Valéry Giscard d'Estaing
Valéry Giscard d'Estaing
Giscard d'Estaing in 1975
|President of France|
27 May 1974 – 21 May 1981
|Preceded by||Georges Pompidou|
|Succeeded by||François Mitterrand|
|President of the Regional Council of Auvergne|
21 March 1986 – 2 April 2004
|Preceded by||Maurice Pourchon|
|Succeeded by||Pierre-Joël Bonté|
|Minister of the Economy and Finance|
20 June 1969 – 27 May 1974
|Preceded by||François-Xavier Ortoli|
|Succeeded by||Jean-Pierre Fourcade|
18 January 1962 – 8 January 1966
|Preceded by||Wilfrid Baumgartner|
|Succeeded by||Michel Debré|
|Mayor of Chamalières|
15 September 1967 – 19 May 1974
|Preceded by||Pierre Chatrousse|
|Succeeded by||Claude Wolff|
Valéry Marie René Georges Giscard d'Estaing
2 February 1926
Koblenz, French-occupied Germany
|Died||2 December 2020 (aged 94)|
|Cause of death||Complications associated to COVID-19|
|Children||4, including Henri and Louis|
|Years of service||1944–1945|
|Awards||Croix de Guerre|
Valéry Marie René Georges Giscard d'Estaing (UK: / /, US: / -/, French: [valeʁi ʒiskaʁ dɛstɛ̃] (listen); 2 February 1926 – 2 December 2020), also known as Giscard or VGE, was a French politician who served as President of France from 1974 to 1981.
After serving as Minister of Finance under prime ministers Jacques Chaban-Delmas and Pierre Messmer, he won the presidential election of 1974 with 50.8% of the vote against François Mitterrand of the Socialist Party. His tenure was marked by a more liberal attitude on social issues—such as divorce, contraception, and abortion—and attempts to modernise the country and the office of the presidency, notably launching such far-reaching infrastructure projects as the TGV and the turn towards reliance on nuclear power as France's main energy source. He promoted liberalization of trade. However, his popularity suffered from the economic downturn that followed the 1973 energy crisis, marking the end of the "Trente Glorieuses" (thirty glorious years of prosperity after 1945). He was forced to impose austerity budgets and allow unemployment to rise in order to avoid deficits. Giscard d'Estaing in the centre faced political opposition from both sides of the spectrum: from the newly unified left of François Mitterrand and a rising Jacques Chirac, who resurrected Gaullism on a right-wing opposition line. In 1981, despite a high approval rating, he was defeated in a runoff against Mitterrand, with 48.2% of the vote.
As president Giscard d'Estaing promoted cooperation among the European nations, especially in tandem with West Germany. As former president, he was a member of the Constitutional Council. He also served as President of the Regional Council of Auvergne from 1986 to 2004. Involved with the European Union, he notably presided over the Convention on the Future of Europe that drafted the ill-fated Treaty establishing a Constitution for Europe. In 2003, he was elected to the Académie française, taking the seat that his friend and former President of Senegal Léopold Sédar Senghor had held. Until his death at age 94 years and 304 days, from COVID-19, Giscard was the longest-lived French president in history.
Valéry Marie René Giscard d'Estaing was born on 2 February 1926 in Koblenz, Germany, during the French occupation of the Rhineland. He was the elder son of Jean Edmond Lucien Giscard d'Estaing, a high-ranking civil servant, and his wife, Marthe Clémence Jacqueline Marie (May) Bardoux. His mother was a daughter of senator and academic Achille Octave Marie Jacques Bardoux, making her a great-granddaughter of minister of state education Agénor Bardoux.
Giscard had an older sister, Sylvie and younger siblings Olivier, Isabelle and Marie-Laure. Despite the addition of "d'Estaing" to the family name by his grandfather, Giscard was not male line descendant from the extinct noble family of Vice-Admiral d'Estaing. His connection to D'Estaing family was very remote. His ancestress was Lucie Madeleine d'Estaing, Dame de Réquistat (1769-1844), who in turn was descendant of Joachim I d'Estaing, sieur de Réquistat (1610-1685), illegitimate son of Charles d'Estaing (1585-1661), sieur de Cheylade, Knight of Saint John of Jerusalem, son of Jean III d'Estaing, seigneur de Val (1540-1621) and his wife, Gilberte de La Rochefoucauld (1560-1623).
He joined the French Resistance and participated in the Liberation of Paris; during the liberation he was tasked with protecting Alexandre Parodi. He then joined the French First Army and served until the end of the war. He was later awarded the Croix de guerre for his military service.
He studied at Lycée Blaise-Pascal in Clermont-Ferrand, École Gerson and Lycées Janson-de-Sailly and Louis-le-Grand in Paris. He graduated from the École polytechnique and the École nationale d'administration (1949–1951) and chose to enter the prestigious Inspection des finances. He acceded to the Tax and Revenue Service, then joined the staff of Prime Minister Edgar Faure (1955–1956). He was fluent in German.
Early political career
First offices: 1956–1962
In 1956, he was elected to the National Assembly as a deputy for the Puy-de-Dôme département, in the domain of his maternal family. He joined the National Centre of Independents and Peasants (CNIP), a conservative grouping. After the proclamation of the Fifth Republic, the CNIP leader Antoine Pinay became Minister of Economy and Finance and chose him as Secretary of State for Finances from 1959 to 1962.
Member of the Gaullist majority: 1962–1974
In 1962, while Giscard had been nominated Minister of Economy and Finance, his party broke with the Gaullists and left the majority coalition. Giscard refused to resign and founded the Independent Republicans (RI), which became the junior partner of the Gaullists in the "presidential majority". It was during his time at the Ministry of the Economy that he coined the phrase "exorbitant privilege" to characterise the hegemony of the U.S. dollar in international payments under the Bretton Woods system.
However, in 1966, he was dismissed from the cabinet. He transformed the RI into a political party, the National Federation of the Independent Republicans (FNRI), and founded the Perspectives and Realities Clubs. In this, he criticised the "solitary practice of the power" and summarised his position towards De Gaulle's policy by a "yes, but ...". As chairman of the National Assembly Committee on Finances, he criticised his successor in the cabinet.
For that reason the Gaullists refused to re-elect him to that position after the 1968 legislative election. In 1969, unlike most of FNRI's elected officials, Giscard advocated a "no" vote in the constitutional referendum concerning the regions and the Senate, while De Gaulle had announced his intention to resign if the "no" won. The Gaullists accused him of being largely responsible for De Gaulle's departure.
During the 1969 presidential campaign he supported the winning candidate Georges Pompidou, after which he returned to the Ministry of Economy and Finance. He was representative of a new generation of politicians emerging from the senior civil service, seen as "technocrats".
Presidential election victory
In 1974, after the sudden death of President Georges Pompidou, Giscard announced his candidacy for the presidency. His two main challengers were François Mitterrand for the left and Jacques Chaban-Delmas, a former Gaullist Prime Minister. Jacques Chirac and other Gaullist personalities published the Call of the 43 where they explained that Giscard was the best candidate to prevent the election of Mitterrand. In the election, Giscard finished well ahead of Chaban-Delmas in the first round, though coming second to Mitterrand. In the run-off on 20 May, however, Giscard narrowly defeated Mitterrand, receiving 50.7% of the vote.
President of France
In 1974, Giscard was elected President of France, defeating Socialist candidate François Mitterrand by 425,000 votes. At 48, he was the third youngest president in French history at the time, after Louis-Napoléon Bonaparte and Jean Casimir-Perier.
In his appointments he was innovative regarding women. He gave major cabinet positions to Simone Veil as Minister of Health and Françoise Giroud as secretary for women's affairs. Giroud worked to improve access to meaningful employment and to reconcile careers with childbearing. Weil has confronted the abortion issue.
On taking office the new president was quick to initiate reforms. They included increasing the minimum wage as well as family allowances and old-age pensions. He extended the right to political asylum; expanded health insurance to cover all Frenchmen; lowered the voting age to 18; and modernized the divorce law. On September 25, 1974, Giscard summed up his goals:
- To reform the judicial system, modernize social institutions, reduce excessive inequalities of income, develop education, liberalize repressive legislation, develop culture.
He pushed for the development of the TGV high speed train network and the Minitel telephone upgrade, a precursor of the Internet. He promoted nuclear power, as a way to assert French independence.
Economically, Giscard's presidency saw a steady rise in personal incomes, with the buying power of workers going up by 29% and old age pensioners by 65%.
The great crisis that overwhelmed his term was a worldwide economic crisis based on rapidly rising oil prices. He turned to Prime Minister Raymond Barre in 1976, who advocated numerous complex, strict policies ("Barre Plans"). The first Barre plan emerged on 22 September 1976, with a priority to stop inflation. It included a 3-month price freeze; a reduction in the value added tax; wage controls; salary controls; a reduction of the growth in the money supply; and increases in the income tax, automobile taxes, luxury taxes and bank rates. There were measures to restore the trade balance, and support the growth of the economy and employment. Oil imports, whose price had shot up, were limited. There was special aid to exports, and an action fund was set up to aid industries. There was increased financial aid to farmers, who were suffering from a drought, and for social security. The package was not very popular, but was pursued with vigor.
Giscard initially tried to project a less monarchical image than had been the case for past French presidents. He took a ride on the Métro, ate monthly dinners with ordinary Frenchmen, and even invited garbage men from Paris to have breakfast with him in the Élysée Palace. However, when he learned that most Frenchmen were somewhat cool to this display of informality, Giscard became so aloof and distant that his opponents frequently attacked him as being too far removed from ordinary citizens.
In domestic policy, the president's reforms worried the conservative electorate and the Gaullist party, especially the law by Simone Veil legalising abortion. Although he said he had "deep aversion against capital punishment", Giscard claimed in his 1974 campaign that he would apply the death penalty to people committing the most heinous crimes. He did not commute three of the death sentences that he had to decide upon during his presidency, keeping France as the last country in the European Community to apply the death penalty.
Unexpectedly, the right-wing coalition won the 1978 legislative election. Nevertheless, relations with Chirac, who had founded the Rally for the Republic (RPR), became more tense. Giscard reacted by founding a centre-right confederation, the Union for French Democracy (UDF).
Valéry Giscard d'Estaing was a close friend of German Chancellor Helmut Schmidt. Together they persuaded Europe's lesser powers to hold regular summit meetings, and set up the European Monetary System. They induced the Soviet Union to establish a degree of liberalization through the Helsinki Accords.
In 1975 he invited the heads of government from West Germany, Italy, Japan, the United Kingdom and the United States to a summit in Rambouillet, to form the Group of Six major economic powers (now the G7, including Canada).
In 1975 Giscard pressured the future King of Spain Juan Carlos I to leave Chilean dictator Augusto Pinochet out of his coronation by stating that if Pinochet attended he would not. Although France received many Chilean political refugees, Giscard d'Estaing's government secretly collaborated with Pinochet's and Videla's junta as shown by journalist Marie-Monique Robin.
Giscard continued de Gaulle's African policy and he supported delivering oil supplies to and from Africa. Senegal, Ivory Coast, Gabon, and Cameroon were the largest and most reliable African allies, and received most of the investments. In 1977, in the Opération Lamantin, he ordered fighter jets to deploy in Mauritania and suppress the Polisario guerrillas fighting against Mauritania.
Most controversial was his involvement with the regime of Jean-Bédel Bokassa in the Central African Republic. Giscard was initially a friend of Bokassa, and supplied the regime. However, the growing unpopularity of that government led Giscard to begin distancing himself from Bokassa. In 1979's Operation Caban, French troops helped drive Bokassa out of power and restore former president David Dacko. This action was also controversial, particularly since Dacko was Bokassa's cousin and had appointed Bokassa as head of the military, and unrest continued in the Central African Republic leading to Dacko being overthrown in another coup in 1981.
1981 presidential election
In the 1981 presidential election, Giscard took a severe blow to his support when Chirac ran against him in the first round. Chirac finished third and refused to recommend that his supporters back Giscard in the runoff, though he declared that he himself would vote for Giscard. Giscard lost to Mitterrand by 3 points in the runoff, and ever since blamed Chirac for his defeat. In later years, it was widely said that Giscard loathed Chirac; certainly on many occasions Giscard criticised Chirac's policies despite supporting Chirac's governing coalition.
Return to politics: 1984–2004
After his defeat, Giscard retired temporarily from politics. In 1984, he was re-elected to his seat in the National Assembly and won the presidency of the regional council of Auvergne. He was President of the Council of European Municipalities and Regions from 1997 to 2004.
In 1982, along with his friend Gerald Ford, he co-founded the annual AEI World Forum. He has also served on the Trilateral Commission after being president, writing papers with Henry Kissinger.
He hoped to become prime minister during the first "cohabitation" (1986–88) or after the re-election of Mitterrand with the theme of "France united", but he was not chosen for this position. During the 1988 presidential campaign, he refused to choose publicly between the two right-wing candidates, his two former Prime Ministers Jacques Chirac and Raymond Barre.
He served as President of the UDF from 1988 to 1996, but he was faced with the rise of a new generation of politicians called the rénovateurs ("renovationmen"). Most of the UDF politicians supported the candidacy of the RPR Prime Minister Édouard Balladur at the 1995 presidential election, but Giscard supported his old rival Jacques Chirac, who won the election. That same year Giscard suffered a setback when he lost a close election for the mayoralty of Clermont-Ferrand.
In 2000, he made a parliamentary proposal to reduce the length of a presidential term from seven to five years, a proposal that eventually won its referendum proposal by President Chirac. His son Louis Giscard d'Estaing was elected in his constituency.
Retired from politics: 2004–2020
Following his narrow defeat in the regional elections of March 2004, marked by the victory of the left wing in 21 of 22 regions, he decided to leave partisan politics and to take his seat on the Constitutional Council as a former president of the Republic. Some of his actions there, such as his campaign in favour of the Treaty establishing the European Constitution, were criticised as unbecoming to a member of this council, which should embody nonpartisanship and should not appear to favour one political option over the other. Indeed, the question of the membership of former presidents in the Council was raised at this point, with some suggesting that it should be replaced by a life membership in the Senate.
On 19 April 2007, he endorsed Nicolas Sarkozy for the presidential election. He supported the creation of the centrist Union of Democrats and Independents in 2012 and the introduction of same-sex marriage in France in 2013. In 2016, he supported former Prime minister François Fillon in The Republicans presidential primaries.
Giscard was, throughout his political career, a proponent of a greater European Union. In 1978, he was for this reason the obvious target of Jacques Chirac's Call of Cochin, denouncing the "party of the foreigners".
From 2001 to 2004 he served as President of the Convention on the Future of Europe. On 29 October 2004, the European heads of state, gathered in Rome, approved and signed the European Constitution based on a draft strongly influenced by Giscard's work at the Convention. Although the Constitution was rejected by French voters in May 2005, Giscard continued to actively lobby for its passage in other European Union states.
Giscard d'Estaing attracted international attention at the time of the June 2008 Irish vote on the Lisbon Treaty. In an article for Le Monde in June 2007, published in English translation by The Irish Times, he had said that a "divide and ratify" approach, whereby "public opinion would be led to adopt, without knowing it, the proposals we dare not present to them directly", would be unworthy and would reinforce the idea that the construction of Europe was being organised behind the public's backs by lawyers and diplomats; the quotation was taken out of context by prominent supporters of a "no" vote and distorted to give the impression that Giscard was advocating such a deception, instead of rejecting it.
In 2008 he became the Honorary President of the Permanent Platform of Atomium Culture. On 27 November 2009, Giscard publicly launched the Permanent Platform of Atomium Culture during its first conference, held at the European Parliament, declaring: "European intelligence could be at the very root of the identity of the European people." A few days before he had signed, together with the President of Atomium Culture Michelangelo Baracchi Bonvicini, the European Manifesto of Atomium Culture.
Giscard's private life was the source of many rumours at both national and international level. His family did not live in the presidential Élysée Palace, and The Independent reported on his affairs with women. In 1974, Le Monde reported that he used to leave a sealed letter stating his whereabouts in case of emergency.
Possession of the Estaing castle
In 2005 he and his brother bought the castle of Estaing, formerly a possession of the above-mentioned admiral d'Estaing who was beheaded in 1794. The castle was not used as a residence but it had symbolic value and explained that the purchase, supported by the local municipality, was an act of patronage. However, a number of major newspapers in several countries questioned their motives and some hinted at self-appointed nobility and a usurped historical identity. It was placed for sale in 2008 for €3 million, and is now the property of the Foundation Valéry Giscard d'Estaing.
Giscard wrote his second romantic novel, published on 1 October 2009 in France, entitled The Princess and the President. It tells the story of a French head of state having a romantic liaison with a character called Patricia, Princess of Cardiff. This fuelled rumours that the piece of fiction was based on a real-life liaison between Giscard and Diana, Princess of Wales. He later stressed that the story was entirely made up and no such affair had happened.
Illness and death
On 14 September 2020, Giscard was hospitalised for care for breathing complications at the Hôpital Européen Georges-Pompidou in Paris. He was later diagnosed with a lung infection. He was hospitalised again on 15 November, but was discharged on 20 November.
President Emmanuel Macron released a statement regarding Giscard as a "servant of the state, a politician of progress and freedom". Former presidents Nicolas Sarkozy and François Hollande, 2017 presidential candidate Marine Le Pen, German Chancellor Angela Merkel, and European Union leaders Charles Michel, David Sassoli and Ursula von der Leyen all issued statements praising Giscard's efforts in modernising France and strengthening relations with the European Union.
Valéry Giscard d’Estaing represented a fresher, more liberal, modernizing image after the stuffy authoritarianism of De Gaulle and Pompidou. He was the pioneer in France in using television to boost his popularity; he loosened government control over radio and television. He introduced numerous small social reforms, such as reducing the voting age by three years, allowing divorce by common consent, and legalizing abortion. He was committed to supporting innovative technology, and focused on creating a high-speed TGV rail network, promoting nuclear power, and developing the telephone system. Despite his ambitions, he was unable to resolve the great economic crisis of his term, a worldwide economic recession caused primarily by a very rapid increase in oil prices. He responded with austerity measures, cutting the budget, raising taxes, and trying, with mixed success, to hold down soaring inflation. In terms of foreign policy, he was a close friend of German Chancellor Schmidt, and together they persuaded Europe's lesser economic powers to collaborate and form new permanent organisations, especially the European Monetary System and the G-7 system.
Honours and awards
- Grand-croix (and former Grand Master) of the Legion of Honour
- Grand-croix (and former Grand Master) of the Ordre National du Mérite
- Croix de guerre 1939–1945
As Minister of Finance
As President of France
- Brazil: Grand Collar of the Order of the Southern Cross (26 April 1976)
- Denmark: Knight of the Order of the Elephant (12 October 1978)
- Portugal: Grand Collar of the Order of Saint James of the Sword (14 October 1975)
- Portugal: Grand Collar of the Order of Prince Henry (21 October 1978)
- Spain: Knight Grand Cross of the Order of Isabella the Catholic (1963)
- Spain: Knight with Collar of the Order of Isabella the Catholic (1976)
- Spain: Knight with Collar of the Order of Charles III (1978)
- Sweden: Knight of the Order of the Seraphim (6 June 1980)
- United Kingdom: Honorary Knight Grand Cross of the Order of the Bath (22 June 1976)
- Sovereign Order of Malta: Bailiff Grand Cross of Honour and Devotion of the Sovereign Military Order of Malta
- Sovereign Order of Malta: Grand Cross pro Merito Melitensi
Giscard d'Estaing was granted a coat of arms by Queen Margrethe II of Denmark upon his appointment to the Order of the Elephant. He was also granted a coat of arms by King Carl XVI Gustav of Sweden, for his induction as a Knight of the Seraphim.
- "Giscard d'Estaing, Valéry". Lexico UK Dictionary. Oxford University Press. Retrieved 30 June 2019.
- "Giscard d'Estaing". The American Heritage Dictionary of the English Language (5th ed.). Boston: Houghton Mifflin Harcourt. Retrieved 30 June 2019.
- "Giscard d'Estaing". Merriam-Webster Dictionary. Retrieved 30 June 2019.
- He was also ex officio co-prince of Andorra.
- Profile of Valéry Giscard d'Estaing
- "Morto Valéry Giscard d'Estaing" (in Italian). Il Post. 2 December 2020.
- "Profile: Bardoux, Jacques". French Senate. Retrieved 2 December 2020.
- "Giscard d'Estaing, ses mille vies en images". Yahoo. 2 December 2020.
- "Valéry Giscard d'Estaing, former French president, dies at 94". The Washington Post. 2 December 2020.
- "Giscard d'Estaing: France mourns ex-president, dead at 94". BBC. 2 December 2020.
- "Valéry Giscard d'Estaing, 94, Is Dead; Struggled to Transform France". The New York Times. 2 December 2020.
- Mon tour de jardin, Robert Prévost, p. 96, Septentrion 2002
- "Valéry Giscard d'Estaing, a president of Auvergne" (in French). Francebleu. 2 December 2020.
- "Valéry Giscard d'Estaing: "In Wahrheit ist die Bedrohung heute nicht so groß wie damals"". Frankfurter Allgemeine Zeitung. 15 November 2016. Retrieved 20 November 2016.
- Thody 2002, p. 68.
- "Pays Emergents" (PDF). ECPR.edu. Retrieved 2 December 2020.
- Eichengreen, Barry. "Exorbitant privilege: the rise and fall of the dollar," (PDF).
- "The Little Phrases Of Valéry Giscard D'Estaing". Good Word News. 3 December 2020. Retrieved 3 December 2020.
- "Commanding Heights". PBS. Retrieved 3 December 2020.
- "Valéry Giscard d'Estaing, centre-Right French President who supported a united Europe – obituary". The Telegraph. 2 December 2020. Retrieved 3 December 2020.
- "Key dates in the life of former French president Valéry Giscard d'Estaing". France24. Retrieved 3 December 2020.
- "The Appel des 43 and the Gaullist movement: political maneuver, generational change and the rebellion of the "godillots"". Cairn. Retrieved 3 December 2020.
- Lewis, Flora (20 May 1974). "France Elects Giscard President For 7 Years After A Close Contest; Left Turned Back". The New York Times. Archived from the original on 27 February 2014.
- Koven, Ronald (11 May 1981). "France Elects Mitterrand With 52 Percent of Vote". The Washington Post.
- Gordon Shenton, "The Advancement of Women in Giscard d'Estaing's 'Advanced Liberal Society'." Massachusetts Review 17.4 (1976): 743-762. online
- Frears, 1981, 150–153.
- Quoted in Shenton, "The Advancement of Women in Giscard d'Estaing's ‘Advanced Liberal Society’." p 749.
- "History of the Minitel". Whitepages.fr. Retrieved 20 November 2016.
- "From TGVs to nuclear power: What Valéry Giscard d'Estaing meant to France" (in French). The Local. 3 December 2020. Retrieved 3 December 2020.
- D. L. Hanley, Miss A P Kerr, N. H. Waites (2005). Contemporary France: Politics and Society Since 1945. ISBN 9781134974238. Retrieved 20 November 2016 – via Google Books.CS1 maint: uses authors parameter (link)
- J.R. Frears, France in the Giscard Presidency (1981) p. 135.
- "Late French ex-president Giscard helped reshape Europe". Associated Press. 3 December 2020.
- Thompson, Wayne C. (2013). The World Today 2013: Western Europe. Lanham, Maryland: Stryker-Post Publications. ISBN 978-1-4758-0505-5.
- "Simone Viel, Ex-Minister Who Wrote France's Abortion Laws, Dies at 89". The New York Times. 30 June 2017.
- "Ocala Star-Banner – Google News Archive Search".
- "Valéry Giscard d'Estaing dies after COVID-1 diagnosis". The Guardian. 2 December 2020. Retrieved 2 December 2020.
- "Until the end, a tenacious rivalry between Giscard d'Estaing and Chirac". The Canadian. Retrieved 3 December 2020.
- Jonathan Story, "The launching of the EMS: An analysis of change in foreign economic policy." Political Studies 36.3 (1988): 397-412.
- Kim Willsher, "Valéry Giscard d’Estaing obituary," The Guardian 3 Dec 2020 online
- "Rambouillet 1975: Giscard, maître de cérémonie d'une première à six" (in French). L'Opinion. 14 August 2019. Retrieved 3 December 2020.
- Conclusion of Marie-Monique Robin's Escadrons de la mort, l'école française (in French)/ Watch here film documentary (French, English, Spanish)
- "Giscard's pro-Arab tilt splits French Jewish community". The Christian Monotor. 3 April 1980.
- John R. Frears, France in the Giscard Presidency (1981) pp 109–127.
- "France Reinforces Garrison in Senegal". The New York Times. 3 November 1977.
- "Mixed memories of Valéry Giscard d'Estaing, France's 'Monsieur Afrique'". RFI. Retrieved 3 December 2020.
- Bradshaw, Richard; Fandos-Rius, Juan (27 May 2016). Historical Dictionary of the Central African Republic. Rowman & Littlefield. ISBN 9780810879928.
- "Valery Giscard d'Estaing | president of France". Encyclopædia Britannica. Retrieved 10 November 2017.
- Eder, Richard; Times, Special to the New York (11 May 1981). "MITTERRAND BEATS GISCARD; SOCIALIST VICTORY REVERSES TREND OF 23 YEARS IN FRANCE". The New York Times. ISSN 0362-4331. Retrieved 10 November 2017.
- Van Renterghem, Marion (1 October 2019). "Chirac delivered little and left office under a cloud. Why does France now love him?". The Guardian. Retrieved 3 December 2020.
- Prial, Frank J. (24 September 1984). "Giscard Regains Seat in Parliament". The New York Times. ISSN 0362-4331. Retrieved 3 December 2020.
- "Valéry Giscard d'Estaing". Library of Congress. Retrieved 3 December 2020.
- "Fromer President Gerald R. Ford stands with Vice President Dick Cheney". The Bush White House. Retrieved 3 December 2020.
- "VALÉRY GISCARD D'ESTAING". EISMD.eu. Retrieved 3 December 2020.
- "Vingt ans après, les rénovateurs". Le Figaro. Retrieved 3 December 2020.
- "Valéry Giscard d'Estaing and Edouard Balladur, Jacques Chirac's best enemies". France TV. 29 September 2019. Retrieved 3 December 2020.
- "L'UMP tente un nouvel assaut en Auvergne". Le Figaro. 7 February 2008. Retrieved 20 November 2016.
- "France's New Five-Year Presidential Term". Brooking Institute. 1 March 2001.
- "VGE devient Immortel". Le Nouvel Observateur. 17 December 2003. Retrieved 20 November 2016.
- VGE page on Oxford Reference.
- "Giscard: France's rejection of the Constitution was a 'mistake'". Euractiv. 6 March 2006.
- "La Chiraquie veut protéger son chef quand il quittera l'Elysée", Libération, 14 January 2005
- "So Chirac finally backed Sarkozy..." The Economist. 21 March 2007. Retrieved 3 December 2020.
- "Valéry Giscard d'Estaing soutient François Fillon" (in French). Le Figaro. 18 November 2016. Retrieved 3 December 2020.
- "Fichier BVA pour Le Parisien" (PDF). Retrieved 20 November 2016.
- "Le "parti de l'étranger" et "le bruit et l'odeur", les précédents dérapages de Jacques Chirac". 20 Minutes. 24 November 2009. Retrieved 20 November 2016.
- "List of all current and former Members". European Parliament. Retrieved 20 November 2016.
- "GISCARD D'ESTAING (Valéry)". CVCE.edu. Retrieved 3 December 2020.
- Sabine Verhest (17 June 2003). "Valéry Giscard d'Estaing l'Européen". La Libre.be. Retrieved 20 November 2016.
- "Lisbon Treaty made to avoid referendum, says Giscard". Euobserver. Retrieved 3 December 2020.
- ""Le Traité simplifié, oui, mutilé, non", par Valéry Giscard d'Estaing". Le Monde. Retrieved 20 November 2016.
- Giscard d'Estaing, Valéry (20 June 2007). "Yes to simplified treaty, No to a mutilated text". The Irish Times. Retrieved 3 December 2020.
- Brown, Tony. ""Saying No". An Analysis of the Irish Opposition to the Lisbon Treaty" (PDF). Institute of International and European Affairs. Retrieved 3 December 2020.
- "Roche regrets 'distortion' of Giscard quote on Lisbon". The irish Times. 13 February 2009. Retrieved 3 December 2020.
- "Lisbon No campaign was 'dishonest' in misusing his quote, says Giscard". The Irish Times. 26 June 2008. Retrieved 3 December 2020.
- "Valéry Giscard d'Estaing, Honorary President of Atomium-EISMD". EISMD.eu. Retrieved 3 December 2020.
- "The Honorary President of Atomium Culture Valéry Giscard d'Estaing speaks at the public launch and first conference, Atomium Culture". Atomiumculture.eu. Retrieved 3 June 2011.
- Von Joachim Müller-Jung (27 November 2009). "Atomium Culture: Bienenstock der Intelligenz – Atomium Culture – Wissen". Frankfurter Allgemeine Zeitung. Retrieved 3 June 2011.
- "Highlights of the Public Launch and First Conference of Atomium-EISMD". EISMD.eu. Retrieved 3 December 2020.
- Lichfield, John (3 February 1998). "French get peek at all the presidents' women". The Independent. Retrieved 17 January 2014.
- "Hemeroteca La Vanguardia, November 30th 1974 (Spanish)".
- Breeden, Aurelien; Schuetze, Christopher F. (8 May 2020). "Valéry Giscard d'Estaing, Ex-French President, Accused of Groping Journalist". The New York Times. Retrieved 3 October 2020.
- "Giscard d'Estaing a victim of chateau slump". The Independent.uk. 31 July 2008. Retrieved 3 December 2020.
- Le Monde 24 December 4, AFP Toulouse 23 December 4, Le Figaro 22 January 5, Neue Zürcher Zeitung 15 February 5, The Sunday Times 16 January 05
- "CHÂTEAU D'ESTAING". Agence de Développement Touristique de l'Aveyron. Retrieved 4 December 2020.
- "Giscard hints at affair with Diana". Connexion. 21 September 2009. Archived from the original on 5 October 2009. Retrieved 3 June 2011.
- "Giscard: I made up Diana love story". Connexion. 24 September 2009. Archived from the original on 5 October 2009. Retrieved 3 June 2011.
- "France's former president Giscard d'Estaing, 94, hospitalised". France24. 14 September 2020. Retrieved 3 October 2020.
- "El expresidente francés Giscard d'Estaing, de 94 años, hospitalizado por una infección pulmonar". ABC.es (in Spanish). 14 September 2020. Retrieved 4 October 2020.
- "Former French President Giscard d'Estaing hospitalized". Anadolu Agency. 16 November 2020. Retrieved 2 December 2020.
- "L'ancien président Valéry Giscard d'Estaing est sorti de l'hôpital". Le Parisien. 20 November 2020. Retrieved 2 December 2020.
- L'ancien président Valéry Giscard d'Estaing est mort
- VALÉRY GISCARD D'ESTAING EST MORT À L'ÂGE DE 94 ANS
- "French ex-President Valery Giscard d'Estaing dies of Covid". La Prensalatina. 3 December 2020. Retrieved 3 December 2020.
- "Merkel Mourns Loss Of 'Great European' Giscard D'Estaing". Barrons. 3 December 2020. Retrieved 3 December 2002.
- "Giscard d'Estaing: a tribute from Sassoli, Michel and Von der Leyen. "A great European who will keep inspiring us"". Agensir.it. 3 December 2020. Retrieved 3 December 2020.
- Kim Willsher, "Valéry Giscard d’Estaing obituary," The Guardian 3 Dec 2020 online
- Académie française, Valéry GISCARD d’ESTAING
- "Europe's premier Parliamentarian receives 2004 Charlemagne Prize". City Mayors. Retrieved 3 December 2020.
- "Former French President Valery Giscard d'Estaing Visits the Holy Family Hospital in Bethlehem". Order of Malta. Retrieved 3 December 2020.
- Italian Presidency Website, GISCARD D'ESTAING S.E. Valery, "Cavaliere di Gran Croce Ordine al Merito della Repubblica Italiana", when Minister of Economy and Finance
- "Viagem do PR Geisel à França" (PDF). Retrieved 19 January 2019.
- borger.dk, Ordensdetaljer, Valéry Giscard d'Estaing Archived 17 December 2012 at Archive.today, Hans Excellence, fhv. præsident for Republikken Frankrig
- Coat of arms in the chapel of Frederiksborg Castle
- Portuguese Presidency Website, Orders search form : type "ESTAING Valéry Giscard" in "nome", then click "Pesquisar"
- Spanish Official Gazette
- Spanish Official Gazette
- Spanish Official Gazette
- Heraldry Archived 12 November 2013 at the Wayback Machine of the Order of the Seraphim
- "22nd June 1976: Queen Elizabeth II and the Duke of Edinburgh with President Valery Giscard d'Estaing of France and his wife before a state banquet at Buckingham Palace". Alamy.
- "Valéry Giscard d'Estaing". Conseil Constituionnel. Retrieved 3 December 2020.
- "Giscard d'Estaing, Valéry". International Who's Who 1989–90. Europa Publications. ISBN 9780946653508.
- List of Nansen Refugee Awards UNHCR
- Official List of Knights of the Order of the Elephant Archived 16 July 2011 at the Wayback Machine. (in Danish)
- Thody, Philip (31 January 2002). The Fifth French Republic: Presidents, Politics and Personalities: A Study of French Political Culture. Routledge. ISBN 978-1-134-66154-1.
- Bell, David et al. eds. Biographical Dictionary of French Political Leaders Since 1870 (1990) pp 181–185.
- Bell, David. Presidential Power in Fifth Republic France (2000) pp 127–48.
- Cameron, David R. "The dynamics of presidential coalition formation in France: from Gaullism to Giscardism." Comparative Politics 9.3 (1977): 253-279 online.
- Criddle, B. J. "Valéry Giscard D’Estaing." in The Year Book Of World Affairs, 1980 (Sweet & Maxwell, 1980) pp. 60-75.
- Demossier, Marion, et al., eds. The Routledge Handbook of French Politics and Culture (Routledge, 2019) online.
- Derbyshire, Ian. Politics in France: From Giscard to Mitterrand (W & R Chambers, 1990).
- Frears, J. R. France in the Giscard Presidency (1981) 224p. covers 1974 to 1981
- Hibbs Jr, Douglas A., and Nicholas Vasilatos. "Economics and politics in France: Economic performance and mass political support for Presidents Pompidou and Giscard d'Estaing." European Journal of Political Research 9.2 (1981): 133-145 online
- Michel, Franck. "Breaking the Gaullian Mould: Valéry Giscard d'Estaing and the Modernisation of French Presidential Communication." Modern & Contemporary France 13.3 (2005): 29–306.
- Nester, William R. "President Giscard d'Estaing", in De Gaulle's Legacy (Palgrave Macmillan, New York, 2014) pp. 93–109.
- Ryan, W. Francis. "France under Giscard" Current History (May 1981) 80#466, pp. 201–6, online.
- Shenton, Gordon. "The Advancement of Women in Giscard d'Estaing's 'Advanced Liberal Society'." Massachusetts Review 17.4 (1976): 743-762 online.
- Shields, James. "Valéry Giscard d'Estaing: the limits of liberalism", in The Presidents of the French Fifth Republic (Palgrave Macmillan, 2013) pp. 114–135.
- Wilsford, David, ed. Political leaders of contemporary Western Europe: a biographical dictionary (Greenwood, 1995) pp. 170–176.
|Wikiquote has quotations related to: Valéry Giscard d'Estaing|
|Wikimedia Commons has media related to Valéry Giscard d'Estaing.|
- (in French) Biography on the French National Assembly website
- (in French) First and second-round results of French presidential elections
- Appearances on C-SPAN
|National Assembly of France|
|Proportional representation|| Member for Puy-de-Dôme
|New constituency|| Member for Puy-de-Dôme|
| Member for Puy-de-Dôme's 2nd constituency
|New constituency|| Member for Puy-de-Dôme's 3rd constituency
| Member for Puy-de-Dôme's 3rd constituency
Louis Giscard d'Estaing
|Proportional representation|| Member of the European Parliament
|New office|| Secretary of State for Finance
| Mayor of Chamalières
| Minister of Finance and Economics Affairs
| Minister of Economy and Finance
| President of France
| President of the Regional Council of Auvergne
|Party political offices|
|New political party|| President of the
| President of the
Union for French Democracy
| Co-Prince of Andorra
With Joan Martí i Alanis
Joan Martí i Alanis
Joan Martí i Alanis
|Catholic Church titles|
| Honorary Canon of the
Archbasilica of St. John Lateran
|New office|| Chair of the G6
| Invocation Speaker of the
College of Europe