Downtown Zvornik and Drina River
Location of Zvornik within Bosnia and Hercegovina
|Country||Bosnia and Herzegovina|
|City status||December 2015|
|• Mayor||Zoran Stevanović (SNSD)|
|• City||376.14 km2 (145.23 sq mi)|
|Elevation||146 m (479 ft)|
|Population (2013 census)|
|• City density||160/km2 (410/sq mi)|
|Time zone||UTC+1 (CET)|
|• Summer (DST)||UTC+2 (CEST)|
Zvornik (Cyrillic: Зворник, pronounced [zʋɔ̌rniːk]) is a city in Bosnia and Herzegovina. It is located in entity of Republika Srpska, on the left bank of the Lower Drina river, east from Tuzla and south of Bijeljina. As of 2013, it has a population of 58,856 inhabitants.
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Zvornik is first mentioned in 1410, although it was known as Zvonik ("bell tower") at that time. The town's geographic location has made it an important trade link between Bosnia and the east. For instance, the main road connecting Sarajevo and Belgrade runs through the city. The medieval fort known as Kula grad was built in the early 7th century and still stands on the Mlađevac mountainous range overlooking the Drina Valley.
During the Ottoman period, Zvornik was the capital of the Sanjak of Zvornik (an administrative region) within the Eyalet of Bosnia. This was primarily the case because of the city's crucial role in the economy and the strategic importance of the city's location. The Sanjak of Zvornik was one of six Ottoman sanjaks with most developed shipbuilding (besides the sanjaks of Vidin, Nicopolis, Požega, Smederevo and Mohač). In 1806, Zvornik was home to Mehmed-beg Kulenović.
World War II
Ustasha troops of the fascist Independent State of Croatia occupied Zvornik, along with most of Bosnia, in April 1941. The town was liberated in July 1943 by the 1st Proletarian Brigade during the Battle of Zvornik.
During the Bosnian War (1992-1995) Zvornik's Bosniak population was expelled. The military attack of paramilitary groups that came from Serbia on Zvornik Bosniaks commenced on 8 April 1992. During April 1992, many European news stations daily reported Serb armed attacks and mass killings of the Bosniak population of Zvornik and the surrounding villages.
On 19 May 1992, combined JNA, Serb paramilitary and Arkan's Tigers occupied Zvornik and Mali Zvornik. The suburbs of Karakaj and Čelopek were places of prisons where hundreds of local Bosniaks were killed. The remaining Bosniaks and non-Serbs were relegated to concentration camps and detention facilities throughout the area. During the war Serb forces destroyed mosques in and around the city.
According to the 1991 census, the town of Zvornik had a total of 14,584 inhabitants, of which:
- Bosniaks - 8,854 (60.71%)
- Serbs - 4,235 (29.03%)
- Yugoslavs - 944 (6.47%)
- Croats - 76 (0.52%)
- Others and unknown - 475 (3.25%)
According to the 2013 census, the municipality of Zvornik was home to a total of 58,856 inhabitants, including:
- Bosniaks - 19,885 (33.78%)
- Serbs - 38,579 (65.54%)
- Croats - 106 (0.18%)
- Others - 316 (0.53%)
The city's demographic situation has changed drastically during the Bosnian War.
The Cultural Summer of Zvornik (Zvorničko kulturno ljeto) is an annual event held in the first week of August and usually lasts for six days. Its main objective is to become a traditional cultural event which will open the doors of Zvornik for recognized cultural values.
The festival was first held in August 2001 as a local event and until now (2015) it grew up to one of to biggest festivals on the Balkans.
In 2007, famous singers such as Neda Ukraden and Sandi Cenov participated, but in 2008 this festival managed to feature some of the most notable stars from former Yugoslavia, like Željko Joksimović, Hari Mata Hari, Van Gogh, Marinko Rokvić and others.
The local football clubs, FK Drina Zvornik and ŽFK Drina Zvornik, play in the First League of the Republika Srpska. Members of the First league of Republika Srpska also are volleyball and handball clubs Zvornik.
- Seka Aleksić, singer
- Mitar Perušić, profesor
- Ermin Bičakčić, footballer
- Goran Dragić, basketball player
- Zoran Dragić, basketball player
- Rade Đokić, footballer
- Amer Hrustanović, sports wrestler, European medallist
- Said Husejinović, footballer
- Goran Ikonić, basketball player
- Zlatko Junuzović, Austrian footballer
- Aleksandar Kukolj, Serbian judoka, European champion
- Samir Muratović, footballer
- Nada Obrić, singer
- Denis Omerbegović, footballer
- Borisav Pisić, athlete
- Miralem Pjanić, footballer
- Sejad Salihović, footballer
- Abdulah Sidran, writer
Aside from the city proper area of Zvornik, the municipality comprises the following settlements:
- Baljkovica Donja
- Donja Pilica
- Donji Lokanj
- Dugi Dio
- Gornja Pilica
- Gornji Lokanj
- Grbavci Donji
- Grbavci Gornji
- Kamenica Donja
- Kamenica Gornja
- Kučić Kula
- Kula Grad
- Novo Selo
- Snagovo Donje
- Snagovo Gornje
- Šepak Donji
- Šepak Gornji
- Official results from the book: Ethnic composition of Bosnia-Herzegovina population, by municipalities and settlements, 1991. census, Zavod za statistiku Bosne i Hercegovine - Bilten no.234, Sarajevo 1991.
- Godis̆njak grada Beograda. Beogradske novine. 1979. p. 35. Retrieved 7 September 2013.
Ипак градња бродова се посебно везивала за шест санџака: никопољски, видински, смедеревски, зворнички, пожешки и мохачки.
- UN report on Zvornik Archived 10 September 2010 at the Wayback Machine.
- ""One of the biggest" mass graves found in Bosnia". BBC News. 8 October 1998. Retrieved 11 September 2016.
- "'Ethnic Cleansing Operations' in the northeast-Bosnian City of Zvornik from April through June 1992". Ludwig Boltzmann Institute of Human Rights.
- "Zvornik's summer – Turistička organizacija grada Zvornik". zvornikturizam.org. Turistička organizacija grada Zvornika. Retrieved 19 January 2018.
- First league of RS 2017/18
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