William P. Rogers
|55th United States Secretary of State|
January 22, 1969 – September 3, 1973
|Preceded by||Dean Rusk|
|Succeeded by||Henry Kissinger|
|63rd United States Attorney General|
October 23, 1957 – January 20, 1961
|Preceded by||Herbert Brownell|
|Succeeded by||Bobby Kennedy|
|4th United States Deputy Attorney General|
January 1953 – October 23, 1957
|Preceded by||Ross L. Malone|
|Succeeded by||Lawrence Walsh|
|Born||William Pierce Rogers
June 23, 1913
Norfolk, New York, U.S.
|Died||January 2, 2001
Bethesda, Maryland, U.S.
|Spouse(s)||Adele Langston (m. 1937–2001)|
|Education||Colgate University (BA)
Cornell University (LLB)
|Service/branch||United States Navy|
|Battles/wars||World War II|
William Pierce Rogers (June 23, 1913 – January 2, 2001) was an American politician, diplomat, and lawyer. He served as United States Attorney General under President Dwight D. Eisenhower and United States Secretary of State under President Richard Nixon, of whom he was a close confidant, but in this role he was overshadowed by National Security Advisor Henry Kissinger, who eventually succeeded him.
Early life and education
Rogers was born June 23, 1913, in Norfolk, New York. After the death of his mother, the former Myra Beswick, he was reared during his teen years by his grandparents in the village of Canton, New York.
He attended Colgate University, where he was initiated into the Sigma Chi fraternity. He then attended Cornell Law School, where he was an editor of the Cornell Law Quarterly. He received his law degree, graduating as a member of the Order of the Coif, and passed the New York Bar in 1937. He married Adele Langston Rogers (August 15, 1911 – May 27, 2001). The couple had four children: Dale R. Marshall, Douglas L. Rogers, Anthony W. Rogers and Jeffrey L. Rogers.
Early legal career and military service
After serving about a year as an attorney for a Wall Street law office, he became an assistant district attorney in 1938 and was appointed by then District Attorney Thomas E. Dewey to a sixty-man task force aimed at routing out New York City's organized crime.
While serving as a Committee Counsel to a US Senate committee, he examined the documentation from the House Un-American Activities Committee's investigation of Alger Hiss at the request of Congressman Richard M. Nixon, and advised Nixon that Hiss had lied and that the case against him should be pursued.
U.S. Deputy Attorney General
As deputy attorney general, Rogers was involved in the Little Rock Integration Crisis in the fall of 1957 of Central High School in Little Rock, Arkansas. In that capacity, he worked with Osro Cobb, the United States Attorney for the Eastern District of Arkansas, to implement federal orders and to maintain peace in the capital city. In his memoirs, Cobb recalls that Rogers called him to discuss the possibility of violence. Cobb writes, "Our conversation was somewhat guarded. I had never recommended the use of federal troops, and Rogers asked if I thought they were necessary. I told him I hoped not. Then to my surprise he stated, 'They are on their way already.'"
U.S. Attorney General (1957–1961)
Rogers served as Attorney General from 1957 to 1961. He remained a close advisor to Vice President Nixon throughout the Eisenhower administration, especially during Eisenhower's two medical crises. Rogers became attorney general upon the resignation of his superior, Herbert Brownell, who had worked to implement the desegregation of Little Rock Central High School. In 1958, Little Rock closed its public schools for a year to oppose further desegregation required by the U.S. government. At the time Rogers said that "It seems inconceivable that a state or community would rather close its public schools than comply with decisions of the Supreme Court.
Return to legal career
Now renamed to Rogers & Wells, Rogers returned to his law practice, where he worked until his early 80s. He played an important role in the 1964 New York Times Co. v. Sullivan Supreme Court case. From 1962 to 1963, Rogers was head of the Federal City Council, a group of business, civic, education, and other leaders interested in economic development in Washington, D.C.
U.S. Secretary of State (1969–1973)
Preceded by Dean Rusk, Rogers served as United States Secretary of State in the Nixon administration from January 22, 1969, to September 3, 1973. One of his notable works was to initiate efforts at a lasting peace in the Arab–Israeli conflict through the so-called Rogers Plan. Throughout his tenure, however, his influence was curtailed by Nixon's determination to handle critical foreign policy strategy and execution directly from the White House through his national security adviser Henry Kissinger.
Kissinger later said of Rogers, "Few secretaries of state can have been selected because of their president’s confidence in their ignorance of foreign policy."
Later life, death and legacy
Rogers led the investigation into the explosion of the space shuttle Challenger. This panel, called the Rogers Commission, was the first to criticize NASA management for its role in negligence of safety in the Space Shuttle program. Among the more famous members of Rogers' panel were astronauts Neil Armstrong and Sally Ride, Air Force general Donald Kutyna, and physicist Richard Feynman.
He died of congestive heart failure, at the Suburban Hospital in Bethesda, Maryland, on January 2, 2001, at the age of 87. Rogers was buried in Arlington National Cemetery. At the time of his death, he was the last surviving member of the Eisenhower Administration.
In 2001, the Rogers family donated to Cornell Law Library materials that reflect the lives of William and Adele Rogers, the majority of these items from the years 1969–1973.
- Stout, David (January 4, 2001). "William P. Rogers, Who Served as Nixon's Secretary of State, Is Dead at 87". New York Times. Retrieved 2008-12-25.
William P. Rogers, a suave and well-connected Republican lawyer who was secretary of state under President Richard M. Nixon and attorney general in the Eisenhower administration, died on Tuesday in Bethesda, Md. He was 87. Mr. Rogers lived in Bethesda and worked in the Washington office of the law firm of Clifford Chance Rogers & Wells, where he was senior partner, until becoming ill several months ago. He suffered from congestive heart failure, his family said.
- Smith, J.Y. (January 4, 2001). "Lawyer-Statesman William P. Rogers Dies". The Washington Post. Retrieved August 16, 2017.
- Roberts, Sam (June 26, 2008). "Spies and Secrecy". New York Times. Retrieved 2008-06-27.
Shortly before he died, I interviewed William Rogers. He was the deputy attorney general when the Rosenbergs were executed. I guess, I said to him, the government got what it wanted: the Rosenbergs were indicted, convicted and executed. No, he replied, the goal wasn’t to kill the couple. The strategy was to leverage the death sentence imposed on Ethel to wring a full confession from Julius — in hopes that Ethel’s motherly instincts would trump unconditional loyalty to a noble but discredited cause.
- Osro Cobb, Osro Cobb of Arkansas: Memoirs of Historical Significance, Carol Griffee, ed. (Little Rock, Arkansas: Rose Publishing Company), (1989), p. 234.
- Osro Cobb, pp. 267–268.
- Martin Luther King Jr (November 19, 1959). "To William P. Rogers" (PDF). Stanford University.
- "Federal City Council Elects William Rogers". The Washington Post. October 1, 1963. p. B1; "Federal City Council Elected". The Washington Post. September 30, 1970. p. D9.
- Brauer, Carl (November 1988). "Lost in Transition". The Atlantic Online. Retrieved March 14, 2018.
- Burr, William, ed. (2016-12-22). "National Security Archive Electronic Briefing Book No. 575: Reagan's Nuclear War Briefing Declassified". The National Security Archive, George Washington University.
- Richard P. Feynman, What Do You Care What Other People Think?, ed. Ralph Leighton, pub. W. W. Norton (1988) p. 124.
- http://library.lawschool.cornell.edu/WhatWeHave/SpecialCollections/Rogers.cfm materials
|Wikimedia Commons has media related to William P. Rogers.|
- Papers of William P. Rogers, Dwight D. Eisenhower Presidential Library
- Finding aid for the William P. Rogers Oral History, Dwight D. Eisenhower Presidential Library
|United States Deputy Attorney General
|United States Attorney General
|United States Secretary of State