic 1885 (Special)
1887
Incumbent re-elected in 1893. George Gray (Democratic)
[Data unknown/missing. You can help!]
Florida Samuel Pasco Democratic 1887 Unknown if incumbent retired or lost re-election.
Legislature failed to elect.
Democratic loss.
Incumbent was later appointed and then elected, see below.
[Data unknown/missing. You can help!]
Indiana David Turpie Democratic 1863 (Special)
1863 (Retired)
1887
Incumbent re-elected in 1893. David Turpie (Democratic)
[Data unknown/missing. You can help!]
Maine Eugene Hale Republican 1881
1887
Incumbent re-elected in 1893. Eugene Hale (Republican)
[Data unknown/missing. You can help!]
Maryland Arthur P. Gorman Democratic 1880
1886
Incumbent re-elected in 1892. Arthur P. Gorman (Democratic)
[Data unknown/missing. You can help!]
Massachusetts Henry L. Dawes Republican 1863
1887
Incumbent retired.
New senator elected in 1893.
Republican hold.
Henry Cabot Lodge (Republican)
[Data unknown/missing. You can help!]
Michigan Francis B. Stockbridge Republican 1887 Incumbent re-elected in 1893. Francis B. Stockbridge (Republican)
[Data unknown/missing. You can help!]
Minnesota Cushman Davis Republican 1886 Incumbent re-elected in 1892. Cushman Davis (Republican)
[Data unknown/missing. You can help!]
Mississippi James Z. George Democratic 1880
1886
Incumbent re-elected January 20, 1892.[5] James Z. George (Democratic)
[Data unknown/missing. You can help!]
Missouri Francis Cockrell Democratic 1874
1881
1887
Incumbent re-elected January 18, 1893.[6] Francis Cockrell (Democratic)
Chauncey I. Filley (Republican)[7]
Montana Wilbur F. Sanders Republican 1890 Incumbent lost re-election.
Legislature failed to elect.
Republican loss.
Wilbur F. Sanders (Republican)
[Data unknown/missing. You can help!]
Nebraska Algernon S. Paddock Republican 1875
1880 (Lost re-election)
1886
Incumbent retired.
New senator elected in 1893.
Populist gain.
William V. Allen (Populist)
[Data unknown/missing. You can help!]
Nevada William Stewart Republican 1887 Incumbent re-elected as a Silver Republican in 1893.
Silver Republican gain.
William Morris Stewart (Silver Republican)
[Data unknown/missing. You can help!]
New Jersey Rufus Blodgett Democratic 1886 Incumbent retired.
New senator elected January 24, 1893.[8]
Democratic hold.
James Smith Jr. (Democratic)
[Data unknown/missing. You can help!]
New York Frank Hiscock Republican 1887 Incumbent lost re-election.
New senator elected January 18, 1893.
Democratic gain.
Edward Murphy, Jr. (Democratic)
Frank Hiscock (Republican)
Whitelaw Reid (Republican)
North Dakota Lyman R. Casey Republican 1889 Incumbent lost re-election.
New senator elected in February 1893.[9]
Democratic gain.
William N. Roach (Democratic)
Lyman R. Casey (Republican)
John D. Benton (Democratic)
Walter Muir (Independent)
Ohio John Sherman Republican 1861 (Special)
1866
1872
1877 (Resigned)
1881
1886
Incumbent re-elected in 1892. John Sherman (Republican)
[Data unknown/missing. You can help!]
Pennsylvania Matthew Quay Republican 1887 Incumbent re-elected January 17, 1893. Matthew Quay (Republican) 64.96%
George Ross (Democratic) 31.50%
Others, see below
Rhode Island Nelson W. Aldrich Republican 1881 (Special)
1886
Incumbent re-elected in 1892. Nelson W. Aldrich (Republican)
[Data unknown/missing. You can help!]
Tennessee Washington C. Whitthorne Democratic 1887 Unknown if incumbent retired or lost renomination.
New senator elected in 1893.
Democratic hold.
William B. Bate (Democratic)
[Data unknown/missing. You can help!]
Texas Roger Q. Mills Democratic 1892 (Special) Incumbent re-elected in 1893. Roger Q. Mills (Democratic)
[Data unknown/missing. You can help!]
Vermont Redfield Proctor Republican 1891 (Appointed)
1892 (Special)
Incumbent re-elected in 1892. Redfield Proctor (Republican)
[Data unknown/missing. You can help!]
Virginia John W. Daniel Democratic 1887 Incumbent re-elected in 1893. John W. Daniel (Democratic)
[Data unknown/missing. You can help!]
Washington John B. Allen Republican 1889 Unknown if incumbent retired or lost re-election.
Legislature failed to elect.
Republican loss.
[Data unknown/missing. You can help!]
West Virginia Charles J. Faulkner Democratic 1887 Incumbent re-elected in 1893. Charles J. Faulkner (Democratic)
[Data unknown/missing. You can help!]
Wisconsin Philetus Sawyer Republican 1887 Incumbent retired.
New senator elected in 1893.
Democratic gain.
John L. Mitchell (Democratic)
[Data unknown/missing. You can help!]
Wyoming Francis E. Warren Republican 1890 Incumbent lost re-election.
Legislature failed to elect.
Republican loss.
[Data unknown/missing. You can help!]

Elections during the 53rd Congress[edit]

In these elections, the winners were elected in 1893 after March 4, and seated in the 53rd Congress.

State Incumbent Results Candidates
Senator Party Electoral history
Florida
(Class 1)
Samuel Pasco Democratic 1887
1893 (Legislature failed to elect)
1893 (Appointed)
Interim appointee elected April 20, 1893. Samuel Pasco (Democratic)
[Data unknown/missing. You can help!]
Virginia
(Class 2)
Eppa Hunton Democratic 1892 (Appointed) Interim appointee elected December 19, 1893.[10][11] Eppa Hunton (Democratic)
[Data unknown/missing. You can help!]

In this election, the winner was seated in the 54th Congress, starting March 4, 1895.

State Incumbent Results Candidates
Senator Party Electoral history
Virginia
(Class 2)
Eppa Hunton Democratic 1892 (Appointed) Incumbent retired.
New senator elected early on December 19, 1893 for the term beginning 1895.[11]
Democratic hold.
Thomas S. Martin (Democratic)
[Data unknown/missing. You can help!]

Complete list of races[edit]

New York[edit]

The New York election was held on January 18, 1893, by the New York State Legislature.

Republican Frank Hiscock had been elected to this seat in 1887, and his term would expire on March 3, 1893.

At the controversial State election in November 1891, 17 Democrats, 14 Republicans and 1 Independent were elected for a two-year term (1892-1893) in the State Senate. This was the only time a Democratic majority was seated in the State Senate between 1874 and 1910. At the State election in November 1892, 74 Democrats and 54 Republicans were elected for the session of 1893 to the Assembly. The 116th New York State Legislature met from January 3 to April 20, 1893, at Albany, New York.

The Democratic caucus met on January 10. 90 State legislators attended, only Assemblyman John Cooney, of Brooklyn, was absent due to illness. State Senator Amasa J. Parker, Jr. presided. Edward Murphy, Jr., a wealthy brewer of Troy, and Chairman of the Democratic State Committee, was nominated by a large majority. The New York Times had suggested earlier to nominate Carl Schurz, a former Republican U.S. Senator from Missouri and U.S. Secretary of the Interior, who lived now in New York City,[12] but the political machines of upstate boss David B. Hill and Tammany Hall chose a loyal party machine man rather than an Ex-Republican advocate of civil service reform. Even President-elect Grover Cleveland had voiced his disapproval of Murphy, to no avail.[13]

1893 Democratic caucus
Candidate First ballot
Edward Murphy, Jr. 85
W. Bourke Cockran 5

The Republican caucus met on January 11. State Senator Thomas Hunter presided. They re-nominated the incumbent U.S. Senator Frank Hiscock by acclamation.

Edward Murphy, Jr., was the choice of both the Assembly and the State Senate, and was declared elected. State Senator James T. Edwards (32nd D.), of Randolph, voted for the defeated Republican vice presidential candidate of 1892, Whitelaw Reid.

1893 United States Senator election
House Democratic Republican Republican
State Senate
(32 members)
Edward Murphy, Jr. 17 Frank Hiscock 12 Whitelaw Reid 1
State Assembly
(128 members)
Edward Murphy, Jr. 73 Frank Hiscock 52

Note: The votes were cast on January 17, but both Houses met in a joint session on January 18 to compare nominations, and declare the result.

When Murphy took his seat, for the first time since 1849 New York was represented by two Democrats in the U.S. Senate. Murphy served a single term, remaining in the U.S. Senate until March 3, 1899. In January 1899, Murphy was defeated for re-election by Republican Chauncey M. Depew.

Pennsylvania[edit]

The election in Pennsylvania was held January 17, 1893. Incumbent Matthew Quay was re-elected by the Pennsylvania General Assembly.[14]

State Legislature Results[14][15]
Party Candidate Votes %
Republican Matthew Quay (Inc.) 165 64.96
Democratic George Ross 80 31.50
Republican John Dalzell 1 0.39
Democratic William F. Harrity 1 0.39
Democratic William Mutchler 1 0.39
N/A Not voting 6 2.36
Totals 254 100.00%

See also[edit]

Notes[edit]

References[edit]