Visa requirements for Venezuelan citizens

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Visa requirements for Venezuelan citizens are administrative entry restrictions by the authorities of other states placed on citizens of Venezuela. As of 7 July 2020, Venezuelan citizens had visa-free or visa on arrival access to 129 countries and territories, ranking the Venezuelan passport 44th in terms of travel freedom (tied with Nicaragua and Ukraine) according to the Henley Passport Index.[1]

Venezuelans do not need to use a passport when traveling to Argentina, Brazil, and Colombia, as they may use their ID card. Moreover, Venezuelans may also travel to the United States,[2] Canada,[3] Spain[4] and several Latin American countries using expired passports.[5][6]

Since 2017, 10 countries in Latin America and Caribbean (Panama, Honduras, Guatemala, Saint Lucia, Peru, Trinidad and Tobago, Chile, Ecuador, Dominican Republic and Caribbean Netherlands) have stopped providing visa-free access to Venezuelans following the ongoing refugee crisis and reinstated visa requirements for those seeking to enter these countries. Some countries will still allow Venezuelans to enter visa-free if holding a valid visa/residence permit from a particular third country, such as Canada or the United States.

Visa requirements map[edit]

Visa requirements for Venezuelan citizens
  Venezuela
  ID card
  Visa-free access
  Visa on arrival
  eVisa
  Visa available both on arrival or online
  Visa required

Visa requirements[edit]

Visa requirements for holders of normal passports traveling for tourist purposes:

Country Visa requirement Allowed stay Notes (excluding departure fees) Reciprocity
 Afghanistan Visa required[7]
 Albania Visa not required[8] 90 days X
 Algeria Visa required[9]
 Andorra Visa not required[10]
 Angola eVisa[11][12] 30 days
  • Visitors who have been granted an online pre-visa or have requested such pre-visa from the consulates of Angola abroad, are then issued with a visa on arrival at the country's border check points.
  • For a maximum total stay of 90 days within a one year period.[13]
  • Besides having printed confirmation that a visa will be issued upon arrival, passengers must: have a return/onward ticket, and have a hotel reservation confirmation.[14]
X
 Antigua and Barbuda Visa not required[15] 180 days
 Argentina Visa not required[16] 90 days
 Armenia eVisa / Visa on arrival[17] 120 days X
 Australia and territories Visa required[18]
  • May apply online (Online Visitor e600 visa).[19]
X
 Austria Visa not required[20] 90 days
 Azerbaijan Visa required[21]
  • Visa not required for a max. stay of 30 days for holders of a valid residence permit issued by a GCC Member State.
 Bahamas Visa not required[22] 3 months X
 Bahrain eVisa / Visa on arrival[23] 14 days
  • Visa is also obtainable online.[24]
X
 Bangladesh Visa on arrival[25] 30 days
  • Not available at all entry points.[26]
X
 Barbados Visa not required[27] 28 days
 Belarus Visa not required[28] 90 days
 Belgium Visa not required[29] 90 days
 Belize Visa not required[30] 30 days
 Benin eVisa / Visa on arrival[31][32] 30 days / 8 days
  • Must have an international vaccination certificate.
X
 Bhutan Visa required[33]
 Bolivia Visa not required[34] 90 days
 Bosnia and Herzegovina Visa not required[35] 90 days
  • 90 days within any 6-month period
X
 Botswana Visa not required[36] 90 days
  • 90 days within any year period
X
 Brazil Visa not required[37] 60 days
 Brunei Visa required[38]
 Bulgaria Visa not required[39] 90 days
  • 90 days within any 180 day period
 Burkina Faso Visa on arrival[40] 1 month X
 Burundi Visa required[41]
 Cambodia eVisa / Visa on arrival[42] 30 days
  • Visa is also obtainable online.[43]
X
 Cameroon Visa required[44]
 Canada Visa required[45]
  • eTA required if arriving by air from 10 November 2016 for US permanent resident card holders.[46]
 Cape Verde Visa on arrival[47]
  • Not available at all entry points.[48]
X
 Central African Republic Visa required[49]
 Chad Visa required[50]
 Chile Visa required[51]
  • Visa requirement effective on 22 June 2019.
 China Visa required[52]
 Colombia Visa not required[53] 180 days
  • 90 days - extendable up to 180-days stay within a one-year period
 Comoros Visa on arrival[54] 45 days X
 Republic of the Congo Visa required[55]
 Democratic Republic of the Congo Visa required[56]
 Costa Rica Visa not required[57] 90 days
 Côte d'Ivoire eVisa[58] 3 months X
 Croatia Visa not required[59] 90 days
  • 90 days within any 180 day period
 Cuba Tourist Card required[60] 30 days
  • Can be extended up to 60 days with a fee
 Cyprus Visa not required[61] 90 days
  • 90 days within any 180 day period
 Czech Republic Visa not required[62] 90 days
 Denmark Visa not required[63] 90 days
 Djibouti eVisa[64] 31 days X
 Dominica Visa not required[65] 6 months
 Dominican Republic Visa required[66][67]
  • Visa requirement effective on 16 December 2019.
  • Visa not required for holders of a valid visa issued by Canada, USA or a Schengen Member State.
 Ecuador Visa required[68]
  • Visa requirement effective on 25 August 2019.
X
 Egypt Visa on arrival[69] 30 days X
 El Salvador Visa required[70]
  • Visa not required for holders of a valid visa issued by Canada, USA or a Schengen Member State
 Equatorial Guinea Visa required[71]
 Eritrea Visa required[72]
 Estonia Visa not required[73] 90 days
 Eswatini Visa required[74]
 Ethiopia eVisa[75] up to 90 days X
 Fiji Visa not required[76] 4 months X
 Finland Visa not required[77] 90 days
 France Visa not required[78] 90 days
 Gabon eVisa[79] X
 Gambia Visa not required[80] 90 days X
 Georgia Visa required[81]
  • Visa not required for up to 90 days if traveler holds a valid Canada, Schengen, UK or US visa or a Canada, Schengen, EU or US residence permit.[82]
 Germany Visa not required[83] 90 days
 Ghana Visa required[84]
 Greece Visa not required[85] 90 days
 Grenada Visa not required[86] 90 days
  • Extensions possible.
  • Beginning on December 1, 2020, all travellers to Grenada will be required to complete an online application in order to receive a Pure Safe Travel Authorization Certificate to enter Grenada.[87]
 Guatemala Visa required[88]
  • Visa requirement effective on 19 March 2018.
 Guinea eVisa[89] 90 days X
 Guinea-Bissau eVisa / Visa on arrival[90] 90 days X
 Guyana Visa required[91] 30 days
  • Tourists can obtain a visa on arrival for a maximum stay of 30 days[92]
 Haiti Visa not required[93] 3 months X
 Honduras Visa required[94][95]
  • Visa requirement effective on 20 November 2017.
 Hungary Visa not required[96] 90 days
 Iceland Visa not required[97] 90 days
 India e-Visa[98] 60 days
  • e-Visa holders must arrive via 26 designated airports[Note 1] or 3 designated seaports.[Note 2][99]
  • An Indian e-Tourist Visa can only be obtained twice in one calendar year.
X
 Indonesia Visa not required[100] 30 days
  • Select ports of entry.
X
 Iran Visa not required[101] 30 days
 Iraq Visa required[102]
 Ireland Visa required[103]
  • May transit without a visa.[104]
 Israel Visa required[105]
 Italy Visa not required[106] 90 days
 Jamaica Visa not required[107] 30 days
 Japan Visa required[108] X
 Jordan Visa on arrival[109] 1 month X
 Kazakhstan Visa required[112]
 Kenya eVisa / Visa on arrival[113] 3 months X
 Kiribati Visa required[114]
 North Korea Visa required[115]
 South Korea Visa not required[116] 90 days
 Kuwait Visa required[117]
 Kyrgyzstan eVisa / Visa on arrival[118] 1 month X
 Laos eVisa / Visa on arrival[120] 30 days
  • Visa on arrival is available at international airports Luangphabang, Pakse, Savannakhet and Vientiane, and at 4 land borders Friendship Bridge,[Note 3] and at 13 border crossings[Note 4] as well as Tanalaeng train station in Vientiane, which connects to the train station in Nongkai, Thailand.[121] Visa on arrival facility will be gradually phased out at various border crossings starting January 2020.[122]
  • eVisa may be used to enter Laos through the following entry points — Wattay International Airport and the First Thai–Lao Friendship Bridge
  • Entry points Lalai, Lantui, Meuang mom, Pakxan, and Phoudou are open only to visa holders.
  • Visa on arrival is extendable up to 60 days.
X
 Latvia Visa not required[123] 90 days
 Lebanon Visa on arrival[124] 1 month
  • 1 month extendable for 2 additional months
  • Granted free of charge at Beirut International Airport or any other port of entry if there is no Israeli visa or seal, holding a telephone number, an address in Lebanon, and a non refundable return or circle trip ticket.
X
 Lesotho eVisa[125][126] X
 Liberia Visa required[127]
 Libya Visa required[128]
 Liechtenstein Visa not required[129] 90 days
 Lithuania Visa not required[130] 90 days
 Luxembourg Visa not required[131] 90 days
 Madagascar eVisa / Visa on arrival[132] 90 days X
 Malawi Visa on arrival[133] X
 Malaysia Visa not required[134] 30 days
 Maldives Free visa on arrival[135] 30 days[136] X
 Mali Visa required[137]
 Malta Visa not required[138] 90 days
 Marshall Islands Visa required[139]
 Mauritania Visa on arrival[140] X
 Mauritius Visa on arrival[141] 60 days X
 Mexico Visa not required[142] 180 days
 Micronesia Visa not required[143] 30 days X
 Moldova Visa not required[144] 90 days
  • 90 days within any 180 day period
X
 Monaco Visa not required[145]
 Mongolia Visa required[146] X
 Montenegro Visa not required[147] 90 days X
 Morocco Visa required[148][149][150][151] X
 Mozambique Visa on arrival[152] 30 days X
 Myanmar eVisa[154] 28 days X
 Namibia Visa on arrival[155][156] 3 months X
 Nauru Visa required[157]
   Nepal Visa on arrival[158] 90 days X
 Netherlands Visa not required[159] 90 days
 New Zealand Visa required[160]
  • May transit without a visa.[161]
X
 Nicaragua Visa not required[162][163] 90 days
  • Extendable to 180 days
X
 Niger Visa required[164]
 Nigeria Visa required[165]
 North Macedonia Visa not required[166] 90 days X
 Norway Visa not required[167] 90 days
 Oman eVisa[168] 30 days X
 Pakistan Online Visa[169] X
 Palau Free visa on arrival[170] 30 days X
 Panama Visa required[171][172]
  • Visa requirement effective on 1 October 2017.
  • No Visa Required if Exception applies as follows:

Holding a Visa or Permanent Resident Permit duly issued by the United States of America, Commonwealth of Australia, Canada, Republic of Korea (South Korea), State of Japan, the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland, Republic of Singapore, or a Schengen Visa from any member state of the European Union, (i) granted for multiple entries and exits; (ii) that has been used at least once to enter the territory of the granting State; and (iii) with a validity of at least one (1) year, may enter the national territory without the requirement of a Stamped Visa (Executive Decree No. 521 6 August 2018, replacing Executive Decree No. 591 28 December 2016 and Executive Decree No. 114 4 April 2018).[173] Transit visa is not required if connection time is under 12 hours.

 Papua New Guinea Visa required[174]
 Paraguay Visa not required[175] 90 days
 Peru Visa required[176]
  • Visa requirement effective on 15 June 2019.
 Philippines Visa not required[177] 30 days X
 Poland Visa not required[178] 90 days
 Portugal Visa not required[179] 90 days
 Qatar Visa not required[180] 30 days X
 Romania Visa not required[181] 90 days
  • 90 days within any 180 day period
 Russia Visa not required[182] 90 days
  • 90 days within any 180 day period
 Rwanda eVisa / Visa on arrival[183] 30 days X
 Saint Kitts and Nevis Visa not required[184] 3 months
 Saint Lucia Visa required[185][186]
  • Visa requirement effective on 19 July 2018.
X
 Saint Vincent and the Grenadines Visa not required[187] 1 month
 Samoa Visa not required[188] 60 days X
 San Marino Visa not required[189]
 São Tomé and Príncipe eVisa[190] X
 Saudi Arabia Visa required[191]
 Senegal Visa on arrival[192] X
 Serbia Visa required[193]
  • May enter with a valid Schengen, UK or US visa or with a Schengen, EU or US residence permit for up to 90 days.[194]
 Seychelles Free Visitor's Permit on arrival[195] 3 months[136] X
 Sierra Leone Visa required[196]
 Singapore Visa not required[197] 30 days X
 Slovakia Visa not required[198] 90 days
 Slovenia Visa not required[199] 90 days
 Solomon Islands Visa required[200]
  • Pre-arranged visa can be picked up on arrival
 Somalia Visa on arrival[201] 30 days
 South Africa Visa not required[202] 90 days
 South Sudan Electronic Visa[203]
  • Obtainable online[204]
  • Printed visa authorization must be presented at the time of travel[204]
X
 Spain Visa not required[205] 90 days
 Sri Lanka eVisa / Visa on arrival[206] 30 days X
 Sudan Visa required[207]
 Suriname E-tourist card[208] 90 days
  • Multiple entry eVisa is also available.[209]
X
 Sweden Visa not required[210] 90 days
  Switzerland Visa not required[211] 90 days
 Syria Visa required[212]
 Tajikistan eVisa[213] 45 days [214] X
 Tanzania eVisa / Visa on arrival[215][216] X
 Thailand Visa required[217]
 Timor-Leste Visa on arrival[218] 30 days
  • Not available at all entry points.[219]
X
 Togo Visa on arrival[220] 7 days X
 Tonga Visa required[221]
 Trinidad and Tobago Visa required[171][222]
  • Visa requirement effective on 17 June 2019.
X
 Tunisia Visa required[223]
 Turkey Visa not required[224] 3 months
 Turkmenistan Visa required[225]
 Tuvalu Visa on arrival[226] 1 month[136] X
 Uganda eVisa / Visa on arrival[227]
  • Determined at the port of entry. May apply online.[228]
X
 Ukraine Visa required[229]
 United Arab Emirates Visa required[230]
  • A 96-hour transit visa can be obtained on arrival at Dubai (DXB), provided transit time is at least 8 hours; and holding onward ticket to a third country; and holding a passport valid for at least 6 months from date of arrival. Visa fee of 170 AED. Visas are only issued as a part of a transit package together with hotel accommodation and airport transfer
 United Kingdom Visa required[231] X
 United States Visa required[232]
  • As of September 2017, entry is suspended for officials of government agencies of Venezuela involved in screening and vetting procedures as nonimmigrants on B1, B2 and B-1/B-2 visas.[233]
 Uruguay Visa not required[234] 3 months
 Uzbekistan eVisa[235] 30 days
  • 5-day visa-free transit when in transit at the international airports on condition of holding a confirmed onward ticket for a flight to a third country.[236]
X
 Vanuatu Visa required[237]
  Vatican City Visa not required[238]
 Vietnam eVisa[239] 30 days[240] X
 Yemen Visa required[241]
 Zambia eVisa / Visa on arrival[242] 90 days X
 Zimbabwe eVisa / Visa on arrival[243] X

Dependent, Disputed, or Restricted territories[edit]

Visa requirements for Venezuelan citizens for visits to various territories, disputed areas, partially recognized countries not mentioned in the list above, and restricted zones:

Territory Visa requirement Notes (excluding departure fees)
 Abkhazia Visa not required[244] 90 days
 American Samoa Visa required[245]
 Anguilla Visa required[246]
 Aruba Visa not required[247] 90 days
 Bermuda Visa required[248] Visa not required for holders of Canadian, US or UK multiple-entry visa valid for at least 45 days beyond the period of intended stay in Bermuda for a maximum stay of 3 months
 British Indian Ocean Territory Permission required
 British Virgin Islands Visa not required[249] 30 days
 Caribbean Netherlands Visa not required 90 days
 Cayman Islands Visa not required[250] 60 days
 Cook Islands Visa not required[251] 31 days
 Crimea Visa not required[182] 90 days
 Curacao Visa not required[252] 90 days
 Falkland Islands Visa required[253]
 Faroe Islands Visa not required[254] 90 days
 French Guiana Visa not required[255] 90 days. Visa granted for overseas territories (New Caledonia, French Polynesia, la Réunion, Guyane, Guadeloupe, Martinique, Mayotte, Saint-Barthélemy, Saint-Martin, Saint-Pierre-et-Miquelon, Wallis et Futuna, Terres australes et antarctiques françaises) does not entitle his holder to visit the Schengen area nor MONACO. A separate Schengen visa is necessary.
 French Polynesia Visa not required[255] 90 days. Visa granted for overseas territories (New Caledonia, French Polynesia, la Réunion, Guyane, Guadeloupe, Martinique, Mayotte, Saint-Barthélemy, Saint-Martin, Saint-Pierre-et-Miquelon, Wallis et Futuna, Terres australes et antarctiques françaises) does not entitle his holder to visit the Schengen area nor MONACO. A separate Schengen visa is necessary.
 Gibraltar Visa required[256]
 Greenland Visa not required[257] 90 days
 Guadeloupe Visa not required[255] 90 days. Visa granted for overseas territories (New Caledonia, French Polynesia, la Réunion, Guyane, Guadeloupe, Martinique, Mayotte, Saint-Barthélemy, Saint-Martin, Saint-Pierre-et-Miquelon, Wallis et Futuna, Terres australes et antarctiques françaises) does not entitle his holder to visit the Schengen area nor MONACO. A separate Schengen visa is necessary.
 Guam Visa required[258]
 Guernsey Visa required[259]
China Hainan Visa required
 Hong Kong Visa not required[260] 3 months
 Iraqi Kurdistan Visa required
 Isle of Man Visa required[261]
 Jersey Visa required[262]
 Kosovo Visa not required[263] 90 days
 Macau Visa on arrival[264] 30 days
 Martinique Visa not required[265] 90 days. Visa granted for overseas territories (New Caledonia, French Polynesia, la Réunion, Guyane, Guadeloupe, Martinique, Mayotte, Saint-Barthélemy, Saint-Martin, Saint-Pierre-et-Miquelon, Wallis et Futuna, Terres australes et antarctiques françaises) does not entitle his holder to visit the Schengen area nor MONACO. A separate Schengen visa is necessary.
 Mayotte Visa not required[255] 90 days. Visa granted for overseas territories (New Caledonia, French Polynesia, la Réunion, Guyane, Guadeloupe, Martinique, Mayotte, Saint-Barthélemy, Saint-Martin, Saint-Pierre-et-Miquelon, Wallis et Futuna, Terres australes et antarctiques françaises) does not entitle his holder to visit the Schengen area nor MONACO. A separate Schengen visa is necessary.
 Montserrat eVisa[266] e-Visa can be obtained online
 New Caledonia Visa not required[267][268] 90 days. Visa granted for overseas territories (New Caledonia, French Polynesia, la Réunion, Guyane, Guadeloupe, Martinique, Mayotte, Saint-Barthélemy, Saint-Martin, Saint-Pierre-et-Miquelon, Wallis et Futuna, Terres australes et antarctiques françaises) does not entitle his holder to visit the Schengen area nor MONACO. A separate Schengen visa is necessary.
 Niue Visa on arrival[269] 30 days
 Northern Mariana Islands Visa is required[270]
 Palestine Visa required[271]
 Pitcairn Islands Visa not required[272] 14 days
 Puerto Rico Visa required[273]
 Réunion Visa not required[255] 90 days. Visa granted for overseas territories (New Caledonia, French Polynesia, la Réunion, Guyane, Guadeloupe, Martinique, Mayotte, Saint-Barthélemy, Saint-Martin, Saint-Pierre-et-Miquelon, Wallis et Futuna, Terres australes et antarctiques françaises) does not entitle his holder to visit the Schengen area nor MONACO. A separate Schengen visa is necessary.
 Saint Barthélemy Visa not required[255] 90 days. Visa granted for overseas territories (New Caledonia, French Polynesia, la Réunion, Guyane, Guadeloupe, Martinique, Mayotte, Saint-Barthélemy, Saint-Martin, Saint-Pierre-et-Miquelon, Wallis et Futuna, Terres australes et antarctiques françaises) does not entitle his holder to visit the Schengen area nor MONACO. A separate Schengen visa is necessary.
 Saint Helena eVisa[274][275]
 Saint Pierre and Miquelon Visa not required[255] 90 days. Visa granted for overseas territories (New Caledonia, French Polynesia, la Réunion, Guyane, Guadeloupe, Martinique, Mayotte, Saint-Barthélemy, Saint-Martin, Saint-Pierre-et-Miquelon, Wallis et Futuna, Terres australes et antarctiques françaises) does not entitle his holder to visit the Schengen area nor MONACO. A separate Schengen visa is necessary.
 Saint-Martin Visa not required[255] 90 days. Visa granted for overseas territories (New Caledonia, French Polynesia, la Réunion, Guyane, Guadeloupe, Martinique, Mayotte, Saint-Barthélemy, Saint-Martin, Saint-Pierre-et-Miquelon, Wallis et Futuna, Terres australes et antarctiques françaises) does not entitle his holder to visit the Schengen area nor MONACO. A separate Schengen visa is necessary.
 Sint Maarten Visa not required[276] 90 days
 Taiwan Visa required[277]
 Turks and Caicos Islands Visa not required[278] 90 days
 US Virgin Islands Visa required[279]
 Wallis and Futuna Visa not required[255] 90 days. Visa granted for overseas territories (New Caledonia, French Polynesia, la Réunion, Guyane, Guadeloupe, Martinique, Mayotte, Saint-Barthélemy, Saint-Martin, Saint-Pierre-et-Miquelon, Wallis et Futuna, Terres australes et antarctiques françaises) does not entitle his holder to visit the Schengen area nor MONACO. A separate Schengen visa is necessary.

Non-visa restrictions[edit]

Many countries have entry restrictions on foreigners that go beyond the common requirement of having either a valid visa or a visa exemption. Such restrictions may be health related or impose additional documentation requirements on certain classes of people for diplomatic or political purposes.

Blank passport pages[edit]

Many countries require a minimum number of blank pages to be available in the passport being presented, typically one or two pages.[280] Endorsement pages, which often appear after the visa pages, are not counted as being available.

Vaccination[edit]

An International Certificate of Vaccination required to prove that someone has been vaccinated against yellow fever

Many African countries, including Angola, Benin, Burkina Faso, Cameroon, Central African Republic, Chad, Democratic Republic of the Congo, Republic of the Congo, Côte d'Ivoire, Equatorial Guinea, Gabon, Gambia, Ghana, Guinea, Liberia, Mali, Mauritania, Niger, Rwanda, São Tomé and Príncipe, Senegal, Sierra Leone, South Sudan, Uganda, and Zambia, require all incoming passengers to have a current International Certificate of Vaccination, as does the South American territory of French Guiana.[281]

Some other countries require vaccination only if the passenger is coming from an infected area or has visited one recently.[282]

Passport validity length[edit]

In the absence of specific bilateral agreements, countries requiring passports to be valid for at least 6 more months on arrival include Afghanistan, Algeria, Anguilla, Bahrain,[283] Bhutan, Botswana, British Virgin Islands, Brunei, Cambodia, Cameroon, Cape Verde, Cayman Islands, Central African Republic, Chad, Comoros, Costa Rica, Côte d'Ivoire, Curaçao, Ecuador, Egypt, El Salvador, Equatorial Guinea, Fiji, Gabon, Guinea Bissau, Guyana, Haiti, Indonesia, Iran, Iraq, Israel,[284] Jordan, Kenya, Kiribati, Kuwait, Laos, Madagascar, Malaysia, Maldives, Marshall Islands, Mongolia, Myanmar, Namibia, Nepal, Nicaragua, Nigeria, Oman, Palau, Papua New Guinea, Philippines, Qatar, Rwanda, Samoa, Saudi Arabia, Singapore, Solomon Islands, Somalia, Sri Lanka, Sudan, Suriname, Tanzania, Thailand, Timor-Leste, Tokelau, Tonga, Turkey, Tuvalu, Uganda, United Arab Emirates, Vanuatu, Venezuela, and Vietnam.[285]

Countries requiring passports valid for at least 4 months on arrival include Micronesia and Zambia.

Countries requiring passports valid for at least 3 months on arrival include Albania, Honduras, North Macedonia, Panama, and Senegal.

Countries requiring passports with a validity of at least 3 months beyond the date of intended departure include Azerbaijan, Bosnia and Herzegovina, Montenegro, Nauru, Moldova, and New Zealand. Similarly, the EEA countries of Iceland, Liechtenstein, Norway, all European Union countries (except the Republic of Ireland) together with Switzerland and the United Kingdom also require 3 months validity beyond the date of the bearer's intended departure unless the bearer is an EEA or Swiss national.

Bermuda requires passports to be valid for at least 45 days upon entry.

Countries that require a passport validity of at least one month beyond the date of intended departure include Eritrea, Hong Kong, Lebanon, Macau, and South Africa.

As of Jan 2021, Maldives waived off 6 month passport validity requirement to 1 month.

Other countries require either a passport valid on arrival or a passport valid throughout the period of the intended stay. Some countries have bilateral agreements with other countries to shorten the period of passport validity required for each other's citizens[286][287] or even accept passports that have already expired (but not been cancelled).[288]

Criminal record[edit]

Some countries, including Australia, Canada, Fiji, New Zealand and the United States,[289] routinely deny entry to non-citizens who have a criminal record.

Persona non grata[edit]

The government of a country can declare a diplomat persona non grata, banning their entry into that country. In non-diplomatic use, the authorities of a country may also declare a foreigner persona non grata permanently or temporarily, usually because of unlawful activity.[290]

Israeli stamps[edit]

Israeli border control Entry Permit (issued as a stand-alone document rather than a stamp affixed in a passport)

Kuwait,[291] Lebanon,[292] Libya,[293] Sudan,[294] Syria,[295] and Yemen[296] do not allow entry to people with passport stamps from Israel or whose passports have either a used or an unused Israeli visa, or where there is evidence of previous travel to Israel such as entry or exit stamps from neighbouring border posts in transit countries such as Jordan and Egypt.

To circumvent this Arab League boycott of Israel, the Israeli immigration services have now mostly ceased to stamp foreign nationals' passports on either entry to or exit from Israel (unless the entry is for some work-related purposes). Since 15 January 2013, Israel no longer stamps foreign passports at Ben Gurion Airport. Passports are still (as of 22 June 2017) stamped at Erez when passing into and out of Gaza.

The Saudi Commission for Tourism and National Heritage claims that having an Israeli stamp does not disqualify someone from visiting Saudi Arabia.[297]

Iran refuses admission to holders of passports containing an Israeli visa or stamp that is less than 12 months old.

Armenian ethnicity[edit]

Entry Permit to the "Nagorno-Karabakh Region" issued in Yerevan as a stand-alone document rather than a visa affixed in a passport

Due to a state of war existing between Armenia and Azerbaijan, the government of Azerbaijan not only bars entry of Armenian citizens, but also all citizens and nationals of any other country who are of Armenian descent, into the Republic of Azerbaijan.[298][299]

Azerbaijan also strictly bans any visit by foreign citizens to the separatist region of Nagorno-Karabakh[300] (the de facto independent Republic of Artsakh), its surrounding territories, and the Azerbaijani exclaves of Karki, Yuxarı Əskipara, Barxudarlı, and Sofulu which are de jure part of Azerbaijan but under the control of Armenia, without the prior consent of the government of Azerbaijan. Foreign citizens who enter these territories will be permanently banned from entering the Republic of Azerbaijan[301] and will be included in their "list of personae non gratae".[302] As of 2 September 2019, the list mentioned 852 people.

Upon request, the authorities of the separatist regime (self-determined and largely unrecognized Republic of Artsakh) may attach their visa and/or stamps to a separate piece of paper in order to avoid detection of travel to their territory.

Biometrics[edit]

A fingerprint scanner at Dulles International Airport collects biometric data on visitors, which can be used for confirming identities.

Several countries mandate that all travellers, or all foreign travellers, be fingerprinted on arrival and will refuse admission to or even arrest travellers who refuse to comply. In some countries, such as the United States, this may apply even to transit passengers who merely wish to quickly change planes rather than go landside.[303]

Fingerprinting countries include Afghanistan,[304][305] Argentina,[306] Brunei, Cambodia,[307] China,[308] Ethiopia,[309] Ghana, Guinea,[310] India, Japan,[311][312] Kenya (both fingerprints and a photo are taken),[313] Malaysia upon entry and departure,[314] Paraguay, Saudi Arabia,[315] Singapore, South Korea,[316] Taiwan, Thailand,[317] Uganda[318] and the United States.

Many countries also require a photo be taken of people entering the country. The United States, which does not fully implement exit control formalities at its land frontiers (although long mandated by its legislature),[319] [320] [321] intends to implement facial recognition for passengers departing from international airports to identify people who overstay their visa.[322]

Together with fingerprint and face recognition, iris scanning is one of three biometric identification technologies internationally standardised since 2006 by the International Civil Aviation Organization (ICAO) for use in e-passports[323] and the United Arab Emirates conducts iris scanning on visitors who need to apply for a visa.[324][325]

See also[edit]

References and Notes[edit]

References
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  7. ^ Visa information, Ministry of Foreign Affairs of Afghanistan.
  8. ^ Visa regime for foreign citizens, Ministry for Europe and Foreign Affairs of Albania.
  9. ^ Travel Information Manual, International Air Transport Association (IATA).
  10. ^ Travel to Andorra, Ministry of External Affairs of Andorra.
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  12. ^ Travel Information Manual, International Air Transport Association (IATA).
  13. ^ Angola: Migration Service to Speed Up Visa Exemption Procedure
  14. ^ "Country information (visa section)". Timatic. International Air Transport Association (IATA) through Olympic Air. Retrieved 24 October 2018.
  15. ^ Countries exempt from visa, Department of Immigration of Antigua and Barbuda.
  16. ^ Visa regime, National Directorate of Migrations of Argentina (in Spanish).
  17. ^ Visa, Ministry of Foreign Affairs of Armenia.
  18. ^ Visitor visa options, Department of Home Affairs of Australia.
  19. ^ "Visitor e600 Visa Online Applications". Department of Immigration and Border Protection. Retrieved 31 August 2015.
  20. ^ Schengen visa, Federal Ministry for Europe, Integration and Foreign Affairs of Austria.
  21. ^ Countries with visa-free travel regime, Ministry of Foreign Affairs of Azerbaijan (in Azerbaijani).
  22. ^ Visa requirements for foreigners travelling to the Bahamas, Government of the Bahamas, 18 February 2014.
  23. ^ Bahrain eVisas, Ministry of Interior of Bahrain.
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  25. ^ Travel Information Manual, International Air Transport Association (IATA).
  26. ^ Available at Shahjalal International Airport, Shah Amanat International Airport and Osmani International Airport only.
  27. ^ Visa requirements for foreign nationals entering Barbados, Ministry of Foreign Affairs and Foreign Trade of Barbados, 3 June 2009.
  28. ^ Visa-free travel, Ministry of Foreign Affairs of Belarus.
  29. ^ Visa for Belgium, Federal Public Service Foreign Affairs of Belgium.
  30. ^ Countries not requiring an entry visa, Department of Immigration and Nationality Services of Belize, September 2016.
  31. ^ Visa, Emigration and Immigration Directorate of Benin.
  32. ^ eVisa Benin
  33. ^ Visa, Tourism Council of Bhutan.
  34. ^ Requirements to enter Bolivia, General Directorate of Migration of Bolivia (in Spanish).
  35. ^ Visas, Ministry of Foreign Affairs of Bosnia and Herzegovina.
  36. ^ Requirements for visa application, Government of Botswana.
  37. ^ Visas to travel to Brazil, Ministry of External Relations of Brazil (in Portuguese and English).
  38. ^ Country category for visa application, Ministry of Foreign Affairs and Trade of Brunei.
  39. ^ Visa for Bulgaria, Ministry of Foreign Affairs of Bulgaria.
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  41. ^ Travel Information Manual, International Air Transport Association (IATA).
  42. ^ Travel Information Manual, International Air Transport Association (IATA).
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  44. ^ Travel Information Manual, International Air Transport Association (IATA).
  45. ^ Travel Information Manual, International Air Transport Association (IATA).
  46. ^ canada.ca/eTA
  47. ^ Travel Information Manual, International Air Transport Association (IATA).
  48. ^ Obtainable at Nelson Mandela International Airport, Cesária Évora Airport, Amílcar Cabral International Airport and Aristides Pereira International Airport.
  49. ^ Travel Information Manual, International Air Transport Association (IATA).
  50. ^ Travel Information Manual, International Air Transport Association (IATA).
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  53. ^ Travel Information Manual, International Air Transport Association (IATA).
  54. ^ Travel Information Manual, International Air Transport Association (IATA).
  55. ^ Travel Information Manual, International Air Transport Association (IATA).
  56. ^ Travel Information Manual, International Air Transport Association (IATA).
  57. ^ Travel Information Manual, International Air Transport Association (IATA).
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  59. ^ Visa requirements overview, Ministry of Foreign and European Affairs of Croatia.
  60. ^ Travel Information Manual, International Air Transport Association (IATA).
  61. ^ Visa policy, Ministry of Foreign Affairs of Cyprus.
  62. ^ List of states whose citizens are exempt from visa requirement, Ministry of Foreign Affairs of the Czech Republic, 13 July 2017.
  63. ^ Countries with a visa requirement and visa-free countries, Danish Immigration Service, 8 December 2017.
  64. ^ eVisa
  65. ^ Travel Information Manual, International Air Transport Association (IATA).
  66. ^ Travel Information Manual, International Air Transport Association (IATA).
  67. ^ https://papagayonews.com/republica-dominicana-exigira-visas-de-ingresa-a-venezolanos/
  68. ^ Travel Information Manual, International Air Transport Association (IATA).
  69. ^ Travel Information Manual, International Air Transport Association (IATA).
  70. ^ Travel Information Manual, International Air Transport Association (IATA).
  71. ^ Travel Information Manual, International Air Transport Association (IATA).
  72. ^ Travel Information Manual, International Air Transport Association (IATA).
  73. ^ Who does not need a visa to visit Estonia?, Ministry of Foreign Affairs of Estonia, 2 November 2017.
  74. ^ Travel Information Manual, International Air Transport Association (IATA).
  75. ^ "Ethiopia electronic visa". Main Department for Immigration and Nationality Affairs, Ethiopia. Retrieved 24 November 2018.
  76. ^ Travel Information Manual, International Air Transport Association (IATA).
  77. ^ Visa requirement and travel documents accepted by Finland, Ministry for Foreign Affairs of Finland.
  78. ^ Foreign nationals holding ordinary passports exempt from visa requirements, Ministry for Europe and Foreign Affairs of France, January 2016.
  79. ^ Gabon e-Visa
  80. ^ Travel Information Manual, International Air Transport Association (IATA).
  81. ^ Travel Information Manual, International Air Transport Association (IATA).
  82. ^ [3]
  83. ^ Overview of visa requirements/exemptions for entry into the Federal Republic of Germany, Federal Foreign Office of Germany.
  84. ^ Travel Information Manual, International Air Transport Association (IATA).
  85. ^ Countries requiring or not requiring a visa, Ministry of Foreign Affairs of Greece, 13 June 2017.
  86. ^ Travel Information Manual, International Air Transport Association (IATA).
  87. ^ [4]
  88. ^ Travel Information Manual, International Air Transport Association (IATA).
  89. ^ Guinea eVisa
  90. ^ Travel Information Manual, International Air Transport Association (IATA).
  91. ^ Travel Information Manual, International Air Transport Association (IATA).
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  93. ^ Travel Information Manual, International Air Transport Association (IATA).
  94. ^ Travel Information Manual, International Air Transport Association (IATA).
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  97. ^ Who does not need a visa, Directorate of Immigration of Iceland.
  98. ^ "Indian e-Visa". Ministry of Home Affairs, Government of India.
  99. ^ e-Visa
  100. ^ Travel Information Manual, International Air Transport Association (IATA).
  101. ^ Travel Information Manual, International Air Transport Association (IATA).
  102. ^ Travel Information Manual, International Air Transport Association (IATA).
  103. ^ Countries that need a visa for Ireland, Irish Naturalisation and Immigration Service.
  104. ^ "Irish Transit Visas".
  105. ^ Tourist visa table, Israel Ministry of Foreign Affairs, 23 May 2017.
  106. ^ Visa for Italy, Ministry of Foreign Affairs and International Cooperation of Italy.
  107. ^ Travel Information Manual, International Air Transport Association (IATA).
  108. ^ Travel Information Manual, International Air Transport Association (IATA).
  109. ^ Travel Information Manual, International Air Transport Association (IATA).
  110. ^ "Visa Information". Timatic. Retrieved 5 May 2014.
  111. ^ Visa on arrival obtainable at most international ports of entry and at most international land border crossings (except King Hussein/Allenby Bridge crossing).
  112. ^ Travel Information Manual, International Air Transport Association (IATA).
  113. ^ Republic of Kenya - eCitizen portal
  114. ^ Travel Information Manual, International Air Transport Association (IATA).
  115. ^ Travel Information Manual, International Air Transport Association (IATA).
  116. ^ Travel Information Manual, International Air Transport Association (IATA).
  117. ^ Travel Information Manual, International Air Transport Association (IATA).
  118. ^ Travel Information Manual, International Air Transport Association (IATA).
  119. ^ "e-VISA". evisa.e-gov.kg. Retrieved 11 April 2018.
  120. ^ Travel Information Manual, International Air Transport Association (IATA).
  121. ^ "The Department Of Immigration. Checkpoints". The Department Of Immigration Of Lao People’s Democratic Republic. Retrieved 22 July 2018.
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  123. ^ Countries whose citizens may enter Latvia without a visa, Ministry of Foreign Affairs of Latvia, 9 October 2017.
  124. ^ Travel Information Manual, International Air Transport Association (IATA).
  125. ^ eVisa Lesotho
  126. ^ Travel Information Manual, International Air Transport Association (IATA).
  127. ^ Travel Information Manual, International Air Transport Association (IATA).
  128. ^ Travel Information Manual, International Air Transport Association (IATA).
  129. ^ Visa, Government of Liechtenstein (in German).
  130. ^ Do I need a visa?, Ministry of Foreign Affairs of Lithuania, 30 August 2017.
  131. ^ Staying in Luxembourg for less than 90 days, Government of Luxembourg.
  132. ^ Travel Information Manual, International Air Transport Association (IATA).
  133. ^ Travel Information Manual, International Air Transport Association (IATA).
  134. ^ Travel Information Manual, International Air Transport Association (IATA).
  135. ^ Travel Information Manual, International Air Transport Association (IATA).
  136. ^ a b c Extendable length of stay.
  137. ^ Travel Information Manual, International Air Transport Association (IATA).
  138. ^ Who requires a visa?, Identity Malta.
  139. ^ Travel Information Manual, International Air Transport Association (IATA).
  140. ^ Travel Information Manual, International Air Transport Association (IATA).
  141. ^ Travel Information Manual, International Air Transport Association (IATA).
  142. ^ Travel Information Manual, International Air Transport Association (IATA).
  143. ^ Travel Information Manual, International Air Transport Association (IATA).
  144. ^ Foreign citizens who don’t need visa for entry on the territory of the Republic of Moldova
  145. ^ Before you leave, Monaco Government Tourist Office.
  146. ^ Travel Information Manual, International Air Transport Association (IATA).
  147. ^ Travel Information Manual, International Air Transport Association (IATA).
  148. ^ https://www.consulat.ma/fr/liste-des-pays-dont-les-ressortissants-sont-dispenses-du-visa-dentree-au-maroc
  149. ^ https://www.consulat.ma/en/list-countries-whose-citizens-are-exempted-entry-visa-morocco
  150. ^ https://www.consulat.ma/es/lista-de-paises-cuyos-nacionales-no-precisan-visado-de-entrada-marruecos
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  154. ^ "Archived copy". Archived from the original on 19 October 2013. Retrieved 22 October 2013.CS1 maint: archived copy as title (link)
  155. ^ Travel Information Manual, International Air Transport Association (IATA).
  156. ^ http://www.lelamobile.com/content/66883/Namibia-exempts-countries-from-visa-requirements/
  157. ^ Travel Information Manual, International Air Transport Association (IATA).
  158. ^ Travel Information Manual, International Air Transport Association (IATA).
  159. ^ Short-stay Schengen visa (90 days or less), Government of the Netherlands.
  160. ^ Travel Information Manual, International Air Transport Association (IATA).
  161. ^ Transit visa country waiver list
  162. ^ https://confidencial.com.ni/autorizan-ingreso-de-venezolanos-a-nicaragua-sin-necesidad-de-visa/
  163. ^ Travel Information Manual, International Air Transport Association (IATA).
  164. ^ Travel Information Manual, International Air Transport Association (IATA).
  165. ^ Travel Information Manual, International Air Transport Association (IATA).
  166. ^ Travel Information Manual, International Air Transport Association (IATA).
  167. ^ Persons who do not need a visa to visit Norway, Norwegian Directorate of Immigration.
  168. ^ Sultanate of Oman - Royal Oman Police - eVisa
  169. ^ [8]
  170. ^ Travel Information Manual, International Air Transport Association (IATA).
  171. ^ a b Travel Information Manual, International Air Transport Association (IATA).
  172. ^ http://www.panamatoday.com/panama/panama-will-require-visas-venezuelans-5011
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  174. ^ Travel Information Manual, International Air Transport Association (IATA).
  175. ^ Travel Information Manual, International Air Transport Association (IATA).
  176. ^ Travel Information Manual, International Air Transport Association (IATA).
  177. ^ Travel Information Manual, International Air Transport Association (IATA).
  178. ^ Visa-free countries, Ministry of Foreign Affairs of Poland.
  179. ^ Third countries whose citizens are required to have a visa, Ministry of Foreign Affairs of Portugal.
  180. ^ [9]
  181. ^ Do I need a visa?, Ministry of Foreign Affairs of Romania.
  182. ^ a b Travel Information Manual, International Air Transport Association (IATA).
  183. ^ Travel Information Manual, International Air Transport Association (IATA).
  184. ^ Travel Information Manual, International Air Transport Association (IATA).
  185. ^ Travel Information Manual, International Air Transport Association (IATA).
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  187. ^ Travel Information Manual, International Air Transport Association (IATA).
  188. ^ Travel Information Manual, International Air Transport Association (IATA).
  189. ^ Border formalities, San Marino Tourism Board.
  190. ^ e-Visa STP
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  192. ^ Travel Information Manual, International Air Transport Association (IATA).
  193. ^ Travel Information Manual, International Air Transport Association (IATA).
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  195. ^ Travel Information Manual, International Air Transport Association (IATA).
  196. ^ Travel Information Manual, International Air Transport Association (IATA).
  197. ^ Travel Information Manual, International Air Transport Association (IATA).
  198. ^ Consular information and travel visa, Ministry of Foreign and European Affairs of Slovakia.
  199. ^ Visa regimes and visas, Ministry of Foreign Affairs of Slovenia.
  200. ^ Travel Information Manual, International Air Transport Association (IATA).
  201. ^ Travel Information Manual, International Air Transport Association (IATA).
  202. ^ Travel Information Manual, International Air Transport Association (IATA).
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  205. ^ Entry requirements, Ministry of Foreign Affairs and Cooperation of Spain.
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  207. ^ Travel Information Manual, International Air Transport Association (IATA).
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  209. ^ Who can apply for E-Visa?
  210. ^ List of foreign citizens who require visa for entry into Sweden, Government of Sweden.
  211. ^ Overview of ID and visa provisions according to nationality, State Secretariat for Migration of Switzerland.
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  213. ^ Travel Information Manual, International Air Transport Association (IATA).
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  216. ^ Travel Information Manual, International Air Transport Association (IATA).
  217. ^ Travel Information Manual, International Air Transport Association (IATA).
  218. ^ Travel Information Manual, International Air Transport Association (IATA).
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  220. ^ Travel Information Manual, International Air Transport Association (IATA).
  221. ^ Travel Information Manual, International Air Transport Association (IATA).
  222. ^ http://www.guardian.co.tt/news/visas-for-venezuelans-6.2.863777.9527df11a3
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  224. ^ Travel Information Manual, International Air Transport Association (IATA).
  225. ^ Travel Information Manual, International Air Transport Association (IATA).
  226. ^ Travel Information Manual, International Air Transport Association (IATA).
  227. ^ Travel Information Manual, International Air Transport Association (IATA).
  228. ^ Uganda Electronic Visa/Permit Application System
  229. ^ Travel Information Manual, International Air Transport Association (IATA).
  230. ^ Travel Information Manual, International Air Transport Association (IATA).
  231. ^ UK visa requirements: list for carriers, Government of the United Kingdom, 2 October 2017.
  232. ^ Travel without a visa, United States Department of State.
  233. ^ Presidential Proclamation Enhancing Vetting Capabilities and Processes for Detecting Attempted Entry Into the United States by Terrorists or Other Public-Safety Threats
  234. ^ Travel Information Manual, International Air Transport Association (IATA).
  235. ^ Official electronic visa portal of the Republic of Uzbekistan
  236. ^ "ПОСТАНОВЛЕНИЕ ПРЕЗИДЕНТА РЕСПУБЛИКИ УЗБЕКИСТАН О ДАЛЬНЕЙШИХ МЕРАХ ПО ОПТИМИЗАЦИИ ПОРЯДКА ВЪЕЗДА ИНОСТРАННЫХ ГРАЖДАН В РЕСПУБЛИКУ УЗБЕКИСТАН". lex.uz. 4 July 2018. Retrieved 15 July 2018.
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  238. ^ Travel Information Manual, International Air Transport Association (IATA).
  239. ^ Travel Information Manual, International Air Transport Association (IATA).
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  242. ^ Travel Information Manual, International Air Transport Association (IATA).
  243. ^ Travel Information Manual, International Air Transport Association (IATA).
  244. ^ "Visa Information". Ministry of Foreign Affairs of Abkhazia. Archived from the original on 30 January 2016. Retrieved 11 February 2016.
  245. ^ "Visa Information". VisaHQ. Retrieved 11 February 2016.
  246. ^ "Visa Information". VisaHQ. Retrieved 11 February 2016.
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  248. ^ Bermuda entry visas, Government of Bermuda.
  249. ^ Visas, Tourism Board of the British Virgin Islands.
  250. ^ Visa-free and visa-required countries, Department of Immigration of the Cayman Islands.
  251. ^ Visas and immigration, Discover Cook Islands.
  252. ^ Do I need a visa for the Caribbean parts of the Kingdom?, Government of the Netherlands.
  253. ^ Immigration Ordinance 1999, Falkland Islands Government, 31 July 2017.
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  259. ^ "Archived copy". Archived from the original on 24 September 2015. Retrieved 19 June 2016.CS1 maint: archived copy as title (link)
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  261. ^ "Archived copy". Archived from the original on 20 November 2014. Retrieved 19 June 2016.CS1 maint: archived copy as title (link)
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  263. ^ Travel Information Manual, International Air Transport Association (IATA).
  264. ^ Entry and exit of non-residents, Public Security Police Force of Macau.
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  266. ^ Countries not requiring a visa, Immigration Department of Montserrat.
  267. ^ "Visa Information". Embassy of France in Australia. Archived from the original on 9 January 2018. Retrieved 9 January 2018.
  268. ^ "Visa Information". Les services de l'État en Nouvelle-Calédonie. Retrieved 9 January 2018.
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  282. ^ Country list - Yellow fever vaccination requirements and recommendations; and malaria situation; and other vaccination requirement
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  303. ^ Calder, Simon (24 April 2017). "Airline lobbying for a relaxation of draconian rules for London-Auckland travellers". The Independent. Retrieved 7 July 2018. Travellers heading west from the UK to New Zealand may soon be able to avoid the onerous requirement to clear US border control during the refuelling stop at Los Angeles airport (LAX). Unlike almost every other country in the world, the US insists on a full immigration check even for passengers who simply intend to re-board their plane to continue onwards to a foreign destination. Air New Zealand, which flies daily from Heathrow via Los Angeles to Auckland, says there are currently “strict requirements for travellers” in transit at LAX. Through passengers to Auckland on flight NZ1 or Heathrow on NZ2 must apply in advance for an ESTA (online visa) even though they have no intention of staying in the US. They also have to undergo screening by the Transportation Security Administration.
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  306. ^ "Argentina strengthens migratory control". Archived from the original on 2 December 2013.
  307. ^ "Cambodia Foreign Entry Requirements". Us-passport-information.com.
  308. ^ "China to Start Fingerprinting Foreign Visitors". Air Canada. 31 January 2019. Retrieved 7 July 2018. Effective April 27, 2018, border control authorities at all of China’s ports of entry, including its airports, will start collecting the fingerprints of all foreign visitors aged between 14 and 70. Diplomatic passport holders and beneficiaries of reciprocal agreements are exempted..
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  313. ^ "Immigration & Visas FAQs". Kenya Airports Authority. Retrieved 6 May 2019. Will visitors still have their digital photo and fingerprints taken at the immigration desk on arrival? Yes, the need to have photos and fingerprints taken upon arrival is to authenticate that the person who applied for the Visa is the same person at the port of entry
  314. ^ "Malaysia". CountryReports. Retrieved 7 July 2018.
  315. ^ "Saudi Arabia mandates fingerprints and biometrics for foreigners - SecureIDNews". secureidnews.com. Retrieved 3 March 2017.
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Notes
  1. ^
  2. ^
  3. ^
    • Vientiane
    • Savannakhet
    • Khammuan
    • Bokeo
  4. ^
    • Panghok - Taichang (Vietnam)
    • Samliemkham - (Thailand and Myanmar)
    • Nonghaed - Nam kanh (Vietnam)
    • Nam phao - Cau treo (Vietnam)
    • Na pao - Cha lo (Vietnam)
    • Daensavan - Lao bao (Vietnam)
    • Veunkham - Nong nok khian (Cambodia)
    • Vang tao - Chongmek (Thailand)
    • Boten - Bo han (China)
    • Nam ngeun - Huay konl (Thailand)
    • Namheuang - Nakaseng (Thailand)
    • Nam soy - Na meo (Vietnam)
    • Phoukeua - Kontoum (Vietnam)