William Grimes (ex-slave)
William Grimes (1784 – August 20, 1865) was the author of what is considered the first narrative of an American ex-slave, Life of William Grimes, the Runaway Slave, published in 1825, with a second edition published in 1855. Another revised edition was published in 2008.
Grimes was born into slavery in King George County, Virginia, in 1784. His father was Benjamin Grymes, a wealthy plantation owner; Grimes' mother was a slave on a neighboring plantation. During his years of slavery, Grimes was owned by at least ten different masters, in the States of Virginia, Maryland, and Georgia. He worked as a house servant, valet, field worker, stable boy, and coachman. In 1814, at the age of 30, Grimes escaped from slavery by stowing away on a ship that sailed from Savannah, Georgia to New York City.
Grimes settled in New Haven, Connecticut, where he was a successful barber. His clients included students from nearby Yale College and Litchfield. Grimes' former master tracked him down and demanded that Grimes purchase his freedom with "my house and land, all I had," or else face arrest and re-enslavement. Grimes had no choice but to pay, and wrote his memoir in hopes of recovering his finances.
A great-great-great-granddaughter of Grimes, Regina Mason, was an editor of the 2008 edition of Grimes' book. Mason talked about her ancestor's life in an interview with Terry Gross on the Fresh Air radio program on January 18, 2016. A 2017 film by Sean Durant entitled Gina's Journey: The Search for William Grimes documents her experiences of tracking down information about Grimes over a fifteen-year period. It includes reenactments of scenes from both Mason's and Grimes's lives with narration by Keith David.
- Grimes, William (1825). "Life of William Grimes, the Runaway Slave. Written by Himself". North American Slave Narratives, University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill. New York: William Grimes. Retrieved 2016-01-18.
- Smith, Venture; Mars, James; Grimes, William; Offley, G. W.; Smith, James L. (1855). Five Black lives: the autobiographies of Venture Smith, James Mars, William Grimes, the Rev. G. W. Offley, [and] James L. Smith. ISBN 9780819540362. Retrieved 2017-03-15.
- Andrews, William L.; Mason, Regina E., eds. (2008-06-27). Life of William Grimes, the Runaway Slave (revised ed.). Oxford University Press. ISBN 9780199711147. Retrieved 19 January 2016.
- Williamson, Jenn. "Summary of Life of William Grimes, the Runaway Slave. Written by Himself". North American Slave Narratives. University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill. Retrieved 2016-01-18.
- "Old Grimes is Dead!". The Brooklyn Daily Eagle (2nd ed.). 21 August 1865. p. 3. Retrieved 19 January 2016.
New Haven, Aug. 21: William Grimes, better known as "Old Grimes", a quaint darkey, once a slave, known to all our citizens and to thousands of Yale College graduates, died in this city yesterday, at an advanced age, probably ninety years.In column 5.
- "Summary of Life of William Grimes". Documenting the American South. University of North Carolina. Retrieved 19 January 2016.
- Mason, Regina E. (2016-01-18). "When Ancestry Search Led To Escaped Slave: 'All I Could Do Was Weep'". NPR (Interview: audio). Interviewed by Terry Gross. Retrieved 2016-01-19. Fresh Air radio program.
- Mason, Regina E. (2016-01-18). "When Ancestry Search Led To Escaped Slave: 'All I Could Do Was Weep'". NPR (Interview: transcript). Interviewed by Terry Gross. Retrieved 2016-03-04. Fresh Air radio program.
- "Gina's Journey: The Search for William Grimes". Retrieved 24 February 2020.
- Text of Grimes' memoir
- Grover, Kathryn (2001-07-12). The Fugitive's Gibraltar: Escaping Slaves and Abolitionism in New Bedford, Massachusetts. University of Massachusetts Press. pp. 86–92. ISBN 9781558492714.
- Gates, Henry Louis, Jr.; Higginbotham, Evelyn Brooks, eds. (2004-03-23). African American Lives. Oxford University Press. pp. 357–358. ISBN 9780199882861.
- Gates, Henry Louis, Jr.; Higginbotham, Evelyn Brooks (2008-02-18). African American National Biography. Oxford University Press. pp. 653–654. ISBN 9780195160192.
- Winter, Kari J. (Summer–Fall 2009). "Life of William Grimes, the Runaway Slave (review)". African American Review. 43 (2–3): 509–511. doi:10.1353/afa.2009.0027. S2CID 162046274.
- Snodgrass, Mary Ellen (2015-03-26). The Underground Railroad: An Encyclopedia of People, Places, and Operations. Routledge. pp. 235–236. ISBN 9781317454168.
- Hinks, Peter. "William Grimes". Underground Railroad. Oxford University Press. Retrieved 2016-01-27.